Metatron

Islamic portrayal of the angel Metatron (Arabic: ميططرون‎) depicted in the Daqa’iq al-Haqa’iq (دقائق الحقایق "Degrees of Truths") by Nasir ad-Din Rammal in the 14th century CE.

Metatron (Hebrew: מֶטָטְרוֹן Meṭāṭrōn, מְטַטְרוֹן Məṭaṭrōn, מֵיטַטְרוֹן Mēṭaṭrōn, מִיטַטְרוֹן Mīṭaṭrōn) or Mattatron (מַטַּטְרוֹן Maṭṭaṭrōn)[1] is an angel in Judeo-Islamic and Christian mysticist mythology mentioned in a few brief passages in the Aggadah and in mystical Kabbalistic texts within the Rabbinic literature. The figure forms one of the traces for the presence of dualist proclivities in the otherwise monotheistic visions of both the Tanakh and later Christian doctrine. [2] The name Metatron is not mentioned in the Torah and how the name originated is a matter of debate. In Islamic tradition, he is also known as Mīṭaṭrūsh (Arabic: ميططروش‎), the angel of the veil.[3][4] In folkloristic tradition, he is the highest of the angels and serves as the celestial scribe or "recording angel".[5]

In Jewish apocrypha and early kabbalah, "Metatron" is the name that Enoch received after his transformation into an angel.

OriginsEdit

From Helleniistic times, mention of a second divine figure, either beside YHWH or beneath him, occur in a number of Jewish texts, mostly apocryphal. These Jewish traditions implying a divine dualism were most frequently associated with Enoch. In the rabbinic period they centre on 'Metatron', often in the context of debates over the heretical doctrine of 'two powers in heaven' (shtei rashunot ba-shammayim).[6][2] Ultimately these ideas appear to go back to differing interpretations of the heavenly enthronement passages at Exodus 24:10f., Daniel 7:9f. and perhaps even Ezekiel 1:26f.[7] interpretations that came to distinguish what was orthodox from what was heretical in Judaism.

Among the pseudepigrapha 1 Enoch: Book of Parables presents two figures: the son of man and Enoch. At first, these two characters seem to be separate entities. Enoch views the son of man enthroned in Heaven. Later, however, they prove to be one and the same. Many scholars believe that the final chapters in the Book of Parables are a later addition. Others think they are not and that the son of man is Enoch's heavenly double similarly to the Prayer of Joseph where Jacob is depicted as an angel.[8]:83–84 The Book of Daniel displays two similar characters: the Ancient of Days and the one like a man. Parts of the text in Daniel are Aramaic and may have been changed in translation. The Septuagint reads that the son of man came as the Ancient of Days. All other translations say the son of man gained access to the Ancient of Days and was brought before that one.[9]

The identification of Metatron with the gnostic 3 Enoch, where the name first appears, is not explicitly made in the Talmud although it does refer to a Prince of the World who was young but now is old. However, some of the earliest kabbalists assumed the connection. There also seems to be two Metatrons, one spelled with six letters (מטטרון), and one spelled with seven (מיטטרון). The former may be the transformed Enoch, Prince of the Countenance within the divine palace; the latter, the Primordial Metatron, an emanation of the "Cause of Causes", specifically the tenth and last emanation, identified with the earthly Divine Presence.[10] Furthermore, the Merkabah text Re' uyot Yehezkel identifies the Ancient of Days from the Book of Daniel as Metatron.[9]

Scholem's scholastic analysisEdit

Many scholars see a discontinuity between how Enoch is portrayed in the early Enoch literature and how Metatron is portrayed. Scholars commonly see the character of Metatron as being based on an amalgam of Jewish literature, in addition to Enoch, Michael, Melchizedek, and Yahoel among others are seen as influences.[8]:86

Gershom Scholem argues Metatron's character was influenced by two streams of thought. One of which linked Metatron with Enoch, while the second was a fusing of different obscure entities and mythic motifs.[11]:180 Scholem argues that this second tradition was originally separate but later became fused with the Enoch tradition.[8]:141–142 He points to texts where this second Metatron is a primordial angel and referred to as Metatron Rabbah.[8]:141 Scholem theorizes that the two Hebrew spellings of Metatron's name are representative of these two separate traditions.[8]:142 In his view the second Metatron is linked to Yahoel. Scholem also links Yahoel with Michael.[8]:141 In the Apocalypse of Abraham Yahoel is assigned duties normally reserved for Michael. Yahoel's name is commonly seen as a substitute for the Ineffable Name.[12]

In 2 Enoch, Enoch is assigned titles commonly used by Metatron such as "the Youth, the Prince of the Presence and the Prince of the World."[8]:141 However we do not see Enoch referred to as the Lesser YHWH.[8]:141 In 3 Enoch, Metatron is called the lesser YHWH. This raises a problem since the name Metatron does not seem to be directly related to the name of God YHWH.[8]:140 Scholem proposes this is because the lesser YHWH is a reference to Yahoel.[8]:140 In Maaseh Merkabah the text reasons that Metatron is called the lesser YHWH because in Hebrew gematria Metatron is numerically equivalent to another name of God Shaddai.[13] Scholem does not find this convincing.[8]:140[14] Scholem point to the fact that both Yahoel and Metatron were known as the lesser YHWH. In 3 Enoch 48D1 Metatron is called both Yahoel Yah and Yahoel.[15] In addition to being one of the seventy names of Metatron from 3 Enoch 48D. Yahoel and Metatron are also linked in Aramaic incantation bowl inscriptions.[8]:86[16]

TalmudEdit

The Babylonian Talmud mentions Metatron by name in three places: Hagigah 15a, Sanhedrin 38b and Avodah Zarah 3b.

Hagigah 15a describes Elisha ben Abuyah in Paradise seeing Metatron sitting down (an action that is not done in the presence of God). Elishah ben Abuyah therefore looks to Metatron as a deity and says heretically: "There are indeed two powers in Heaven!"[17] The rabbis explain that Metatron had permission to sit because of his function as the Heavenly Scribe, writing down the deeds of Israel.[18] The Talmud states, it was proved to Elisha that Metatron could not be a second deity by the fact that Metatron received 60 "strokes with fiery rods" to demonstrate that Metatron was not a god, but an angel, and could be punished.[19]

In Sanhedrin 38b one of the minim tells Rabbi Idith that Metatron should be worshiped because he has a name like his master. Rabbi Idith uses the same passage Exodus 23:21 to show that Metatron was an angel and not a deity and thus should not be worshiped. Furthermore, as an angel Metatron has no power to pardon transgressions nor was he to be received even as a messenger of forgiveness.[19][20][21]

In Avodah Zarah 3b, the Talmud hypothesizes as to how God spends His day. It is suggested that in the fourth quarter of the day God sits and instructs the school children, while in the preceding three quarters Metatron may take God's place or God may do this among other tasks.[22]

Yevamot 16b records an utterance, "I have been young; also I have been old" found in Psalm 37:25. The Talmud here attributes this utterance to the Chief Angel and Prince of the World, whom the rabbinic tradition identifies as Metatron.[23]

KirkisaniEdit

The tenth century Karaite scholar Jacob Qirqisani believed that rabbinic Judaism was the heresy of Jeroboam of the Kingdom of Israel.[24] He quoted a version of Sanhedrin 38b,[25] which he claimed contained a reference to the "lesser YHVH." Gershom Scholem suggests that the name was deliberately omitted from later copies of the Talmud.[26] However, Qirqisani may have misrepresented the Talmud in order to embarrass his Rabbanite opponents with evidence of polytheism. Extra-talmudic mystical texts such as Sefer Hekhalot do speak of a "lesser YHWH", apparently deriving the concept from Exodus 23:21, which mentions an angel of whom God says "my name [understood as YHVH, the usual divine Proper Name] is in him".

Merkabah, Zohar and other mystical writingsEdit

Metatron also appears in the Pseudepigrapha including Shi'ur Qomah, and most prominently in the Hebrew Merkabah Book of Enoch, also called 3 Enoch or Sefer Hekhalot (Book of [the Heavenly] Palaces). The book describes the link between Enoch, son of Jared (great grandfather of Noah) and his transformation into the angel Metatron. His grand title "the lesser YHVH" resurfaces here. The word Metatron is numerically equivalent to Shaddai (God) in Hebrew gematria; therefore, he is said to have a "Name like his Master".

Metatron says, "He [the Holy One]... called me, 'The lesser YHVH' in the presence of his whole household in the height, as it is written, 'my name is in him.'" (12:5, Alexander's translation.) The narrator of this book, supposedly Rabbi Ishmael, tells how Metatron guided him through Heaven and explained its wonders. 3 Enoch presents Metatron in two ways: as a primordial angel (9:2–13:2) and as the transformation of Enoch after he was assumed into Heaven.[27][28]

And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him. [Genesis 5:24 KJV.]

This Enoch, whose flesh was turned to flame, his veins to fire, his eye-lashes to flashes of lightning, his eye-balls to flaming torches, and whom God placed on a throne next to the throne of glory, received after this heavenly transformation the name Metatron.[29]


Metatron "the Youth", a title previously used in 3 Enoch, where it appears to mean "servant".[28] It identifies him as the angel that led the people of Israel through the wilderness after their exodus from Egypt (again referring to Exodus 23:21, see above), and describes him as a heavenly priest.

In the later Ecstatic Kabbalah, Metatron is a messianic figure.[30]

The Zohar describes Metatron as the "King of the angels."[31] and associates the concept of Metatron with that of the divine name Shadday.[32] Zohar commentaries such as the "Ohr Yakar" by Moses ben Jacob Cordovero explain the Zohar as meaning that Metaron as the head of Yetzira[33] This corresponds closely with Maimonides' description of the Talmudic "Prince of the World"[34], traditionally associated with Metatron[35], as the core "Active Intellect."[36] [37]

The Zohar describes several biblical figures as metaphors for Metatron. Examples are Enoch[38][39], Joseph[40][41], Eliezer[42], Joshua[43], and others. The Zohar finds the word "youth" used to describe Joseph and Joshua a hint that the figures are a metaphor to Metatron, and also the concept of "servant" by Eliezer as a reference to Metatron.[44] The Staff of Moses is also described by the Zohar[45] as a reference to Metatron. The Zohar also states that the two tets in "totaphot" of the phylacteries are a reference to Metatron.[46] The Zohar draws distinction between Metatron and Michael.[47] While Michael is described repeatedly in the Zohar as the figure represented by the High Priest, Metatron is represented by the structure of the tabernacle itself.[47]

Apocalyptic textsEdit

In the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel Metatron is not identified as Enoch. Instead he is identified as the archangel Michael.[8]:86[11]:183–185 The text also records that Metatron in gematria is the equivalent of Shadday.[11]:55, 184 While he also appears in other apocalyptic writings he is most prominent in the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel.[11]:183–184 In these writings he plays the role of heavenly interlocutor delivering knowledge about the coming messianic age.[11]:184

IslamEdit

The earliest account of Metatron within Islamic scriptures might derive directly from the Quran itself. Uzair, according to Surah 9:30-31 venerated as a Son of God by Jews, is another name for the prophet Enoch, who was also identified with Metatron in Merkabah Mysticism.[48] Islamic heresiologists repeatedly accused Jews for venerating an angel as a lesser god (or an Incarnation of God), especially for celebrating Rosh Hashanah.[49] The name itself is attested early in Islam by Al-Kindi and Al-Masudi.[50] In a Druze text about cosmology, he is mentioned among the canonical Archangels in Islamic traditions.[51] Al-Suyuti identifies him as the angel of the veil and only he knows about that which lies beyond.[52][53][54] He is also frequently mentioned in the magical works by Ahmad al-Buni, who describes Metatron as wearing a crown and a lance, probably constituting the Staff of Moses.[55] In other magical practises, he is invoked to ward off evil jinn, demons, sorcerers and other magical threats.[56]

EtymologyEdit

There are numerous possible etymologies for the name Metatron.[57][58] However, some scholars, such as Philip Alexander, believe if the name Metatron originated in Hekhalot-Merkabah texts (such as 3 Enoch), then it may be a magic word like Adiriron and Dapdapiron.[59]

Hugo Odeberg,[60] Adolf Jellinek[61] and Marcus Jastrow[62] suggest the name may originate from either Mattara (מטרא) "keeper of the watch" or the verb Memater (ממטר) "to guard, to protect". An early derivation of this can be seen in Shimmusha Rabbah, where Enoch is clothed in light and is the guardian of the souls ascending to heaven. Odeberg also suggests that the name Metatron might be taken from the Old Persian name Mithra.[60] Citing Wiesner,[63] he lays out a number of parallels between Mithra and Metatron based on their positions in heaven and duties.

Metatron seems to be made up of two Greek words for after and throne, μετὰ θρóνος (meta thronos), taken together as "one who serves behind the throne" or "one who occupies the throne next to the throne of glory".[64] The two words do not appear separately in any text known to Gershom Scholem, who therefore dismisses the idea[65] with the words "this widely repeated etymology...has no merit."[66]

The word σύνθρονος (synthronos) is used as "co-occupant of the divine throne";[67] however, like the above etymology, it is not found in any source materials.[60] It is supported by Saul Lieberman and Peter Schäfer, who give further reasons why this might be a viable etymology.[68] The Latin word Metator (messenger, guide, leader, measurer) had been suggested by Eleazar of Worms (c. 1165 – c. 1230), Nachmanides, and brought to light again by Hugo Odeberg.[60] When transliterated into the Hebrew language, we get מטיטור or מיטטור. Gershom Scholem argues that there is no data to justify the conversion of metator to metatron.[66] Philip Alexander also suggests this as a possible origin of Metatron, stating that the word Metator also occurs in Greek as mitator–a word for an officer in the Roman army who acted as a forerunner. Using this etymology, Alexander suggests the name may have come about as a description of "the angel of the Lord who led the Israelites through the wilderness: acting like a Roman army metator guiding the Israelites on their way".[69][70] Another possible interpretation is that of Enoch as a metator showing them "how they could escape from the wilderness of this world into the promised land of heaven". Because we see this as a word in Hebrew, Jewish Aramaic, and Greek, Alexander believes this gives even more strength to this etymology.

Other ideas include μέτρον (metron, "a measure").[71] Charles Mopsik believes that the name Metatron may be related to the sentence from Genesis 5:24 "Enoch walked with God, then he was no more, because God took him."[72] The Greek version of the Hebrew word "to take" is μετετέθη (he was transferred).[71] רון (RON) is a standard addition to מטטרון (Metatron) and other angelic names in the Jewish faith. According to Mopsik, מטט (MTT) is a transliteration from the Greek μετετέθη.

In the entry entitled "Paradigmata" in his study, "'The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly", John W McGinley gives an accounting of how this name functions in the Bavli's version of "four entered pardes".[73] This account maintains that "Ishmael ben Elisha" is a rabbinically sanctioned cognomen for Elisha ben Abbuyah (the "Akher" of the Bavli's account). This hypothesis explains why the generators of the "chambers" portion of the Heikhalot literature make "Ishmael ben Elisha" the major protagonist of their writings even though this Rabbi Ishmael was not directly mentioned in the Bavli's account (in the Gemara to tractate Khaggigah) of "The Work of the Chariot".

Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport in Igrot Shir suggests that Metatron is a combination of two Greek words which mean to "change" and "pass away" referring to Chanoch (Enoch) who "changed" into an angel and "passed away" from the world.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "GEMAṬRIA: Metatron". Jewish Encyclopedia
  2. ^ a b Guy Stroumsa, The Making of the Abrahamic Religions in Late Antiquity, Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-198-73886-2 p.15.
  3. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 302
  4. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 192
  5. ^ "Metatron" Archived 2008-01-31 at the Wayback Machine. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  6. ^ Alan Segal, Two Powers in Heaven:Early Rabbinic Reports about Christianity and Gnosticism, BRILL 2002 pp.60ff.
  7. ^ Segal ibid. p.60
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Orlov, Andrei A. (2005). The Enoch-Metatron Tradition. Mohr Siebeck. Retrieved 5 March 2014 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ a b Deutsch, Nathaniel (1999). Guardians of the Gate: Angelic vice-regency in the late antiquity. BRILL. pp. 45–47. Retrieved 5 March 2014 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ von Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1993). Tyson, Donald; Freake, James (eds.). Three Books of Occult Philosophy. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 473. Retrieved 6 March 2014 – via Google Books.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ a b c d e Reeves, John C. (2005). Trajectories in Near Eastern Apocalyptic: A Postrabbinic Jewish Apocalypse Reader. Society of Biblical Literature Atlanta.
  12. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1906). "Abraham, Apocalypse of". Jewish Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
  13. ^ Wolfson, Elliot R. (1997). Through a Speculum that Shines: Vision and imagination in medieval Jewish mysticism. Princeton University Press. p. 259.
  14. ^ Charlesworth, James H. (1983). The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 227.
  15. ^ Deutsch, Nathaniel (1999). Guardians of the Gate: Angelic vice-regency in the late antiquity. BRILL. pp. 36–37. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  16. ^ Charlesworth, James H. (2006). The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls: The Dead Sea scrolls and the Qumran community. Baylor University Press. p. 369.
  17. ^ Hagigah 15a
  18. ^ Scholem, Gershom (1974), Kabbalah, Keter Publishing House Jerusalem Ltd
  19. ^ a b Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies, Society for Jewish Study (1983). The Journal of Jewish Studies, Volumes 34-35. The Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. p. 26. Retrieved 5 March 2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  20. ^ Sanhedrin 38a
  21. ^ Robert Travers Herford (1903). Christianity in Talmud and Midrash. Williams & Norgate. pp. 286–290. Retrieved 31 May 2014. Metatron christianity.
  22. ^ Avodah Zarah 3b
  23. ^ Daniel Chanan Matt, ed. (2005). The Zohar, Volume 3; Volume 2006. Stanford University Press. p. 86. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  24. ^ Solomon, Norman (2009). The A to Z of Judaism. Scarecrow Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-8108-7011-6.
  25. ^ Scholem, Gershom (2011). Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 366. ISBN 978-0-307-79148-1.
  26. ^ Cohon, Samuel S. (1987). Essays in Jewish Theology. Hebrew Union College Press. ISBN 978-0-87820-117-4.
  27. ^ "Enoch as Metatron and conversion of Moses from flesh to fire" Archived 2007-01-02 at the Wayback Machine, Journal of the Royal Asiastic Society, 1893.
  28. ^ a b Alexander, P. (1983), "3 (Hebrew Apocalypse of) Enoch", in James H. Charlesworth (ed.), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-09630-5
  29. ^ Gershom G. Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941/1961) p. 67. Extract of 3 Enoch.
  30. ^ P. Koslowski, ed. (2002). Progress, Apocalypse, and Completion of History and Life after Death of the Human Person in the World Religions. Springer. p. 58. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  31. ^ Zohar 3. pp. 293a.
  32. ^ Zohar Chadash. pp. Sifra Tanina 11.
  33. ^ Matuk Midvash on Zohar 2. pp. 149a.
  34. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Yebamoth. pp. 16b.
  35. ^ Tosaphoth on Babylonian Talmud. pp. 16b.
  36. ^ Guide for the Perplexed. pp. Part 2, Chapter 6.
  37. ^ Guide for the Perplexed. pp. Part 2, Chapter 4:3.
  38. ^ Zohar 3. pp. 189a.
  39. ^ Zohar 1. pp. 27a.
  40. ^ Zohar 1. pp. 47a.
  41. ^ Zohar 2. pp. 43a.
  42. ^ Zohar 1. pp. 130b.
  43. ^ Zohar 2. pp. 65b.
  44. ^ Zohar 2. pp. 94a.
  45. ^ Zohar 1. pp. 27a.
  46. ^ Zohar 3. pp. 226b.
  47. ^ a b Zohar 2. pp. 159a.
  48. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 184
  49. ^ Hava Lazarus-Yafeh Intertwined Worlds: Medieval Islam and Bible Criticism Princeton University Press 2004 ISBN 9781400862733 p. 32
  50. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 192
  51. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 192
  52. ^ Michael Muhammad Knight Magic In Islam Penguin, 24.05.2016 ISBN 9781101983492 p. 120
  53. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 302
  54. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 193
  55. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 198
  56. ^ Steven M. Wasserstrom Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 9781400864133 p. 199
  57. ^ "Etymology of the Name Metatron Andrei Orlov". marquette.edu. Archived from the original on 2008-08-03.
  58. ^ Andrei A. Orlov, The Enoch-Metatron Tradition (TSAJ, 107; Tuebingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 2005) 92-97
  59. ^ Alexander, P. "3 Enoch", 1.243; idem, "The Historical Settings of the Hebrew Book of Enoch", 162.
  60. ^ a b c d Odeberg, Hugo, ed. (1929). 3 Enoch or The Hebrew Book of Enoch. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 1.125, 1.126. Archived from the original on 2014-02-14.
  61. ^ Jellinek. A. "Beiträge zur Geschichte der Kabbala" (Leipzig c.l. Fritzsche 1852) Page 4
  62. ^ Jastrow. M. "A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature." Page 767
  63. ^ in Ben Chananja, 1862, p. 384; 1866, pp. 600-625
  64. ^ Schäfer, Peter (1992). The Hidden and Manifest God: Some Major Themes in Early Jewish Mysticism. SUNY Series in Judaica. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-1044-8. most probable is the etymology of Lieberman: Metatron = Greek metatronos = metathronos = synthronos; i.e. the small "minor god" whose throne is beside that of the great "God"
  65. ^ Scholem, Major Trends, 69.
  66. ^ a b Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, 91, and 43.
  67. ^ sunthronos, the Greek term metaturannos, which can be translated as "the one next to the ruler". Philip Alexander, "3 Enoch"
  68. ^ Lieberman, Saul. "Metatron, the Meaning of His Name and His Functions in: I. Gruenwald, Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism" Leiden, Brill, 1980. 235–241.
  69. ^ Alexander, P. "From Son of Adam to a Second God" and Alexander, P. "3 Enoch"
  70. ^ Urbach, Ephraïm Elimelech. "The Sages: Their Concepts and Beliefs" Cambridge, Maa. : Harvard University Press, 1987, ©1979. ISBN 0-674-78523-1 OCLC: 15489564
  71. ^ a b Black, Matthew. "The Origin of the Name of Metatron". Can be linked back to the title praemetitor in Philos QG which can be connected to the Greek word for Metator "measurer".
  72. ^ Mopsik, C. Le Livre hébreu d’Hénoch ou Livre des palais. Paris: Verdier, 1989.
  73. ^ McGinley, John W; "The Written" as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly. ISBN 0-595-40488-X. The entry "Paradigmatia" gives an accounting of the meaning of "Metatron" as it is used in the Bavli's version of "four entered pardes".

External linksEdit