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Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar

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Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (Persian: محمدعلی شاه قاجار‎) (21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, Sanremo, Italy) was the sixth king of the Qajar Dynasty and Shah of Persia (Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
محمدعلی شاه قاجار
Lion and Sun Emblem of Persia.svg
Shahanshah of Persia
محمد علی شاه قاجار.jpg
Shah of Persia
Reign 3 January 1907  – 16 July 1909
Predecessor Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar
Successor Ahmad Shah Qajar
Prime Ministers
Born (1872-06-21)21 June 1872
Amol, Persia
Died 5 April 1925(1925-04-05) (aged 52)
Sanremo, Italy
Spouse Malekeh Jahan
Issue See below
Full name
Mohmmad Ali Shah
Dynasty Qajar
Father Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar
Mother Taj ol-Molouk (Umm al-Khakan)
Religion Shia Islam
Tughra Mohammad Ali Shah Qajarمحمدعلی شاه قاجار's signature

Contents

BiographyEdit

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar was opposed to the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar. In 1907 Mohammad Ali dissolved the parliament and declared the Constitution abolished because it was contrary to Islamic law.[1] He bombarded the Majles (Persian parliament) with the military and political support of Russia and Britain.[2]

In July 1909, pro-Constitution forces marched from Persia's provinces to Tehran led by Sardar As'ad, Sepehdar A'zam, Sattar Khan, Bagher Khan and Yeprem Khan, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. On 16 July 1909, the parliament voted to place Mohammad Ali Shah's 11-year-old son, Ahmad Shah on the throne. Mohammad Ali Shah abdicated following the new Constitutional Revolution and he has since been remembered as a symbol of dictatorship.

Having fled to Odessa, Russia (present day Ukraine), Mohammad Ali plotted his return to power. In 1911 he landed at Astarabad, Persia, but his forces were defeated.[1] Mohammad Ali Shah returned to Russia, then in 1920 to Constantinople (present day Istanbul) and later to San Remo, Italy, where he died on 5 April 1925 (bur. Shrine of Imam Husain, Karbala, Iraq). Every Shah of Persia since Mohammad Ali has died in exile.

His son and successor, Ahmad Shah Qajar was the last sovereign of the Qajar dynasty.[3]

HonoursEdit

 
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar with Mirza Mohammad Ebrahim Khan, the Moavin al-Dowleh, and Company
 
A 2000 Dinar/2 Qiran coin of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar era

Marriages and childrenEdit

WivesEdit

Mohammad Ali Shah had two wives:[4][5]

  1. Robabeh Khanum "Malih-os-Saltaneh"
  2. Princess Zahra Qajar "Malekeh Jahan", daughter of Kamran Mirza "Nayeb-os-Saltaneh"

ChildrenEdit

Mohammad Ali Shah had six sons and two daughters:[4][5]

Sons
  1. Hossein Ali Mirza "E'tezad Saltaneh"
  2. Gholam Hossein Mirza (died in infancy)
  3. Sultan Ahmad Mirza (later Ahmad Shah Qajar)
  4. Mohammad Hassan Mirza
  5. Sultan Mahmoud Mirza
  6. Sultan Majid Mirza
Daughters
  1. Khadijeh Khanum "Hazrat-e Ghodsieh"
  2. Assieh Khanum

List of Prime MinistersEdit

 
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar after deposal

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Donzel, Emeri “van” (1994). Islamic Desk Reference. ISBN 90-04-09738-4.  p. 285-286
  2. ^ "BBC Persian". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
  3. ^ Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar, 'Mohammad Ali Shah: The Man and the King', in: Qajar Studies. Travellers and Diplomats in the Qajar Era. Journal of the International Qajar Studies Association, volume VII, 2007.
  4. ^ a b "Children of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (Kadjar)". Qajarpages.org. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
  5. ^ a b "qajar28". Royalark.net. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 

External linksEdit

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Born: 21 June 1872 Died: 5 April 1925
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar
Shah of Persia
1907–1909
Succeeded by
Ahmad Shah Qajar