Mere Christianity

Mere Christianity is a Christian apologetical book by the British author C. S. Lewis. It was adapted from a series of BBC radio talks made between 1941 and 1944, originally published as three separate volumes: Broadcast Talks (1942), Christian Behaviour (1943), and Beyond Personality (1944). The book consists of four parts: the first presents Lewis's arguments for the existence of God; the second contains his defence of Christian theology, including his notable "Liar, lunatic, or Lord" trilemma; the third has him exploring Christian ethics, among which cardinal and theological virtues; in the final, he writes on the Christian conception of God.

Mere Christianity
MereChristianity.JPG
AuthorC. S. Lewis
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenreChristian apologetics
Published7 July 1952
PublisherGeoffrey Bles
Media typePrint
Pages175
ISBN978-00-61350-21-4
OCLC460348497

Mere Christianity was published in the United Kingdom by Geoffrey Bles on 7 July 1952. While initial reviews to the book were generally positive, modern reviewers were more critical of it, and its overall reception was relatively mixed. The praise was primarily directed to Lewis's humorous, straightforward style of writing; the criticism was primarily around the validity of his trilemma, which defends the Christian doctrine of the divinity of Jesus, and how he should have considered providing more choices.

Deemed a classic in Lewis's career and religious literature, Mere Christianity has often received a wide readership decades following its release, and contributed to establishing its author's reputation as "one of the most 'original' exponents of the Christian faith" in the 20th century. The work, with Lewis's arguments for God's existence in it, continued to be examined in scholarly circles. Mere Christianity has retained popularity among Christians from various denominations, and appeared in several lists of finest Christian books. Often used as a tool of evangelism, it has been translated into over thirty languages, and cited by a number of public figures as their influence to their conversion to Christianity. Several "biographies" of the book have also been written.

BackgroundEdit

After reading Lewis's The Problem of Pain James Welch, the Director of Religious Broadcasting for the BBC, wrote Lewis the following:[1]

I write to ask whether you would be willing to help us in our work of religious broadcasting ... The microphone is a limiting, and rather irritating, instrument, but the quality of thinking and depth of conviction which I find in your book ought sure to be shared with a great many other people.[1]

Welch suggested two potential subjects. Lewis responded with thanks and observed that modern literature, the first, did not suit him, choosing instead the Christian faith as Lewis understood it.[1]

In the preface to later editions, Lewis described his desire to avoid contested theological doctrine by focusing on core beliefs of the Christian Faith.[2] The succinct and pithy language employed by Lewis enabled him to impact broad audiences, while retaining intellectual substance for more studied readers.

Every Wednesday from 7:45 pm to 8 pm during August 1941, Lewis gave live talks entitled "Right or Wrong: A Clue to the Meaning of the Universe” which would become the first book in Mere Christianity. The first set of talks became very popular and flooded Lewis with responses from an adoring and irate public. This feedback led to Lewis going back on air to answer listeners' questions.

The following January and February, Lewis gave the next set of talks on what would become “What Christians Believe”. The talks remained popular and because of the success of the newly released The Screwtape Letters, Lewis’s publisher was happy to publish the broadcast talks as books that year.

In Autumn 1942, the third series of talks were, ironically, cut down from 15 to 10 minutes. Due to a miscommunication, Lewis had prepared for 15 minutes, but added the cut material back into the next book and added several more chapters.

The fourth set of talks did not take place until 1944. The script drafts had a much wider scope originally, and Lewis prepared for 10-minute talks when the BBC was giving him 15. The timing of these talks was important and strictly adhered to because due to technology and WWII, Germany would broadcast propaganda through the English-spoken "Lord Hawhaw" during any dead air. Due to the timing of the fourth set of talks (10:20 pm), Lewis said he couldn't do them all live and would have to record some.

The Case for Christianity (Broadcast Talks in UK)Edit

The core of the first section centres on an argument from morality, the basis of which is the "law of human nature", a "rule about right and wrong," which, Lewis maintained, is commonly available and known to all human beings. He cites, as an example, the case of Nazi Germany, writing:

"This law was called the Law of nature because people thought that everyone knew it by nature and did not need to be taught it. They did not mean, of course, that you might not find an odd individual here and there who did not know it, just as you find a few people who are colour-blind or have no ear for a tune. But taking the race as a whole, they thought that the human idea of decent behaviour was obvious to everyone. And I believe they were right. If they were not, then all the things we said about the war were nonsense. What was the sense in saying the enemy were in the wrong unless Right is a real thing which the Nazis at bottom knew as well as we did and ought to have practised? If they had had no notion of what we mean by right, then, though we might still have had to fight them, we could no more have blamed them for that than for the colour of their hair.[3]

On a mundane level, it is generally accepted that stealing is a violation of this moral law. Lewis argues that the moral law is like scientific laws (e.g. gravity) or mathematics in that it was not contrived by humans. However, it is unlike scientific laws in that it can be broken or ignored, and it is known intuitively, rather than through experimentation. After introducing the moral law, Lewis argues that thirst reflects the fact that people naturally need water, and there is no other substance which satisfies that need. Lewis points out that earthly experience does not satisfy the human craving for "joy" and that only God could fit the bill; humans cannot know to yearn for something if it does not exist.[4]

After providing reasons for his conversion to theism, Lewis explicates various conceptions of God. Pantheism, he argues, is incoherent, and atheism too simple. Eventually, he arrives at Jesus Christ, and invokes a well-known argument now known as Lewis's trilemma. Lewis, arguing that Jesus was claiming to be God, uses logic to advance three possibilities: either He really was God, was deliberately lying, or was not God but thought Himself to be (which would make Him delusional and likely insane). The book goes on to say that the latter two possibilities are not consistent with Jesus' character and it was most likely that He was being truthful.[4]

Christian BehaviourEdit

The next third of the book explores the ethics resulting from Christian belief. He cites the four cardinal virtues: prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude. After touching on these, he goes into the three theological virtues: hope, faith, and charity. Lewis also explains morality as being composed of three layers: relationships between man and man, the motivations and attitudes of the man himself, and contrasting worldviews.

Lewis also covers such topics as social relations and forgiveness, sexual ethics and the tenets of Christian marriage, and the relationship between morality and psychoanalysis. He also writes about the great sin: pride, which he argues to be the root cause of all evil and rebellion.

His most important point is that Christianity mandates that one "love your neighbour as yourself." He points out that all persons unconditionally love themselves. Even if one does not like oneself, one would still love oneself. Christians, he writes, must also apply this attitude to others, even if they do not like them. Lewis calls this one of the great secrets: when one acts as if he loves others, he will presently come to love them.

Critical receptionEdit

Initial reviews of Mere Christianity generally show enthusiasm,[5] and most of them were from Christian publications.[6] However, combining them with the reviews published decades later indicated a more mixed reception.[7] The historian Stephanie L. Derrick observed that the book's literary elements, such as its eloquence, were the aspect most frequently noted by contemporary publications.[5] The historian George M. Marsden summarised that Mere Christianity "has been hated as well as loved. Nonetheless, as a popular presentation of the faith it has drawn less systematic criticism than would a book that purported to be a definitive treatise on Christian apologetics and theology."[8] On the general reception to the book, the Lewis biographer Margaret Patterson Hannay described it as his "most popular and ... most disparaged" work, adding that "probably because its fans have spoken of it as a profound piece of theology, while it is, as was designed to be, only a primer".[9]

Describing the book as "a rare gift", Edward Skillin of the Commonweal magazine commented of Lewis's ability to make "complicated matters" more accessible especially to laypeople.[5] On a passage of the book, Edward D. Myers of Theology Today noted, "This is clear, it is simple, it is eminently Christian, and it is typical of the ease with which Mr. Lewis puts great matters into plain language."[5] Joseph McSorley of the Catholic World found Lewis writing "with his customary clarity and incisiveness, and with proofs that the average man will find convincing. It is a delight to see him demolish in a paragraph many of the heresies which have contributed to our present ghastly condition."[10] The Tablet, a Catholic magazine, wrote:

"We have never read arguments better marshalled and handled so that they can be remembered, or any book more useful to the Christian, in the Army or elsewhere, who finds himself called upon to argue briefly from first premises, to say why morality is not herd-instinct, why there is a special and unique character attaching to the sense of obligation, why the conviction that there is a law of right and wrong and a transcendent morality is only intelligible if there is a God."[11]

The Times Literary Supplement wrote of Lewis's "quite unique power" of making theology interesting, even "exciting and (one might almost say) uproariously funny".[7] The reviewer added: "No writer of popular apologetics today is more effective than Mr. C. S. Lewis."[12] The Clergy Review's G. D. Smith opined that Lewis "shows himself a master in the rare art of conveying profound truths in simple and compelling language".[12] J. H. Homes of the New York Herald Tribune Weekly Book Review wrote that "his clarity of thought and simplicity of expression have a magic about them which makes plain the most abstruse problems of theological speculation".[7] The Guardian said: "His learning is abundantly seasoned with common sense, his humor and his irony are always at the service of the most serious purposes, and his originality is the offspring of enthusiastically loyal orthodoxy."[12]

"Mere Christianity is a popular, not an academic, book, which is not directed towards a readership of academic theologians or philosophers. It is simply unfair to expect Lewis to engage here with detailed philosophical debates, when these would clearly turn his brisk, highly readable book into a quagmire of fine philosophical distinctions. Mere Christianity is an informal handshake to begin a more formal acquaintance and conversation."

—Alister McGrath on the book's readability[13]

The author Colin Duriez praised it as easy to understand,[14] and the biographer Thomas C. Peters opined that his straightforward language makes the book fit to a wide audience.[15] There had been also criticism, which was primarily directed towards Lewis's "Liar, lunatic, or Lord" trilemma.[16] The Lewis biographer and Christian apologist Alister McGrath, while commending the book in general, felt that his trilemma is a weak defence for the doctrine of the divinity of Jesus, calling this the book's "most obvious concern".[17] He wrote his argument is mostly unsupported by the modern biblical scholarship, and argued that others options such as that Jesus was mistaken about his identity should have gotten into consideration of alternatives.[18]

Scathing criticism came from the philosopher John Beversluis, in his book C. S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion (1985).[8] Beversluis analysed Lewis's arguments for Christianity, arriving in the conclusion that each of them is built on faulty logic.[19] He argued that Lewis made his arguments convincing by creating false analogies, with an instance in his trilemma.[20] Beversluis said there are more alternatives in addition to Jesus being a liar or lunatic, one of which is that his disciples misinterpreted his words.[20] The philosopher Victor Reppert replied to Beversluis in C. S. Lewis's Dangerous Idea (2003), noting that Beversluis was correct in pointing out that many of Lewis's arguments are not strictly logical but overestimating the degree to which Lewis rested his case for Christianity on reason alone.[21] Reppert continued that Lewis, in his autobiography, Surprised by Joy (1955), realised Christianity rests on far more than solely reason.[22]

LegacyEdit

Mere Christianity has been referred to as a classic of Lewis's career,[23][24] as well as of religious literature,[25] particularly in the category of Christian apologetics.[26] Commentators have also seen it as a guide to the basics of the Christian faith[27] and to his theology.[28] The book, along with his arguments for the existence of God, have frequently received academic evaluation,[29][30] either complimenting or critical.[31] Analysing Lewis's books, the Australian archeologist Warwick Ball believed Mere Christianity is perhaps his most influential and widely read apologetic work;[32] the American philosopher C. Stephen Evans called his moral argument the "most widely-convincing apologetic argument of the twentieth century";[33] McGrath considered it "perhaps as outstanding an example of a lucid and intelligent presentation of the rational and moral case for Christian belief as we are ever likely to see".[34]

Mere Christianity has retained popularity years after its publication,[35][36] and has been compared to other well-known Christian works, including Augustine's The City of God and G. K. Chesterton's The Everlasting Man (1925).[37] The BBC journalist Justin Phillips observed that it "continues to transform the lives of those who read it. There is no reason why it won't continue to be potent for decades to come."[38] According to the authors Roger Lancelyn Green and Walter Hooper, its success led to the acknowledgment of Lewis as "one of the most 'original' exponents of the Christian faith" of the 20th century.[39] The book, Hooper continued, shows Lewis's ability of providing a comprehensible guidance of the Christian beliefs/theology to everyone,[40] and "has become synonymous with Lewis".[41] The academic Bruce L. Edwards noted that it contributes to shaping Lewis's reputation as "a witty, articulate proponent of Christianity".[42] The author Marvin D. Hinten wrote: "When people are asked which C. S. Lewis book has most influenced them spiritually, the most common answer is Mere Christianity."[43]

According to Peters, the book is more popular among Christians of various denominations,[44] including Catholic, Latter-day Saint, Orthodox, and Protestant,[45] but less among non-Christians.[44] It is often used as an evangelistic tool,[46] predominantly in Christian-majority countries, including the United States, where its influence is most felt.[47] Furthermore, its influence is strengthened by the publication of its translations;[48] according to Marsden, it has been translated to about thirty-six languages.[49] In the next decades, Mere Christianity is continued to be reprinted and sold by Christian[50] and online booksellers.[51] For instance, soon after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it was translated into the several native languages of its breakaway states, which was done by Orthodox Christians to rebuild their influence.[49] As of 2010, the book had been in BookScan Religion Bestseller's list for 513 weeks, consecutively.[52] There is also a considerable readership in China, with 60,000 copies had been sold there as of 2014.[49]

The book has also been cited by a number of public figures as their influence to their conversion, or re-conversion, to Christianity as well as other Christian denominations.[53] The American geneticist Francis Collins related his story of conversion from atheism in his book, The Language of God (2006),[54] and described Mere Christianity as having influenced him to embrace Christianity.[55][56] The American attorney Charles Colson's conversion happened after him reading a copy of the book given by his friend, Thomas L. Phillips (the chairman of the board of the Raytheon Company).[57] His story became popular, enhanced by the release of his autobiography in 1976, which was consequently declared the "Year of the Evangelicals" by the Newsweek magazine.[58] Catholic converts include the British philanthropist Leonard Cheshire, the German economist E. F. Schumacher, the American author Sheldon Vanauken, the American columnist Ross Douthat, the American theologian Peter Kreeft, and the American philosopher Francis J. Beckwith.[59]

Mere Christianity has been featured in several lists.[60] It was included in the 2000 book, 100 Christian Books That Changed the Century, by William J. Petersen and Randy Petersen.[61] In 2000 and 2006, the evangelical magazine Christianity Today's editorial board included Mere Christianity in its "Books of the Century" and "The Top 50 Books That Have Shaped Evangelicals", respectively.[62][63] In a 2013 article to Christianity Today, McGrath ranked it the first among the five books by Lewis he liked the most.[36] In the same year's "The Best Christian Book of All Time Tournament", run by InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, Mere Christianity was voted as the all-time, best Christian book, only after Augustine's autobiography Confessions.[64] In 2018, Christianity Today's Greg Cootsona, a writer of the relationship between religion and science, featured it in his "5 Books That Bring Science and Christianity Together" listing.[55]

Mere Christianity has influenced other Christian publications,[65] with the scholar Gary L. Tandy noting that it remains the standard for assessing them, mainly the apologetic ones.[66] Subsequent publications with allusion to the book in their titles include N. T. Wright's Simply Christian (2006) and McGrath's Mere Apologetics (2012).[66][67] The American pastor Tim Keller referred to his apologetic The Reason for God (2012) as "Mere Christianity for dummies".[68] The bimonthly ecumenical Christian magazine Touchstone, which started publication in 1986, is subtitled A Journal of Mere Christianity.[69][70] Paul McCusker's C. S. Lewis & Mere Christianity, which provides insights to the work in its historical context, was published in 2014; it was praised for being well-researched but was criticised for its factual errors.[71] Another "biography" of the book, C. S. Lewis's Mere Christianity, written by Marsden, was released in 2016,[72] and received a positive reception from critics,[73][74] with some criticism to its conclusion.[75]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "CS Lewis - Lecture 1-A: Mere Christianity Study". YouTube. 1 April 2013. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  2. ^ Mere Christianity (PDF). Samizdat. 2014. pp. 120–.
  3. ^ Mere Christianity. [New York]: HarperOne. 1996. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-06-065292-0.
  4. ^ a b The Life and Writing of C.S. Lewis, Lecture 3; The Great Courses, Course Guidebook; Professor Louis Markos, Houston Baptist University; The Teaching Company; 2000
  5. ^ a b c d Derrick 2018, p. 97.
  6. ^ Heck 2007, pp. 67–68.
  7. ^ a b c Sayer 1994, p. 280.
  8. ^ a b Marsden 2016, p. 139.
  9. ^ Hannay 1981, pp. 265–266.
  10. ^ Derrick 2018, p. 99.
  11. ^ Derrick 2018, p. 100.
  12. ^ a b c Heck 2007, p. 68.
  13. ^ McGrath 2013, p. 315.
  14. ^ Duriez 2013, p. 149.
  15. ^ Peters 1997, p. 163.
  16. ^ Marsden 2016, pp. 145–146.
  17. ^ McGrath 2013, pp. 315–316.
  18. ^ McGrath 2013, p. 317.
  19. ^ Marsden 2016, pp. 140–141.
  20. ^ a b Marsden 2016, p. 142.
  21. ^ Marsden 2016, pp. 142–143.
  22. ^ Marsden 2016, p. 143.
  23. ^ Duriez 2013, p. 149; McGrath 2013, p. 213; Phillips 2002, p. xi.
  24. ^ Sullivan, Philip R. (Spring 1995). "The Natural Ought". Behavior and Philosophy. 23 (1): 1–12. eISSN 1943-3328. ISSN 1053-8348. JSTOR 23006495.
  25. ^ Marsden 2016, p. 1; McGrath 2013, p. 2.
  26. ^ Brown 2013, p. 85; Heck 2007, p. 51; McGrath 2013, p. 298.
  27. ^ Simpson 2013, p. 181.
  28. ^ Heck 2007, p. 52; Lindsley 2005, p. 24.
  29. ^ Shrock, Christopher A. (2017). "Mere Christianity and the Moral Argument for the Existence of God". Sehnsucht: The C. S. Lewis Journal. 11: 99–120. eISSN 2694-4324. ISSN 1940-5537. JSTOR 48579655.
  30. ^ Meconi, David (April 2014). "'Mere Christianity: Theosis in a British Way'". Journal of Inklings Studies. 4 (1): 3–18. eISSN 2045-8800. ISSN 2045-8797. JSTOR 48616106.
  31. ^ Noll, Mark A. (2002). "C.S. Lewis's 'Mere Christianity' (the Book and the Ideal) at the Start of the Twenty-first Century". VII: Journal of the Marion E. Wade Center. 19: 31–44. eISSN 2767-3685. ISSN 0271-3012. JSTOR 45296964.
  32. ^ Ball 2022, pp. 186, 201.
  33. ^ Evans 2010, p. 387.
  34. ^ McGrath 2015, p. 8.
  35. ^ Heck 2007, pp. 51–52; Martindale 2007, p. 148; McGrath 2013, p. 2.
  36. ^ a b McGrath, Alister (11 July 2013). "My Top 5 Books by C. S. Lewis". Christianity Today. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  37. ^ Ball 2022, p. 205; Mansden 2016, p. 145.
  38. ^ Phillips 2002, p. 297.
  39. ^ Green & Hooper 1974, p. 211.
  40. ^ Heck 2007, p. 51.
  41. ^ Hooper 1996, p. xii.
  42. ^ Edwards 2007, p. 7.
  43. ^ Hinten 2007, p. 91.
  44. ^ a b Peters 1997, p. 154.
  45. ^ Marsden 2016, pp. 2, 132.
  46. ^ Marsden 2016, p. 119.
  47. ^ Martindale 2007, pp. 125, 136.
  48. ^ Martindale 2007, p. 149.
  49. ^ a b c Marsden 2016, pp. 134–135.
  50. ^ Wilson 1990, p. 215.
  51. ^ Martindale 2007, pp. 148–149.
  52. ^ Blake, John (17 December 2010). "Surprised by C.S. Lewis: Why his popularity endures". CNN. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  53. ^ Edwards 2007, pp. 6–7; Heck 2007, p. 52.
  54. ^ van Biema, David (10 July 2006). "Reconciling God and Science". Time. Vol. 168, no. 3. pp. 46–48. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  55. ^ a b Cootsona, Greg (20 February 2018). "5 Books That Bring Science and Christianity Together". Christianity Today. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  56. ^ Collins, Francis (Winter 2003). "Can an Evangelical Believe in Evolution?: The Testimony of Today's Most Prominent Evangelical Scientist" (PDF). International Journal of Frontier Missions. 20 (4): 109–112. ISSN 0743-2429.
  57. ^ George, Timothy (18 May 2015). "A Thicker Kind of Mere". First Things. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  58. ^ Derrick 2018, p. 147; Marsden 2016, pp. 117–119; Miethe 1999, p. 12.
  59. ^ Marsden 2016, pp. 126–129.
  60. ^ Heck 2007, p. 52; McGrath 2013, pp. 2, 526.
  61. ^ Petersen & Petersen 2000, pp. 96–98.
  62. ^ "Books of the Century". Christianity Today. 24 April 2000. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  63. ^ "The Top 50 Books That Have Shaped Evangelicals". Christianity Today. 23 October 2006. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  64. ^ Marsden 2016, p. 124.
  65. ^ Marsden 2016, p. 122.
  66. ^ a b Tandy, Gary L. (2011–2012). "The Stylistic Achievement of Mere Christianity". Sehnsucht: The C. S. Lewis Journal. 5/6: 127–152. eISSN 2694-4324. ISSN 1940-5537. JSTOR 48580493.
  67. ^ McGrath 2016, p. 123.
  68. ^ Sacramone, Anthony (25 February 2008). "An Interview with Timothy Keller". First Things. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  69. ^ Kushiner, James M. (June 2009). "Mere Economics: The Dollars & Sense of Publishing". Touchstone. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  70. ^ McMullen, Cary (26 April 2003). "Tricky Issues With Right, Left". Lakeland Ledger. p. D1. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  71. ^ Vaus, Will (7 August 2015). "Book Reviews". Christianity & Literature. 64 (4): 502–504. doi:10.1177/0148333115586947.
  72. ^ Wright, Jarrell D. (December 2017). "Book Reviews". Anglican and Episcopal History. 86 (4): 473–474. ISSN 0896-8039. JSTOR 26379639.
  73. ^ Fein, Michael T. (1 August 2016). "Nonfiction". Library Journal. 141 (13): 52. ISSN 0363-0277.
  74. ^ "C. S. Lewis's Mere Christianity: A Biography". Kirkus Reviews. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  75. ^ Duncan, Graham A. (2020). "CS Lewis's 'Mere Christianity,' by G. M. Marsden". Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae. 46 (2): 1–2. doi:10.25159/2412-4265/5564. eISSN 1017-0499. ISSN 2412-4265.

BibliographyEdit

Chapters

  • Edwards, Bruce L. (2007). "An Examined Life: Introducing C. S. Lewis". In Edwards, Bruce L. (ed.). C. S. Lewis: Life, Works, and Legacy. Vol. 1: An Examined Life. Praeger Perspectives. pp. 1–16. ISBN 0-275-99116-4.
  • Evans, C. Stephen (2010) [1997]. "Moral Arguments". In Taliaferro, Charles; Draper, Paul; Quinn, Philip L. (eds.). A Companion to Philosophy of Religion (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 385–391. ISBN 978-06-31191-53-7.
  • Heck, Joel D. (2007). "Mere Christianity: Uncommon Truth in Common Language". In Edwards, Bruce L. (ed.). C. S. Lewis: Life, Works, and Legacy. Vol. 3: Apologist, Philosopher, and Theologian. Praeger Perspectives. pp. 51–74. ISBN 0-275-99116-4.
  • Hinten, Marvin D. (2007). "The World of Narnia: Medieval: Magic and Morality". In Edwards, Bruce L. (ed.). C. S. Lewis: Life, Works, and Legacy. Vol. 2: Fantasist, Mythmaker, and Poet. Praeger Perspectives. pp. 71–92. ISBN 0-275-99116-4.
  • Martindale, Wayne (2007). "The Great Divorce: Journey to Heaven and Hell". In Edwards, Bruce L. (ed.). C. S. Lewis: Life, Works, and Legacy. Vol. 3: Apologist, Philosopher, and Theologian. Praeger Perspectives. pp. 133–152. ISBN 0-275-99116-4.
  • McGrath, Alister (2015). "C. S. Lewis, Defender of the Faith". In White, Roger; Wolfe, Judith; Wolfe, Brendan N. (eds.). C. S. Lewis and His Circle: Essays and Memoirs from the Oxford C. S. Lewis Society. Oxford University Press. pp. 5–14. ISBN 978-0-19-021434-0.
  • Mead, Marjorie Lamp (2007). "Letters to Malcolm: C. S. Lewis on Prayer". In Edwards, Bruce L. (ed.). C. S. Lewis: Life, Works, and Legacy. Vol. 3: Apologist, Philosopher, and Theologian. Praeger Perspectives. pp. 209–236. ISBN 0-275-99116-4.

External linksEdit