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Memantine is a medication used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease.[2][3] It is less preferred than acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil.[3] Treatment should only be continued if beneficial effects are seen.[3] It is taken by mouth.[2]

Memantine
Memantine structure.svg
Memantine ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Trade namesAxura, Ebixa, Namenda, others[1]
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa604006
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B2
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability~100%
MetabolismLiver (<10%)
Elimination half-life60–100 hours
ExcretionKidney
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.217.937 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC12H21N
Molar mass179.3 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  (verify)

Common side effects include headache, constipation, sleepiness, and dizziness.[2][3] Severe side effects may include blood clots, psychosis, and heart failure.[3] It is believed to work by blocking NMDA receptors.[2]

Memantine was approved for medical use in the United States in 2003.[2] It is available as a generic medication.[3] A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about 1.60 GBP as of 2019.[3] In the United States the wholesale cost of this amount is about US$5.50.[4] In 2016 it was the 147th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 4 million prescriptions.[5]

Contents

Medical useEdit

Memantine is used to treat moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease, especially for people who are intolerant of or have a contraindication to AChE (acetylcholinesterase) inhibitors.[6][7] One guideline recommends memantine or a AChE inhibitor be considered in people in the early to mid stage of dementia.[8]

Memantine has been associated with a moderate improvement[9] with only a small positive effect on cognition, mood, behavior, and the ability to perform daily activities in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease.[10][needs update][11] There does not appear to be any benefit in mild disease.[12]

Adverse effectsEdit

Memantine is, in general, well-tolerated.[9] Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of people) include confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, insomnia, agitation, and/or hallucinations. Less common adverse effects include vomiting, anxiety, hypertonia, cystitis, and increased libido.[9][13]

Like many other NMDA antagonists, memantine behaves as a dissociative anesthetic at supratherapeutic doses.[14] Despite isolated reports, recreational use of memantine is rare due to the drug's long duration and limited availability.[14] Also memantine seems to lack most of the psychoactive effects recreational users are usually looking for, such as euphoria or hallucinations.[15]

PharmacologyEdit

GlutamateEdit

A dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission, manifested as neuronal excitotoxicity, is hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Targeting the glutamatergic system, specifically NMDA receptors, offers a novel approach to treatment in view of the limited efficacy of existing drugs targeting the cholinergic system.[16]

Memantine is a low-affinity voltage-dependent uncompetitive antagonist at glutamatergic NMDA receptors.[17][18] By binding to the NMDA receptor with a higher affinity than Mg2+ ions, memantine is able to inhibit the prolonged influx of Ca2+ ions, particularly from extrasynaptic receptors, which forms the basis of neuronal excitotoxicity. The low affinity, uncompetitive nature, and rapid off-rate kinetics of memantine at the level of the NMDA receptor-channel, however, preserves the function of the receptor at synapses, as it can still be activated by physiological release of glutamate following depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron.[19][20][21] The interaction of memantine with NMDA receptors plays a major role in the symptomatic improvement that the drug produces in Alzheimer's disease. However, there is no evidence as yet that the ability of memantine to protect against NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity has a disease-modifying effect in Alzheimer's, although this has been suggested in animal models.[20]

SerotoninEdit

Memantine acts as a non-competitive antagonist at the 5-HT3 receptor, with a potency similar to that for the NMDA receptor.[22] Many 5-HT3 antagonists function as antiemetics, however the clinical significance of this serotonergic activity in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is unknown.

CholinergicEdit

Memantine acts as a non-competitive antagonist at different neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at potencies possibly similar to the NMDA and 5-HT3 receptors, but this is difficult to ascertain with accuracy because of the rapid desensitization of nAChR responses in these experiments. It can be noted that memantine is an antagonist at Alpha-7 nAChR, which may contribute to initial worsening of cognitive function during early memantine treatment. Alpha-7 nAChR upregulates quickly in response to antagonism, which could explain the cognitive-enhancing effects of chronic memantine treatment.[23][24] It has been shown that the number of nicotinic receptors in the brain are reduced in Alzheimer's disease, even in the absence of a general decrease in the number of neurons, and nicotinic receptor agonists are viewed as interesting targets for anti-Alzheimer drugs.[25]

DopamineEdit

Memantine acts as an agonist at the dopamine D2 receptor with equal or slightly higher affinity than to the NMDA receptors.[26]

SigmaergicEdit

It acts as an agonist at the σ1 receptor with a low Ki of 2.6 µM (2600 nM).[27] The consequences of this activity are unclear (as the role of sigma receptors in general is not yet that well understood). Due to this low affinity, therapeutic concentrations of memantine likely are too low to have any sigmaergic effect. However, excessive doses of memantine for recreational purposes may indeed activate this receptor.[28]

HistoryEdit

Memantine was first synthesized and patented by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968 as an anti-diabetic agent, but it was ineffective at lowering blood sugar. Later it was discovered to have CNS activity, and was developed by Merz for dementia in Germany; the NMDA activity was discovered after trials had already begun. Memantine was first marketed for dementia in Germany in 1989 under the name Axura.[29]

In the US, some CNS activities were discovered at Children's Hospital of Boston in 1995, and Children's licensed patents covering uses of memantine outside the field of ophthalmology to Neurobiological Technologies (NTI) in 1995.[30] In 1998 NTI amended its agreement with Children's to allow Merz to take over development.[31]

In 2000 Merz partnered with Forest to develop the drug for Alzheimer's disease in the U.S. under the name Namenda.[29]

In 2000 Merz partnered with Suntory for the Japanese market and with Lundbeck for other markets including Europe;[32] the drug was originally marketed by Lundbeck under the name Ebixa.[29]

Sales of the drug reached $1.8 billion for 2014.[33] The cost of Namenda was $269 to $489 a month in 2012.[34]

In February 2014 as the July 2015 patent expiration for memantine neared, Actavis, which had acquired Forest, announced that it was launching an extended release (XR) form of memantine that could be taken once a day instead of twice a day as needed with the then-current "immediate release" (IR) version, and that it intended to stop selling the IR version in August 2014 and withdraw the marketing authorization. This is a tactic to thwart generic competition called "product hopping". However the supply of the XR version ran short, so Actavis extended the deadline until the fall. In September 2014 the attorney general of New York, Eric Schneiderman, filed a lawsuit to compel Actavis to keep selling the IR version on the basis of antitrust law.[35][36]

In December 2014, a judge granted New York State its request and issued an injunction, preventing Actavis from withdrawing the IR version until generic versions could launch. Actavis appealed and in May a panel of the Second Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the injunction, and in June Actavis asked that its case be heard by the full Second Circuit panel.[37][38] In August 2015 Actavis' request was denied.[39]

Brand namesEdit

As of August 2017 memantine was marketed under many brand names worldwide including Abixa, Adaxor, Admed, Akatinol, Alceba, Alios, Almenta, Alois, Alzant, Alzer, Alzia, Alzinex, Alzixa, Alzmenda, Alzmex, Axura, Biomentin, Carrier, Cogito, Cognomem, Conexine, Cordure, Dantex, Demantin, Demax, Dementa, Dementexa, Ebitex, Ebixa, Emantin, Emaxin, Esmirtal, Eutebrol, Evy, Ezemantis, Fentina, Korint, Lemix, Lindex, Lindex, Lucidex, Manotin, Mantine, Mantomed, Marbodin, Mardewel, Marixino, Maruxa, Maxiram, Melanda, Memabix, Memamed, Memando, Memantin, Memantina, Memantine, Mémantine, Memantinol, Memantyn, Memanvitae, Memanxa, Memanzaks, Memary, Memax, Memexa, Memigmin, Memikare, Memogen, Memolan, Memorel, Memorix, Memotec, Memox, Memxa, Mentikline, Mentium, Mentixa, Merandex, Merital, Mexia, Mimetix, Mirvedol, Modualz, Morysa, Namenda, Nemdatine, Nemdatine, Nemedan, Neumantine, Neuro-K, Neuroplus, Noojerone, Polmatine, Prilben, Pronervon, Ravemantine, Talentum, Timantila, Tingreks, Tonibral, Tormoro, Valcoxia, Vilimen, Vivimex, Witgen, Xapimant, Xapimant, Ymana, Zalatine, Zemertinex, Zenmem, Zenmen, and Zimerz.[1]

It was also marketed in some countries as a combination drug with donepezil under the brands Namzaric, Neuroplus Dual, and Tonibral MD.[1]

ResearchEdit

In ADHD evidence is not sufficient to make any conclusions.[40] It has also been studied in migraines.[41]

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ a b c d e f g British national formulary : BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. pp. 303–304. ISBN 9780857113382.
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  5. ^ "The Top 300 of 2019". clincalc.com. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
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  13. ^ Joint Formulary Committee (2004). British National Formulary (47th ed.). London: BMA and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. ISBN 978-0-85369-584-4.
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  19. ^ Xia P, Chen HS, Zhang D, Lipton SA (August 2010). "Memantine preferentially blocks extrasynaptic over synaptic NMDA receptor currents in hippocampal autapses". The Journal of Neuroscience. 30 (33): 11246–50. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2488-10.2010. PMC 2932667. PMID 20720132.
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  31. ^ Delevett P (9 January 2000). "Cash is king, focus is queen". Silicon Valley Business Journal.
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  37. ^ "Actavis Confirms Appeals Court Ruling Requiring Continued Distribution of Namenda IR". Actavis. 22 May 2015.
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Further readingEdit

  • Lipton SA (April 2005). "The molecular basis of memantine action in Alzheimer's disease and other neurologic disorders: low-affinity, uncompetitive antagonism". Current Alzheimer Research. 2 (2): 155–65. doi:10.2174/1567205053585846. PMID 15974913.

External linksEdit