Mildred Pierce (film)
Mildred Pierce is a 1945 American film noir crime-drama directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Joan Crawford, Jack Carson and Zachary Scott, also featuring Eve Arden, Ann Blyth and Bruce Bennett. Based on a novel by James M. Cain, this was Crawford's first starring film for Warner Bros. after leaving Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and won her the Academy Award for Best Actress.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Michael Curtiz|
|Produced by||Jerry Wald|
|Screenplay by||Ranald MacDougall|
|Based on||Mildred Pierce|
by James M. Cain
|Music by||Max Steiner|
|Edited by||David Weisbart|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
Monte Beragon (Zachary Scott), the second husband of Mildred Pierce (Joan Crawford), is shot. The police tell Mildred that the murderer is her first husband, Bert Pierce (Bruce Bennett), after he is interrogated and confesses to the crime. Mildred protests that he is too kind and gentle to commit murder, and reveals her life story to the investigating officer in flashback.
Mildred and Bert are unhappily married. Mildred must bake and sell pies and cakes to support the family after Bert splits with his business partner, Wally Fay (Jack Carson). Bert bitterly accuses Mildred of favoring their daughters, especially Veda (Ann Blyth), over him. Their quarrel intensifies after a phone call from Bert's mistress, Maggie Biederhof (Lee Patrick), and they decide to separate.
Mildred retains custody of her two daughters, the 16-year-old Veda, a bratty social climber and aspiring pianist, and 10-year-old Kay (Jo Ann Marlowe), a tomboy. Mildred's principal goal is to provide material possessions for Veda, who longs for a social status above that of her family and is ashamed of her mother's work as a baker. When Mildred is forced to take a job as a waitress, she tries to hide the fact from Veda, but Veda learns the truth and treats her mother with derision.
Mildred meets Monte Beragon, a Pasadena society playboy and heir whose inheritance is almost depleted. Beragon owns the building that Mildred wants to purchase for a restaurant, and he pursues a romantic interest in her. While the two are at his beach house during a weekend jaunt, Kay contracts pneumonia and dies after a trip with Veda and Bert. Mildred channels her grief into work and throws herself into opening a new restaurant. With the help of her friend and former supervisor, Ida Corwin (Eve Arden), Mildred's restaurant is a success. Wally helps Mildred buy the property, and soon she owns a chain of restaurants throughout Southern California.
Veda secretly marries a well-to-do young man, Ted Forrester, for his money and position, but his mother objects to the marriage. Veda agrees to dissolve the marriage, but claims she is pregnant with his child and demands ten thousand dollars in support. Enlisting Wally's help in her scheme, Veda persuades the Forrester family to pay her, then smugly confesses to Mildred that she lied about her pregnancy to obtain money. Outraged, Mildred tears up the check and throws Veda out of the house.
Bert, who says he cannot bear to tell Mildred about Veda's latest escapade and must show her instead, takes her to Wally's nightclub, where Veda is performing as a lounge singer. Mildred, distraught after seeing several sailors in the audience wolf-whistle at Veda in her sexy costume, begs her to come home, but Veda sneers and says her mother can never give her the lifestyle she wants. Desperate to reconcile with her daughter, Mildred coaxes Monte into a loveless marriage to improve her social status. Monte's price for marriage is a one-third share of Mildred's business to allow him to settle his debts. Mildred agrees, and Veda, eager to live out her dream as a debutante, pretends to reconcile with her mother and moves into Beragon's lavish mansion.
Eventually the cost of supporting Monte and Veda's rich lifestyles—and Beragon's underhanded ploy to retain his share in the business while causing his wife to forfeit her own—bankrupts Mildred, forcing her to sell the restaurant chain. After driving to his beach house to confront Monte, Mildred finds Veda in his arms. Veda scornfully tells her mother that Monte loves her and intends to marry her after divorcing Mildred, who runs to her car in tears. When Monte spurns Veda and tells her he would never marry her because she is a "rotten little tramp", she shoots him.
Veda begs her mother to help conceal the murder; Mildred reluctantly agrees. Fed up with Wally's misdeeds—helping Veda blackmail the Forresters for money and hiring her to sing in his seedy nightclub, assenting to Monte's sneaky business moves against her, and constantly making sexual overtures toward her—Mildred tries to pin the murder on Wally by luring him to the beach house, where Monte's corpse is lying. Police officers arrest Wally when he flees in panic after seeing the dead body, but the investigating officer tells Mildred that Wally cannot be the killer because he has no motive.
After Mildred ends her flashback, the detectives admit they knew all along that Veda committed the murder. Mildred tries to apologize as her daughter is led away to jail, but Veda rebuffs her. Mildred leaves the police station to find Bert waiting for her outside.
- Joan Crawford as Mildred Pierce Beragon
- Jack Carson as Wally Fay
- Zachary Scott as Monte Beragon
- Eve Arden as Ida Corwin
- Ann Blyth as Veda Pierce Forrester
- Bruce Bennett as Albert "Bert" Pierce
- Butterfly McQueen as Lottie
- Lee Patrick as Mrs. Maggie Biederhof
- Moroni Olsen as Inspector Peterson
- Veda Ann Borg as Miriam Ellis
- Jo Ann Marlowe as Kay Pierce
- Charles Trowbridge as Lawyer (uncredited)
Comparison to the novelEdit
Although James M. Cain was often labeled a "hard-boiled crime writer", his novel Mildred Pierce (1941) was mostly a psychological work, with little violence. The adaptation, released four years later, was designed as a thriller, and a murder was introduced into the plot.
The novel spans nine years (from 1931 to 1940), whereas the film is set in the 1940s and spans only four years. Its characters do not age as a consequence. Mildred's physical appearance does not change, although her costumes become more elegant as her business grows. Veda ages from around 13 to 17. Mildred is more of a tycoon in the film; her restaurants are glamorous places, and she owns a whole chain ("Mildred's") instead of the novel's three. Evil, spoiled Veda, who is prodigiously talented and brilliantly devious in the novel, is somewhat less formidable in the film. All references to the Depression and the Prohibition era, which are important in the novel, are absent from the screenplay.
The plot is simplified and the number of characters reduced. Veda's training and success as a singer (including her performance at the Hollywood Bowl) were dropped in the film and her music teachers only mentioned in passing. Lucy Gessler, a key character in the novel and Mildred's good friend, is eliminated. Ida, Mildred's boss at the restaurant where she works as a waitress, is given much of Gessler's wise-cracking personality.
Monte does not die in the novel, and Veda never goes to jail. The murder portion of the story was invented by the filmmakers because the censorship code of that time required evildoers to be punished for their misdeeds.
The working title for Mildred Pierce was House on the Sand; and filming began on December 7, 1944. Ralph Bellamy, Donald Woods, and George Coulouris were considered for the role of Bert, while Bonita Granville, Virginia Weidler, and Martha Vickers were considered for Veda. Scenes for the film were shot in Glendale, California and Malibu, California. Permission had to be granted from the U.S. Navy to shoot in Malibu due to wartime restrictions.
In 1942, two years earlier, Joan Crawford had been released from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer due to a mutual agreement. Crawford campaigned for the lead role in Mildred Pierce, which most lead actresses did not want because of the implied age as mother of a teenage daughter. Warner Bros. and director Michael Curtiz had originally wanted Bette Davis to play the title role, but she declined. Curtiz did not want Crawford to play the part. Curtiz campaigned for Barbara Stanwyck, who was working on My Reputation (1946) at the time. When he learned that Stanwyck was not, however, going to be cast, he then tried to recruit either Olivia de Havilland or Joan Fontaine to play Mildred, although both were only in their twenties. He ultimately approved Crawford's casting after seeing her screen test. Even so, the director and the star were often at odds on the set, with producer Jerry Wald acting as peacemaker.
The film was a box office success. According to Warner Bros. it earned $3,483,000 domestically and $2,155,000 foreign.
Contemporary reviews praised Crawford's performance but had mixed opinions about other aspects of the film. A review in The New York Times said that although Crawford gave "a sincere and generally effective characterization," the film "lacks the driving force of stimulating drama," and it did "not seem reasonable that a level-headed person like Mildred Pierce, who builds a fabulously successful chain of restaurants on practically nothing, could be so completely dominated by a selfish and grasping daughter, who spells trouble in capital letters."
The staff at Variety liked the film, especially the screenplay, and wrote,
At first reading James M. Cain's novel of the same title might not suggest screenable material, but the cleanup job has resulted in a class feature, showmanly produced by Jerry Wald and tellingly directed by Michael Curtiz ... The dramatics are heavy but so skillfully handled that they never cloy. Joan Crawford reaches a peak of her acting career in this pic. Ann Blyth, as the daughter, scores dramatically in her first genuine acting assignment. Zachary Scott makes the most of his character as the Pasadena heel, a talented performance.
Harrison's Reports wrote that Crawford gave a "good performance", but the story "lacks conviction, and the main characterizations are overdrawn. For example, the daughter's hatred for her mother has no logical basis, consequently, it weakens the story."
Certainly, despite its unconscionable length — it takes almost two hours — 'Mildred Pierce' contains enough excitement to jolt even the most lethargic customer ... it is pleasant to report that Miss Crawford is no longer as frantic in appearance as she once was. Despite all kinds of chances to go berserk as a Cain mother, Miss Crawford remains subdued and reasonable, like most of the rest of a highly competent cast.
Critic Jeremiah Kipp (2005) gave the film a mixed review:
Mildred Pierce is melodramatic trash, constructed like a reliable Aristotelian warhorse where characters have planted the seeds of their own doom in the first act, only to have grief-stricken revelations at the climax. Directed by studio favorite Michael Curtiz in German Expressionistic mode, which doesn't quite go with the California beaches and sunlight but sets the bleak tone of domestic film noir, and scored by Max Steiner with a sensational bombast that's rousing even when it doesn't match the quieter, pensive mood of individual scenes, Mildred Pierce is professionally executed and moves at a brisk clip.
Historian June Sochen (1978) argues the film lies at the intersection of the "weepie" and "independent woman" genres of the 1930s and 1940s. It accentuates common ground of the two: women must be submissive, live through others, and remain in the home.
Awards and honorsEdit
- National Board of Review: Best Actress, Joan Crawford; 1945
- Academy Award: Best Actress in a Leading Role, Joan Crawford; 1946
- Academy Awards: 1946
American Film Institute lists
- AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Heroes and Villains:
- Veda Pierce – Nominated Villain
- AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movie Quotes:
- "Personally, Veda's convinced me that alligators have the right idea. They eat their young." – Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – Nominated
A five-part television miniseries of Mildred Pierce premiered on HBO in March 2011, starring Kate Winslet as Mildred, Guy Pearce as Beragon, Evan Rachel Wood as Veda and Mare Winningham as Ida. Separate actresses portray Veda at different ages, as opposed to Ann Blyth alone in the 1945 film. Wally Fay's character in the original has been changed back to the novel's Wally Burgan, and is portrayed by James LeGros. The cast also includes Melissa Leo as Mildred's neighbor and friend, Lucy Gessler, a character omitted from the Crawford version. The film is told in chronological order with no flashbacks or voice-over narration, and eliminates the murder subplot that was added for the 1945 version.
Mildred Pierce in popular cultureEdit
In 1976, the ninth episode of the tenth season of The Carol Burnett Show featured a take-off of the film called "Mildred Fierce", with Carol Burnett as Mildred, Vicki Lawrence as Veda and Harvey Korman as Monte.
Blu-ray and DVD releasesEdit
Mildred Pierce is available on Region 2 DVD in a single disc edition which includes an 86-minute documentary about the career and personal life of Joan Crawford. The documentary features contributions from fellow actors and directors, including Diane Baker, Betsy Palmer, Anna Lee, Anita Page, Cliff Robertson, Virginia Grey, Dickie Moore, Norma Shearer, Ben Cooper, Margaret O'Brien, Judy Geeson, and Vincent Sherman. Mildred Pierce is also included in a Region 2 release, a signature collection of Crawford's films together with the films Possessed, Grand Hotel, The Damned Don't Cry, and Humoresque.
The Region 1 edition is a flipper single disc with "Joan Crawford: The Ultimate Movie Star" documentary and a series of trailer galleries on the reverse of the film.
Mildred Pierce is also available on DVD and Blu-ray from The Criterion Collection for Regions 1 and 2 in a special edition which includes a host of special features including "Joan Crawford: The Ultimate Movie Star", a 2002 feature-length documentary, a Q&A with actor Ann Blyth from 2006, a conversation on the film between critics Molly Haskell and Robert Polito, an excerpt from The David Frost Show featuring Joan Crawford, a booklet with an essay by critic Imogen Sara Smith, and more.
- "Mildred Pierce". American Film Institute. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Warner Bros financial information in The William Shaefer Ledger. See Appendix 1, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, (1995) 15:sup1, 1-31 p 26 DOI: 10.1080/01439689508604551
- "National Film Registry" Archived 2012-04-19 at the Wayback Machine. Library of Congress, accessed October 28, 2011.
- Mildred Pierce at AllMovie
- Leff, Leonard L.; Simmons, Jerold L. The Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship, and the Production Code. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 270–271, 286–287. ISBN 978-0-8131-9011-2.
- Black, Gregory D. (1996). Hollywood Censored: Morality Codes, Catholics, and the Movies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 41–42. ISBN 0-521-56592-8.
- "Notes" on TCM.com
- "Mildred Pierce" on TCM.com
- Ben Mankowitz, intro to the Turner Classic Movies presentation of Mildred Pierce on February 3, 2013
- "Movie Review - Mildred Pierce". The New York Times. September 29, 1945. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Variety. Film review, 1945. Last accessed: February 7, 2008.
- "'Mildred Pierce' with Joan Crawford, Jack Carson and Zachary Scott". Harrison's Reports: 155. September 29, 1945.
- McCarten, John (October 6, 1945). "The Current Cinema". The New Yorker. New York: F-R Publishing Corp.: 95.
- Kipp, Jeremiah. Slant, magazine, film review, 2005. Last accessed: February 8, 2008.
- June Sochen, "'Mildred Pierce' and Women in Film," American Quarterly, Jan 1978, Vol. 30 Issue 1, pp. 3–20, in JSTOR
- IMDB. "The Carol Burnett Show (1967–1978) Episode #10.9". Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Gilbert, Matthew. "A spellbinding look at sleaze and the city in HBO's 'The Deuce'". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "Mildred pierce". sonicyouth.com. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- "A Gainesville eatery responds to customers' suggestions". Gainesville Sun. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
- Cook, Pam. "Duplicity in Mildred Pierce," in Women in Film Noir, ed. E. Ann Kaplan (London: British Film Institute, 1978), 68–82
- Jurca, Catherine. "Mildred Pierce, Warner Bros., and the Corporate Family," Representations Vol. 77, No. 1 (Winter 2002), pp. 30–51 doi:10.1525/rep.2002.77.1.30 in JSTOR
- Nelson, Joyce. "Mildred Pierce Reconsidered," Film Reader 2 (1977): 65–70
- Robertson, Pamela. "Structural Irony in 'Mildred Pierce,' or How Mildred Lost Her Tongue," Cinema Journal Vol. 30, No. 1 (Autumn, 1990), pp. 42–54 in JSTOR
- Sochen, June. "'Mildred Pierce' and Women in Film," American Quarterly, Jan 1978, Vol. 30 Issue 1, pp. 3–20, in JSTOR
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- Mildred Pierce on IMDb
- Mildred Pierce at the TCM Movie Database
- Mildred Pierce at AllMovie
- Mildred Pierce at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Mildred Pierce at Rotten Tomatoes
- on YouTube
- Mildred Pierce: A Woman’s Work an essay by Imogen Sara Smith at the Criterion Collection