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Islamic portrayal of the angel Metatron (Arabic: ميططرون) by Nasir al-Din Rammal in the 14th century

Metatron (Hebrew: מֶטָטְרוֹן Meṭāṭrōn, מְטַטְרוֹן Məṭaṭrōn, מֵיטַטְרוֹן Mēṭaṭrōn, מִיטַטְרוֹן Mīṭaṭrōn) or Mattatron (Hebrew: מַטַּטְרוֹן Maṭṭaṭrōn)[1] is an angel in Judeo-Islamic mythology, mentioned in a few brief passages in the Aggadah and in mystical Kabbalistic texts within the Rabbinic literature. The name Metatron is not mentioned in the Torah and how the name originated is a matter of debate. In Islamic tradition, he is also known as Mīṭaṭrūsh, the angel of the veil.[2][3] In folkloristic tradition, he is the highest of the angels and serves as the celestial scribe or "recording angel".[4]

In Jewish apocrypha and early kabbalah, "Metatron" is the name that Enoch received after his transformation into an angel.


Among the pseudepigrapha 1 Enoch: Book of Parables presents two figures: the son of man and Enoch. At first, these two characters seem to be separate entities. Enoch views the son of man enthroned in Heaven. Later, however, they prove to be one and the same. Many scholars believe that the final chapters in the Book of Parables are a later addition. Others think they are not and that the son of man is Enoch's heavenly double similarly to the Prayer of Joseph where Jacob is depicted as an angel.[5]: 83–84 The Book of Daniel displays two similar characters: the Ancient of Days and the one like a man. Parts of the text in Daniel are Aramaic and may have been changed in translation. The Septuagint reads that the son of man came as the Ancient of Days. All other translations say the son of man gained access to the Ancient of Days and was brought before that one.[6]

The identification of Metatron with the gnostic 3 Enoch, where the name first appears, is not explicitly made in the Talmud although it does refer to a Prince of the World who was young but now is old. However, some of the earliest kabbalists assumed the connection. There also seems to be two Metatrons, one spelled with six letters (מטטרון), and one spelled with seven (מיטטרון). The former may be the transformed Enoch, Prince of the Countenance within the divine palace; the latter, the Primordial Metatron, an emanation of the "Cause of Causes", specifically the tenth and last emanation, identified with the earthly Divine Presence.[7] Furthermore, the Merkabah text Re' uyot Yehezkel identifies the Ancient of Days from the Book of Daniel as Metatron.[6]

Many scholars see a discontinuity between how Enoch is portrayed in the early Enoch literature and how Metatron is portrayed. Scholars commonly see the character of Metatron as being based on an amalgam of Jewish literature, in addition to Enoch, Michael, Melchizedek and Yahoel among others are seen as influences.[5]: 86 Gershom Scholem argues Metatron's character was influenced by two streams of thought. One of which linked Metatron with Enoch, while the second was a fusing of different obscure entities and mythic motifs.[8]:180 Scholem argues that this second tradition was originally separate but later became fused with the Enoch tradition.[5]: 141–142 He points to texts where this second Metatron is a primordial angel and referred to as Metatron Rabbah.[5]: 141 Scholem theorizes that the two Hebrew spellings of Metatron's name are representative of these two separate traditions.[5]: 142 In his view the second Metatron is linked to Yahoel. Scholem also links Yahoel with Michael.[5]: 141 In the Apocalypse of Abraham Yahoel is assigned duties normally reserved for Michael. Yahoel's name is commonly seen as a substitute for the Ineffable Name.[9] In 2 Enoch, Enoch is assigned titles commonly used by Metatron such as "the Youth, the Prince of the Presence and the Prince of the World."[5]: 141 However we do not see Enoch referred to as the Lesser YHWH.[5]: 141 In 3 Enoch, Metatron is called the lesser YHWH. This raises a problem since the name Metatron does not seem to be directly related to the name of God YHWH.[5]: 140 Scholem proposes this is because the lesser YHWH is a reference to Yahoel.[5]: 140 In Maaseh Merkabah the text reasons that Metatron is called the lesser YHWH because in Hebrew gematria Metatron is numerically equivalent to another name of God Shaddai.[10] Scholem does not find this convincing.[5]: 140[11] Scholem point to the fact that both Yahoel and Metatron were known as the lesser YHWH. In 3 Enoch 48D1 Metatron is called both Yahoel Yah and Yahoel.[12] In addition to being one of the seventy names of Metatron from 3 Enoch 48D. Yahoel and Metatron are also linked in Aramaic incantation bowl inscriptions.[5]: 86 [13]


The Babylonian Talmud mentions Metatron by name in three places: Hagigah 15a, Sanhedrin 38b and Avodah Zarah 3b.

Hagigah 15a describes Elisha ben Abuyah in Paradise seeing Metatron sitting down (an action that is not done in the presence of God). Elishah ben Abuyah therefore looks to Metatron as a deity and says heretically: "There are indeed two powers in Heaven!"[14] The rabbis explain that Metatron had permission to sit because of his function as the Heavenly Scribe, writing down the deeds of Israel.[15] The Talmud states, it was proved to Elisha that Metatron could not be a second deity by the fact that Metatron received 60 "strokes with fiery rods" to demonstrate that Metatron was not a god, but an angel, and could be punished.[16]

In Sanhedrin 38b one of the minim tells Rabbi Idith that Metatron should be worshiped because he has a name like his master. Rabbi Idith uses the same passage Exodus 23:21 to show that Metatron was an angel and not a deity and thus should not be worshiped. Furthermore, as an angel Metatron has no power to pardon transgressions nor was he to be received even as a messenger of forgiveness.[16][17][18]

In Avodah Zarah 3b, the Talmud hypothesizes as to how God spends His day. It is suggested that in the fourth quarter of the day God sits and instructs the school children, while in the preceding three quarters Metatron may take God's place or God may do this among other tasks.[19]

Yevamot 16b records an utterance attributed to the Prince of the World: "I have been young and now I am old." In rabbinic tradition, this utterance is attributed to Metatron.[20]


The tenth century Karaite scholar Jacob Qirqisani believed that rabbinic Judaism was the heresy of Jeroboam of the Kingdom of Israel.[21] He quoted a version of Sanhedrin 38b,[22] which he claimed contained a reference to the "lesser YHVH." Gershom Scholem suggests that the name was deliberately omitted from later copies of the Talmud.[23] However, Qirqisani may have misrepresented the Talmud in order to embarrass his Rabbanite opponents with evidence of polytheism. Extra-talmudic mystical texts such as Sefer Hekhalot do speak of a "lesser YHWH", apparently deriving the concept from Exodus 23:21, which mentions an angel of whom God says "my name [understood as YHVH, the usual divine Proper Name] is in him".

Merkabah and later mystical writingsEdit

Metatron also appears in the Pseudepigrapha including Shi'ur Qomah, and most prominently in the Hebrew Merkabah Book of Enoch, also called 3 Enoch or Sefer Hekhalot (Book of [the Heavenly] Palaces). The book describes the link between Enoch, son of Jared (great grandfather of Noah) and his transformation into the angel Metatron. His grand title "the lesser YHVH" resurfaces here. The word Metatron is numerically equivalent to Shaddai (God) in Hebrew gematria; therefore, he is said to have a "Name like his Master".

Metatron says, "He [the Holy One]... called me, 'The lesser YHVH' in the presence of his whole household in the height, as it is written, 'my name is in him.'" (12:5, Alexander's translation.) The narrator of this book, supposedly Rabbi Ishmael, tells how Metatron guided him through Heaven and explained its wonders. 3 Enoch presents Metatron in two ways: as a primordial angel (9:2–13:2) and as the transformation of Enoch after he was assumed into Heaven.[24][25]

And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him. [Genesis 5:24 KJV.]

This Enoch, whose flesh was turned to flame, his veins to fire, his eye-lashes to flashes of lightning, his eye-balls to flaming torches, and whom God placed on a throne next to the throne of glory, received after this heavenly transformation the name Metatron.[26]

The Zohar calls Metatron "the Youth", a title previously used in 3 Enoch, where it appears to mean "servant".[25] It identifies him as the angel that led the people of Israel through the wilderness after their exodus from Egypt (again referring to Exodus 23:21, see above), and describes him as a heavenly priest.

In the later Ecstatic Kabbalah, Metatron is a messianic figure.[27]

Apocalyptic textsEdit

In the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel Metatron is not identified as Enoch. Instead he is identified as the archangel Michael.[5]: 86[8]: 183–185 The text also records that Metatron in gematria is the equivalent of Shadday.[8]: 55, 184 While he also appears in other apocalyptic writings he is most prominent in the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel.[8]: 183–184 In these writings he plays the role of heavenly interlocutor delivering knowledge about the coming messianic age.[8]: 184


The earliest account of Metatron within Islamic scriptures might derive directly from the Quran itself. Uzair, according to Surah 9:30-31 venerated as a Son of God by Jews, is another name for the prophet Enoch, who was also identified with Metatron in Merkabah Mysticism.[28] Islamic heresiologists repeatedly accused Jews for venerating an angel as a lesser god (or an Incarnation of God), especially for celebrating Rosh Hashanah.[29] The name itself is attested early in Islam by Al-Kindi and Al-Masudi.[30] In a Druze text about cosmology, he is mentioned among the canonical Archangels in Islamic traditions.[31] Al-Suyuti identifies him as the angel of the veil and only he knows about, that lies beyond.[32][33][34] He is also frequently mentioned in the magical works by Ahmad al-Buni, who describes Metatron as wearing a crown and a lance, probably constituting the Staff of Moses.[35] In other magical practises, he is invoked to ward off evil jinn, demons, sorcerers and other magical threats.[36]


There are numerous possible etymologies for the name Metatron.[37][38] However, some scholars, such as Philip Alexander, believe if the name Metatron originated in Hekhalot-Merkabah texts (such as 3 Enoch), then it may be a magic word like Adiriron and Dapdapiron.[39]

Hugo Odeberg,[40] Adolf Jellinek[41] and Marcus Jastrow[42] suggest the name may originate from either Mattara (מטרא) "keeper of the watch" or the verb Memater (ממטר) "to guard, to protect". An early derivation of this can be seen in Shimmusha Rabbah, where Enoch is clothed in light and is the guardian of the souls ascending to heaven. Odeberg also suggests that the name Metatron might be taken from the Old Persian name Mithra.[40] Citing Wiesner,[43] he lays out a number of parallels between Mithra and Metatron based on their positions in heaven and duties.

Metatron seems to be made up of two Greek words for after and throne, μετὰ θρóνος (meta thronos), taken together as "one who serves behind the throne" or "one who occupies the throne next to the throne of glory".[44] The two words do not appear separately in any text known to Gershom Scholem, who therefore dismisses the idea[45] with the words "this widely repeated etymology.... has no merit.".[46]

The word σύνθρονος (synthronos) is used as "co-occupant of the divine throne";[47] however, like the above etymology, it is not found in any source materials.[40] It is supported by Saul Lieberman and Peter Schäfer, who give further reasons why this might be a viable etymology.[48] The Latin word Metator (messenger, guide, leader, measurer) had been suggested by Eleazar of Worms (c. 1165 – c. 1230), Nachmanides, and brought to light again by Hugo Odeberg.[40] When transliterated into the Hebrew language, we get מטיטור or מיטטור. Gershom Scholem argues that there is no data to justify the conversion of metator to metatron.[46] Philip Alexander also suggests this as a possible origin of Metatron, stating that the word Metator also occurs in Greek as mitator–a word for an officer in the Roman army who acted as a forerunner. Using this etymology, Alexander suggests the name may have come about as a description of "the angel of the Lord who led the Israelites through the wilderness: acting like a Roman army metator guiding the Israelites on their way".[49][50] Another possible interpretation is that of Enoch as a metator showing them "how they could escape from the wilderness of this world into the promised land of heaven". Because we see this as a word in Hebrew, Jewish Aramaic, and Greek, Alexander believes this gives even more strength to this etymology.

Other ideas include μέτρον (metron, "a measure").[51] Charles Mopsik believes that the name Metatron may be related to the sentence from Genesis 5:24 "Enoch walked with God, then he was no more, because God took him."[52] The Greek version of the Hebrew word "to take" is μετετέθη (he was transferred).[51] רון (RON) is a standard addition to מטטרון (Metatron) and other angelic names in the Jewish faith. According to Mopsik, מטט (MTT) is a transliteration from the Greek μετετέθη.

In the entry entitled "Paradigmata" in his study, "'The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly", John W McGinley gives an accounting of how this name functions in the Bavli's version of "four entered pardes".[53] This account maintains that "Ishmael ben Elisha" is a rabbinically sanctioned cognomen for Elisha ben Abbuyah (the "Akher" of the Bavli's account). This hypothesis explains why the generators of the "chambers" portion of the Heikhalot literature make "Ishmael ben Elisha" the major protagonist of their writings even though this Rabbi Ishmael was not directly mentioned in the Bavli's account (in the Gemara to tractate Khaggigah) of "The Work of the Chariot".

Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport in Igrot Shir suggests that Metatron is a combination of two Greek words which mean to "change" and "pass away" referring to Chanoch (Enoch) who "changed" into an angel and "passed away" from the world.

In popular cultureEdit

In Dogma, Metatron is portrayed by Alan Rickman, stating that he acts as the Voice of God in situations where people hear God speak to them, as humanity is psychologically and physically incapable of hearing God's actual voice without their heads exploding. In the course of the film, he recruits abortion clinic worker Bethany Sloan (Linda Fiorentino), who is revealed over the course of the film to be the last living relative of Jesus, to stop two angels from unwittingly negating existence while God is incapacitated after the Almighty is attacked and left in a coma while in a mortal form, even directing Bethany to and providing her with aid in the form of the 'prophets' Jay and Silent Bob, Rufus (the Thirteenth Apostle, left out of the Bible because he was black) and Serendipity (a Muse who came to Earth to write but learned that she cannot use her powers on herself). During a later conversation with Bethany, the Metatron notes that Jesus had trouble adapting to the news that he was God's son and asked Metatron to take it back, with Metatron admitting to Bethany that he regretted placing so much responsibility on a child. At the conclusion, Metatron accompanies Rufus, Serendipity and the restored God back to Heaven, after revealing that Bethany is now pregnant (healed of a past infection that rendered her unable to conceive) with the next generation of Jesus's descendants.

In the eighth season of TV series Supernatural, protagonists Dean and Sam Winchester discover that Metatron (Curtis Armstrong) has been living in isolation for centuries because he became disgusted with Heaven's actions. Although he initially presents himself as an ally in the brothers' current quests to seal up Heaven and Hell after they find him, Metatron later turns against them, tricking their angelic ally Castiel into completing a ritual that leaves Castiel stripped of his angelic powers and banishes all angels apart from Metatron to Earth. Throughout the ninth season, the brothers and Castiel are forced to deal with the return of the arch-demon Abaddon along with the angels that were banished by Metatron's actions, with Metatron gathering allies that he will 'allow' back into Heaven while presenting Castiel as the villain, until Castiel manages to regain his powers and trick Metatron into revealing the monster he truly is to the other angels. In the tenth season, he is sought out by the Winchesters and Castiel as a way to remove the Biblical Mark of Cain from Dean's arm. He is subsequently stripped of his powers by Castiel and though he escapes, he is left to wander Earth, powerless to do anything more than watch as the world goes by while aware that the other angels will kill him if he does anything to draw their attention. Metatron is eventually recaptured by Castiel who recovers the demon tablet, the one powerful artifact he still possesses and he is forced to tell Castiel all that he knows about the Darkness, God's older sister. Afterwards, Castiel releases Metatron, finding him pitiable and not worth imprisoning or killing. Months later, when God returns, He summons Metatron to a bar of his own creation to act as God's editor on His autobiography. By this point, Metatron's time as a human has caused him to undergo a drastic change in personality for the better and he attempts to convince God to help with the threat, making an impassioned plea on the behalf of humanity. Metatron ultimately succeeds and he later reveals to the Winchesters that God intends to sacrifice himself to the Darkness. Metatron aids the Winchesters in rescuing Lucifer and sacrifices himself to buy them time to escape, earning a measure of redemption for his evil actions.

In the film Exodus: Gods and Kings, Metatron appears as an apparition of a small child through which God speaks to Moses.

In the fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman, Metatron is an angel who is stated to have been the Biblical character Enoch with the same alias, who is the line between Adam and Noah. He is the main antagonist and active adversary of Lord Asriel. Metatron has imprisoned the Authority (the Biblical God) in a crystal and plans to establish a more thorough inquisition. However Lord Asriel and Mrs Coulter sacrifice themselves to drag Metatron into an abyss.

In the Japanese video game El Shaddai: Ascension of the Metatron, he is the main character.

Like many mythic figures, Metatron appears in many installments in the Megami Tensei franchise of video games, appearing as a robotic statue of an angel. Notably, he is the final boss in one route of Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Survivor Overclocked.

In the 1990 novel Good Omens: The Nice and Accurate Prophecies of Agnes Nutter, Witch by Terry Pratchett and Neil Gaiman, the leader of the forces of Heaven was the Metatron. In the 2019 TV adaption of the book, the Metatron is played by famous British actor Derek Jacobi. In both versions he's described as "God's spokesman", but in the T.V. show, his part as the leader of Heaven's forces was given to the Archangel Gabriel.

Metatron is a song on The Mars Volta's album The Bedlam in Goliath.

In the novel series Date a Live, Metatron is the name of the Angel wielded by Origami Tobiichi.

In the Japanese mobile game, Granblue Fantasy, Metatron is one of many raid bosses playable in the game.

In the manga O-Parts Hunter, metatron is one the angelic beings and the most powerful angel. Metatron is the light counterpart to the demon satan.

In the Japanese video game series Silent Hill, Metatron is mentioned but never personally appears. Metatron is speculated to be the counterpart of Samael, the deity that the primary antagonists of the game worship. The “Seal of Metatron” is used to attempt to weaken the power of the worshipers of Samael.

In the 2019 novel Fall; or, Dodge in Hell by Neal Stephenson, Metatron is the brand name of semi-autonomous telepresence robots, owned and used notably by character Elmo Shepherd to remotely but physically engage characters during significant plot points.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "GEMAṬRIA: Metatron". Jewish Encyclopedia
  2. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 302
  3. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 192
  4. ^ "Metatron" Archived 2008-01-31 at the Wayback Machine. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Andrei A. Orlov (2005). The Enoch-Metatron Tradition. Mohr Siebeck. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  6. ^ a b Nathaniel Deutsch (1999). Guardians of the Gate: Angelic Vice-regency in the Late Antiquity. BRILL. pp. 45–47. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  7. ^ Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim (1993). Donald Tyson and James Freake (ed.). Three Books of Occult Philosophy. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 473. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d e John C. Reeves (2005). Trajectories in Near Eastern Apocalyptic: A Postrabbinic Jewish Apocalypse Reader. Society of Biblical Literature Atlanta.
  9. ^ Louis Ginzberg (1906). Jewish Encyclopedia: ABRAHAM, APOCALYPSE OF:. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08.
  10. ^ Elliot R. Wolfson (1997). Through a Speculum that Shines: Vision and Imagination in Medieval Jewish Mysticism. Princeton University Press. p. 259.
  11. ^ James H. Charlesworth (1983). The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 227.
  12. ^ Nathaniel Deutsch (1999). Guardians of the Gate: Angelic Vice-regency in the Late Antiquity. BRILL. pp. 36–37. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  13. ^ James H. Charlesworth (2006). The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls: The Dead Seas scrolls and the Qumran Community. Baylor University Press. p. 369.
  14. ^ Hagigah 15a
  15. ^ Scholem, Gershom (1974), Kabbalah, Keter Publishing House Jerusalem Ltd
  16. ^ a b Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies, Society for Jewish Study (1983). The Journal of Jewish Studies, Volumes 34-35. The Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. p. 26. Retrieved 5 March 2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  17. ^ Sanhedrin 38a
  18. ^ Robert Travers Herford (1903). Christianity in Talmud and Midrash. Williams & Norgate. pp. 286–290. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  19. ^ Avodah Zarah 3b
  20. ^ Daniel Chanan Matt, ed. (2005). The Zohar, Volume 3; Volume 2006. Stanford University Press. p. 86. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  21. ^ Solomon, Norman (2009). The A to Z of Judaism. Scarecrow Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-8108-7011-6.
  22. ^ Scholem, Gershom (2011). Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 366. ISBN 978-0-307-79148-1.
  23. ^ Cohon, Samuel S. (1987). Essays in Jewish Theology. Hebrew Union College Press. ISBN 978-0-87820-117-4.
  24. ^ "Enoch as Metatron and conversion of Moses from flesh to fire" Archived 2007-01-02 at the Wayback Machine, Journal of the Royal Asiastic Society, 1893.
  25. ^ a b Alexander, P. (1983), "3 (Hebrew Apocalypse of) Enoch", in James H. Charlesworth (ed.), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-09630-5
  26. ^ Gershom G. Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941/1961) p. 67. Extract of 3 Enoch.
  27. ^ P. Koslowski, ed. (2002). Progress, Apocalypse, and Completion of History and Life after Death of the Human Person in the World Religions. Springer. p. 58. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  28. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 184
  29. ^ Hava Lazarus-Yafeh Intertwined Worlds: Medieval Islam and Bible Criticism Princeton University Press 2004 ISBN 9781400862733 p. 32
  30. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 192
  31. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 192
  32. ^ Michael Muhammad Knight Magic In Islam Penguin, 24.05.2016 ISBN 9781101983492 p. 120
  33. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 302
  34. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 193
  35. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 198
  36. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 199
  37. ^ "Etymology of the Name Metatron Andrei Orlov". Archived from the original on 2008-08-03.
  38. ^ Andrei A. Orlov, The Enoch-Metatron Tradition (TSAJ, 107; Tuebingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 2005) 92-97
  39. ^ Alexander, P. "3 Enoch", 1.243; idem, "The Historical Settings of the Hebrew Book of Enoch", 162.
  40. ^ a b c d Odeberg, Hugo, ed. (1929). 3 Enoch or The Hebrew Book of Enoch. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 1.125, 1.126. Archived from the original on 2014-02-14.
  41. ^ Jellinek. A. "Beiträge zur Geschichte der Kabbala" (Leipzig c.l. Fritzsche 1852) Page 4
  42. ^ Jastrow. M. "A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature." Page 767
  43. ^ in Ben Chananja, 1862, p. 384; 1866, pp. 600-625
  44. ^ Schäfer, Peter (1992). The Hidden and Manifest God: Some Major Themes in Early Jewish Mysticism. SUNY Series in Judaica. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1044-8. most probable is the etymology of Lieberman: Metatron = Greek metatronos = metathronos = synthronos; i.e. the small "minor god" whose throne is beside that of the great "God"
  45. ^ Scholem, Major Trends, 69.
  46. ^ a b Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, 91, and 43.
  47. ^ sunthronos, the Greek term metaturannos, which can be translated as "the one next to the ruler". Philip Alexander, "3 Enoch"
  48. ^ Lieberman, Saul. "Metatron, the Meaning of His Name and His Functions in: I. Gruenwald, Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism" Leiden, Brill, 1980. 235–241.
  49. ^ Alexander, P. "From Son of Adam to a Second God" and Alexander, P. "3 Enoch"
  50. ^ Urbach, Ephraïm Elimelech. "The Sages: Their Concepts and Beliefs" Cambridge, Maa. : Harvard University Press, 1987, ©1979. ISBN 0-674-78523-1 OCLC: 15489564
  51. ^ a b Black, Matthew. "The Origin of the Name of Metatron". Can be linked back to the title praemetitor in Philos QG which can be connected to the Greek word for Metator "measurer".
  52. ^ Mopsik, C. Le Livre hébreu d’Hénoch ou Livre des palais. Paris: Verdier, 1989.
  53. ^ McGinley, John W; "The Written" as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly. ISBN 0-595-40488-X. The entry "Paradigmatia" gives an accounting of the meaning of "Metatron" as it is used in the Bavli's version of "four entered pardes".

External linksEdit