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The Mayflower was an English ship that famously transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to the New World in 1620.[1] There were 102 passengers, and the crew is estimated to have been about 30, but the exact number is unknown.[2] This voyage has become an iconic story in some of the earliest annals of American history, with its story of death and of survival in the harsh New England winter environment. The culmination of the voyage in the signing of the Mayflower Compact was an event which established a rudimentary form of democracy, with each member contributing to the welfare of the community.[3] There was a second ship named Mayflower that made the London to Plymouth, Massachusetts voyage several times.

MayflowerHarbor.jpg
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882)
Name: Mayflower
Owner: Christopher Jones (¼ of the ship)
Maiden voyage: Before 1609
Out of service: 1622–1624
Fate: most likely taken apart by Rotherhithe shipbreaker c. 1624.
General characteristics
Class and type: Dutch cargo fluyt
Tonnage: 180 tons +
Length: c. 80–90 ft (24–27.5 m) on deck, 100–110 ft (30–33.5 m) overall.
Decks: Around 4
Capacity: Unknown, but carried c. 135 people during the historical voyage to what they would call Plymouth Colony

Contents

Mayflower structure and layout

The Pilgrim ship Mayflower was a typical English merchant ship of the early 17th century, square-rigged and beak-bowed with high, castle-like structures fore and aft that served to protect the ship's crew and the main deck from the elements. Her stern carried a 30-foot high, square aft-castle which made the ship extremely difficult to sail against the wind and unable to sail well against the North Atlantic's prevailing Westerlies, especially in the Fall and Winter of 1620. This was the direct cause of the voyage from England to America taking more than two months. The Mayflower's return trip to London in April–May 1621 took less than half that time, with the same strong winds following.[4][5]

By 1620, the Mayflower was aging, nearing the end of the usual working life of an English merchant ship in that era, some 15 years. No dimensions of her hull can be stated exactly, since this was many years before such measurements were standardized. She probably measured about 100 feet (30 m) in length from the forward end at the beak of her prow to the tip of her stern superstructure aft. She was about 25 feet (7.6 m) at her widest point, with the bottom of her keel about 12 feet (3.6 m) below the waterline. Although William Bradford was not a mariner, he estimated that Mayflower had a cargo capacity of 180 tons. What is known on the basis of surviving records from that time is that she could certainly accommodate 180 casks of wine in her cargo hold. The casks were great barrels that each held hundreds of gallons of claret wine.[5]

This was a ship that traditionally was heavily armed while on trading routes around Europe, due to the possibility of encountering pirates and privateers of all types. And with its armament, the ship and crew could easily be conscripted by the English monarch at any time in case of conflict with other nations.[6]

General layout

The general layout of the ship was as follows:

  • Three masts: mizzen (aft), main (midship), and fore, and also a spritsail in the bow area.[7]
  • Three primary levels: main deck, gun deck, and cargo hold.

Main deck

Aft on the main deck in the stern was the cabin for Master Christopher Jones, measuring about ten by seven feet (3 m × 2.1 m). Forward of that was the steerage room, which housed a whipstaff (tiller extension) for sailing control; not a wheel, as in later ships. Also here was the ship's compass and probably also berths for the ship's officers. Forward of the steerage room was the capstan, a vertical axle used to pull in ropes or cables. Far forward on the main deck, just aft of the bow, was the forecastle space where the ship's cook prepared meals for the crew; it may also have been where the ship's sailors slept.[6]

The poop deck was above the cabin of Master Jones, on the ship's highest level above the stern on the aft castle. The poop house was on this deck, which may have been for passengers' use either for sleeping or cargo. On normal merchant ships, this space was probably a chart room or a cabin for the master's mates.[8][9]

Gun deck

The gun deck was where the passengers resided during the voyage, in a space measuring about 50 by 25 feet (15.2 m × 7.6 m) with a five-foot (1.5 m) overhead (ceiling). But it was also a dangerous place in conflict, as it had port and starboard gun ports from which cannon could be run out to fire on the enemy. The gun room was in the stern area of the gun deck, to which passengers had no access due to it being the storage space for powder and ammunition for the ship's cannons and any other weapons belonging to the ship. The gun room might also house a pair of stern chasers, small cannons used to fire out the stern of the ship. Forward on the gun deck in the bow area was a windlass, equipment similar in function to the capstan in steerage, which was used to raise and lower the ship's main anchor. There were no stairs for the passengers on the gun deck to go up through the gratings to the main deck. To get up to the main deck, passengers were required to climb a wooden or rope ladder.[8][9]

There was no facility for a latrine or privy on the Mayflower, and ship's crew had to fend for themselves in that regard. Gun deck passengers most likely used a bucket as a chamber pot, affixed to the deck or bulkhead to keep it from being jostled at sea.[9][10]

Gun deck armament

The largest gun was a minion cannon which was brass, weighed about 1,200 pounds (545 kg), and could shoot a 3.5 pound (1.6 kg) cannonball almost a mile (1,600 m). The Mayflower also had on board a saker cannon of about 800 pounds (360 kg), and two base cannons that weighed about 200 pounds (90 kg) which shot a 3 to 5 ounce ball (85–140 g). She carried at least ten pieces of ordnance on the port and starboard sides of her gun deck: seven cannons for long range purposes, and three smaller guns often fired from the stern at close quarters that were filled with musket balls. Later at New Plymouth, Mayflower Master Jones unloaded four of the pieces to help fortify the colony against invaders, and would not have done so unless he was comfortable with the armament that he still had on board.[5]

Cargo hold

Below the gun deck was the cargo hold where the passengers kept most of their food stores and other supplies. Other items included most of their clothing and bedding. The hold also stored the passengers' personal weapons and military equipment – armor, muskets, gunpowder, and shot, as well as swords and bandoliers. It also stored all the tools that the Pilgrims would need, as well as all the equipment and utensils needed to prepare meals in the New World. It is also known that some Pilgrims loaded trade goods on board, including Isaac Allerton, William Mullins, and possibly others; these also most likely were stored in the cargo hold.[10]

Early history

It is not known when and where the Mayflower was built, but it is likely that she was launched at Harwich in the county of Essex, England. She was designated as "of Harwich" in the Port Books of 1609–11, although later known as "of London". Harwich was also the birthplace of Mayflower master Christopher Jones about 1570.[11]

Captain Jones became master of the Mayflower 11 years prior to the Pilgrims' voyage, sailing the ship cross-Channel taking English woolens to France and bringing French wine to London. In addition, he had also transported hats, hemp, Spanish salt, hops, and vinegar to Norway, and may have taken the Mayflower whaling in the North Atlantic in the Greenland area. She had traveled to Mediterranean ports, being then owned by Christopher Nichols, Robert Child, Thomas Short, and Christopher Jones, the ship's master. In 1620, Jones and Robert Child still owned their quarter shares in the ship, and it was from them that Thomas Weston chartered her in the summer of 1620 to undertake the Pilgrim voyage. Weston had a significant role in the Mayflower voyage, due to his membership in the Company of Merchant Adventurers, and he eventually traveled to the Plymouth Colony himself.[4][12][13]

There were 26 vessels bearing the same name as the Pilgrim ship in the Port Books of England in the reign of James I (1603–1625), and the reason for this popularity of the name has never been found.[14] One particular Mayflower that has caused historical confusion is a Mayflower erroneously identified as one of the 1620 Pilgrims. This ship was partly owned by John Vassall and was outfitted for Queen Elizabeth in 1588, during the time of the Spanish Armada, a war for which Vassall outfitted several ships. However, there are no records of Vassall's Mayflower after 1594.[15] The identity of Captain Jones's Mayflower is based on records of the time of her home port, her tonnage (est. 180–200 tons), and the master's name in 1620 in order to avoid confusion with the many other Mayflower ships.[14]

Records dating from August 1609 first note Christopher Jones as master and part owner of the Mayflower when his ship was chartered for a voyage from London to Trondheim in Norway and back to London. The ship lost an anchor on her return, due to bad weather, and made short delivery of her cargo of herrings. Litigation resulted, and this was still proceeding in 1612.

Christopher Jones is described in a document of January 1611 as being "of Harwich", and his ship is called the Mayflower of Harwich (in the county of Essex). Records of Jones's ship Mayflower show that the ship was twice on the Thames at London in 1613, once in July and again in October and November. Records of 1616 again state that Jones's ship was on the Thames, carrying a cargo of wine, which suggests that the ship had recently been on a voyage to France, Spain, Portugal, the Canaries, or some other wine-producing land.

After 1616, there is no further record which specifically relates to Jones's Mayflower until 1624. This is unusual for a ship trading to London, as it would not usually disappear from the records for such a long time. And no Admiralty court document can be found relating to the pilgrim fathers' voyage of 1620, although this might be due to the unusual way in which the transfer of the pilgrims was arranged from Leyden to New England. Or some of the records of the period may have been lost.

Voyage

Speedwell and Mayflower

 
Mayflower arrived in the "Cape Cod fishhook", 11 November 1620 (satellite photo, 1997)

About 65 passengers embarked the Mayflower in London at its homeport in the Rotherhithe district on the Thames about the middle of July in 1620. She then proceeded down the Thames into the English Channel and then on to the south coast to anchor at Southampton Water. The Mayflower waited there for seven days for a rendezvous on July 22 with the Speedwell, coming with Leiden church members from Delfshaven in Holland.

The two ships set sail about August 5, but the unseaworthy Speedwell sprang a leak shortly after, and the ships were put into Dartmouth for repairs. The two ships made a new start after the repairs, and they were more than 200 miles (320 km) beyond Land's End at the southwestern tip of England when Speedwell sprang another leak. It was now early September, and they had no choice but to abandon the Speedwell and make a determination on her passengers. This was a dire event, as the ship had wasted vital funds and was considered very important to the future success of their settlement in America. Speedwell was sold soon after the Mayflower continued on her voyage to America. According to Bradford, she was refitted and "made many voyages... to the great profit of her owners." Bradford later assumed that Speedwell master Reynolds's "cunning and deceit" (in causing what may have been man-made leaks in the ship) had been motivated by a fear of starving to death in America.[16]

In addition to the 102 passengers, the officers and crew consisted of about 25–30 persons, bringing the total persons on board the Mayflower to approximately 130.[17]

Mayflower sets sail

In early September, western gales begin to make the North Atlantic a dangerous place for sailing. The Mayflower's provisions were already quite low when departing Southampton, and they became lower still by delays of more than a month. The passengers had been on board the ship for this entire time, and they were quite worn out and in no condition for a very taxing, lengthy Atlantic journey cooped up in cramped spaces in a small ship. But the Mayflower sailed from Plymouth on September 6, 1620 with what Bradford called "a prosperous wind".[18]

 
Plaque on the side of a building next to Newlyn Old Quay

The last port in England for the Mayflower was traditionally thought to be Plymouth; however, there is continued controversy that the ship had to stop at Newlyn in Cornwall on the Land's End peninsula before sailing west. It was believed that the water picked up at Plymouth had caused fever and cholera in the city, so Newlyn provided fresh water to the ship. Newlyn has a plaque to this effect on the side of a building on its quay, erected in remembrance of Plymouth historian Bill Best Harris, whose research is believed to have uncovered this little-known detail about the voyage.[19][20]

Aboard the Mayflower were many stores that supplied the pilgrims with the essentials needed for their journey and future lives. It is assumed that they carried tools and weapons, including cannon, shot, and gunpowder, as well as some live animals, including dogs, sheep, goats, and poultry. Horses and cattle came later. The Mayflower also carried two boats: a long boat and a "shallop", a 21-foot boat powered by oars or sails. She also carried 12 artillery pieces (eight minions and four sakers), as the Pilgrims feared that they might need to defend themselves against enemy European forces, as well as the natives.[21]

 
The Mayflower Memorial in Southampton

The passage was a miserable one, with huge waves constantly crashing against the ship's topside deck until a key structural support timber fractured. The passengers had already suffered agonizing delays, shortages of food, and other shortages, and were now called upon to provide assistance to the ship's carpenter in repairing the fractured main support beam. This was repaired with the use of a metal mechanical device called a jackscrew, which had been loaded on board to help in the construction of settler homes. It was now used to secure the beam to keep it from cracking further, making the ship seaworthy enough.[21][22]

The crew of the Mayflower had some devices to assist them en route, such as a compass for navigation, as well as a log and line system to measure speed in nautical miles per hour (knots). Time was measured with the ancient method of an hour glass.

There were two deaths, but this was only a precursor of what happened after their arrival on Cape Cod.

Arrival in America

On November 9, 1620, they sighted present-day Cape Cod. They spent several days trying to sail south to their planned destination of the Colony of Virginia, where they had obtained permission to settle from the Company of Merchant Adventurers. However, strong winter seas forced them to return to the harbor at Cape Cod hook, well north of the intended area, where they anchored on November 11. The settlers wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact after the ship dropped anchor at Cape Cod, in what is now Provincetown Harbor, in order to establish legal order and to quell increasing strife within the ranks.[23][24][25][26]

On Monday, November 27, an exploring expedition was launched under the direction of Capt. Christopher Jones to search for a suitable settlement site. As master of the Mayflower, Jones was not required to assist in the search, but he apparently thought it in his best interest to assist the search expedition. There were 34 persons in the open shallop: 24 passengers and 10 sailors. They were obviously not prepared for the bitter winter weather which they encountered on their reconnoiter, the Mayflower passengers not being accustomed to winter weather much colder than back home. They were forced to spend the night ashore due to the bad weather which they encountered, ill-clad in below-freezing temperatures with wet shoes and stockings that became frozen. Bradford wrote, "Some of our people that are dead took the original of their death here" on that expedition.[27]

The settlers explored the snow-covered area and discovered an empty native village, now known as Corn Hill in Truro. The curious settlers dug up some artificially made mounds, some of which stored corn, while others were burial sites. Nathaniel Philbrick claims that the settlers stole the corn and looted and desecrated the graves,[28] sparking friction with the locals.[29] Philbrick goes on to say that they explored the area of Cape Cod for several weeks as they moved down the coast to what is now Eastham, and he claims that the Pilgrims were looting and stealing native stores as they went.[30] He then writes about how they decided to relocate to Plymouth after a difficult encounter with the Nausets at First Encounter Beach in December 1620.

However, Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation steadfastly denies such revisionist theories. Bradford records that they took "some" of the corn to show the others back at the boat, leaving the rest. They later took what they needed from another store of grain, paying the locals back in six months, and it was gladly received.

Also there was found more of their corn and of their beans of various colors; the corn and beans they brought away, purposing to give them full satisfaction when they should meet with any of them as, about some six months afterward they did, to their good content.[31]

First winter

During the winter, the passengers remained on board the Mayflower, suffering an outbreak of a contagious disease described[by whom?] as a mixture of scurvy, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. When it ended, only 53 passengers remained—just over half; half of the crew died, as well. In the spring, they built huts ashore, and the passengers disembarked from the Mayflower on March 21, 1621.

The settlers decided to mount "our great ordnances" on the hill overlooking the settlement in late February 1621, due to the fear of attack by the natives. Christopher Jones supervised the transportation of the "great guns"—about six iron cannons that ranged between four and eight feet (1.2 to 2.4 m) in length and weighed almost half a ton. The cannon were able to hurl iron balls 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) in diameter as far as 1,700 yards (1.5 km). This action made what was no more than a ramshackle village almost into a well-defended fortress.[32]

Jones had originally planned to return to England as soon as the Pilgrims found a settlement site. But his crew members began to be ravaged by the same diseases that were felling the Pilgrims, and he realized that he had to remain in Plymouth Harbor "till he saw his men began to recover."[33] The Mayflower lay in New Plymouth harbor through the winter of 1620–21, then set sail for England on April 5, 1621, her empty hold ballasted with stones from the Plymouth Harbor shore. As with the Pilgrims, her sailors had been decimated by disease. Jones had lost his boatswain, his gunner, three quartermasters, the cook, and more than a dozen sailors.

The Mayflower made excellent time on her voyage back to England. The westerly winds that had buffeted her coming out pushed her along going home, and she arrived at the home port of Rotherhithe in London on May 6, 1621,[34] less than half the time that it had taken her to sail to America."[35]

Jones died after coming back from a voyage to France on March 5, 1622, at about age 52. For the next two years, the Mayflower lay at her berth in Rotherhithe, not far from Jones' grave at St. Mary's church. By 1624, she was no longer useful as a ship; her subsequent fate is unknown, but she was probably broken up about that time.[36]

Passengers

Some families traveled together, while some men came alone, leaving families in England and Leiden. Two wives on board were pregnant; Elizabeth Hopkins gave birth to son Oceanus while at sea, and Susanna White gave birth to son Peregrine in late November while the ship was anchored in Cape Cod Harbor. He is historically recognized as the first European child born in the New England area. One child died during the voyage, and there was one stillbirth during the construction of the colony.

Most of the passengers were Separatists, fleeing persistent religious persecution, but some were hired hands, servants, or farmers recruited by London merchants, all originally destined for the Colony of Virginia. Four of this latter group of passengers were small children given into the care of Mayflower pilgrims as indentured servants. The Virginia Company began the transportation of children in 1618.[37] Until relatively recently, the children were thought to be orphans, foundlings, or involuntary child labor. At that time, children were routinely rounded up from the streets of London or taken from poor families receiving church relief to be used as laborers in the colonies. Any legal objections to the involuntary transportation of the children were over-ridden by the Privy Council.[38][39] In 1959, it was conclusively shown[40] that the four More children were sent to America because they were deemed illegitimate. Three of the four More children died in the first winter in the New World, but Richard lived to be approximately 81, dying in Salem, probably in 1695 or 1696.[41]

The passengers mostly slept and lived in the low-ceilinged great cabins and on the main deck, which was 75 by 20 (23 m × 6 m) at most. The cabins were thin-walled and extremely cramped, and the total area was 25 ft by 15 ft (7.6 m × 4.5 m) at its largest. Below decks, any person over five feet (150 cm) tall would be unable to stand up straight. The maximum possible space for each person would have been slightly less than the size of a standard single bed.[42]

Passengers would pass the time by reading by candlelight or playing cards and games such as Nine Men's Morris.[21] Meals on board were cooked by the firebox, which was an iron tray with sand in it on which a fire was built. This was risky because it was kept in the waist of the ship. Passengers made their own meals from rations that were issued daily and food was cooked for a group at a time.[42]

Upon arrival late in the year, the harsh climate and scarcity of fresh food caused many more deaths, and provisions were short due to the delay in departure. Living in these extremely close and crowded quarters, several passengers experienced scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of the essential nutrient vitamin C. There was no way to store fruits or vegetables without their becoming rotten, so many passengers did not receive enough nutrients in their diets. Passengers with scurvy experienced symptoms such as rotten teeth which would fall out, bleeding gums, and stinking breath.[43]

Passengers consumed large amounts of alcohol such as beer with meals which was known to be safer than water, which often came from polluted sources causing diseases. All food and drink was stored in barrels known as "hogsheads".[43]

William Mullins took 126 pairs of shoes and 13 pairs of boots. These clothes included oiled leather and canvas suits, stuff gowns and leather and stuff breeches, shirts, jerkins, doublets, neckcloths, hats and caps, hose, stockings, belts, piece goods, and haberdasherie. At his death, his estate consisted of extensive footwear and other items of clothing, and made his daughter Priscilla and her husband John Alden quite prosperous.[21][44][45]

No cattle or beasts of draft or burden were brought on the journey, but there were pigs, goats, and poultry. Some passengers brought family pets such as cats and birds. Peter Browne took his large bitch mastiff, and John Goodman brought along his spaniel.[21]

Mayflower officers, crew, and others

According to author Charles Banks, the officers and crew of the Mayflower consisted of a captain, four mates, four quartermasters, surgeon, carpenter, cooper, cooks, boatswains, gunners, and about 36 men before the mast, making a total of about 50. The entire crew stayed with the Mayflower in Plymouth through the winter of 1620–1621, and about half of them died during that time. The remaining crewmen returned to England on the Mayflower, which sailed for London on April 5, 1621.[46][47]

Crew members per various sources

Banks states that the crew totaled 36 men before the mast and 14 officers, making a total of 50. Nathaniel Philbrick estimates between 20 and 30 sailors in her crew whose names are unknown. Nick Bunker states that Mayflower had a crew of at least 17 and possibly as many as 30. Caleb Johnson states that the ship carried a crew of about 30 men, but the exact number is unknown.[2][48][49][50]

Officers and crew

  • Captain: Christopher Jones. About age 50, of Harwich, a seaport in Essex, England, which was also the port of his ship Mayflower. He and his ship were veterans of the European cargo business, often carrying wine to England, but neither had ever crossed the Atlantic. By June 1620, he and the Mayflower had been hired for the Pilgrims voyage by their business agents in London, Thomas Weston of the Merchant Adventurers and Robert Cushman.[51][52]
  • Masters Mate: John Clark (Clarke), Pilot. By age 45 in 1620, Clark already had greater adventures than most other mariners of that dangerous era. His piloting career began in England about 1609. In early 1611, he was pilot of a 300-ton ship on his first New World voyage, with a three-ship convoy sailing from London to the new settlement of Jamestown in Virginia. Two other ships were in that convoy, and the three ships brought 300 new settlers to Jamestown, going first to the Caribbean islands of Dominica and Nevis. While in Jamestown, Clark piloted ships in the area carrying various stores. During that time, he was taken prisoner in a confrontation with the Spanish; he was taken to Havana and held for two years, then transferred to Spain where he was in custody for five years. In 1616, he was finally freed in a prisoner exchange with England. In 1618, he was back in Jamestown as pilot of the ship Falcon. Shortly after his return to England, he was hired as pilot for the Mayflower in 1620.[49][53][54][55]
  • Masters Mate: Robert Coppin, Pilot. Coppin had prior New World experience; he previously hunted whales in Newfoundland and sailed the coast of New England.[49][53][56] He was an early investor in the Virginia Company, being named in the Second Virginia Charter of 1609. He was possibly from Harwich in Essex, the hometown of Captain Jones.
  • Masters Mate: Andrew Williamson
  • Masters Mate: John Parker[53]
  • Surgeon: Doctor Giles Heale. The surgeon on board the Mayflower was never mentioned by Bradford, but his identity was well established. He was essential in providing comfort to all who died or were made ill that first winter. He was a young man from Drury Lane in the parish of St. Giles in the Field, London who had completed his apprenticeship with the Barber-Surgeons in the previous year. On February 21, 1621, he was a witness to the death-bed will of William Mullins. He survived the first winter and returned to London on the Mayflower in April 1621, where he began his medical practice and worked as a surgeon until his death in 1653.[57][58][59]
  • Cooper: John Alden. Alden was a 21-year-old from Harwich in Essex and a distant relative of Captain Jones. He hired on apparently while the Mayflower was anchored at Southampton Waters. He was responsible for maintaining the ship's barrels, known as hogsheads, which were critical to the passengers' survival and held the only source of food and drink while at sea; tending them was a job which required a crew member's attention. Bradford noted that Alden was "left to his own liking to go or stay" in Plymouth rather than return with the ship to England. He decided to remain.[60][61]
  • Quartermaster: (names unknown), 4 men. These men were in charge of maintaining the ship's cargo hold, as well as the crew's hours for standing watch. Some of the "before the mast" crewmen may also have been in this section. These quartermasters were also responsible for fishing and maintaining all fishing supplies and harpoons. The names of the quartermasters are unknown, but it is known that three of the four men died the first winter.[53][55]
  • Cook: (name unknown). He was responsible for preparing the crew's meals and maintaining all food supplies and the cook room, which was typically located in the ship's forecastle (front end). The unnamed cook died the first winter.[62]
  • Master Gunner: (name unknown). He was in charge of the ship's guns, ammunition, and powder. Some of those "before the mast" were likely in his charge. He is recorded as going on an exploration on December 6, 1620, and was "sick unto death and so remained all that day, and the next night". He died later that winter.[63]
  • Boatswain: (name unknown). He was the person in charge of the ship's rigging and sails, the anchors, and the ship's longboat. The majority of the crew members "before the mast" were most likely under his supervision, working the sails and rigging. The operation of the ship's shallop was also probably under his control, a light open boat with oars or sails (see seaman Thomas English). William Bradford made this comment about the boatswain: "the boatswain... was a proud young man, who would often curse and scoff at the passengers, but when he grew weak they had compassion on him and helped him." But despite such assistance, the unnamed boatswain died the first winter.[62]
  • Carpenter: (name unknown). He was responsible for making sure that the hull was well-caulked and the masts were in good order. He was the person responsible for maintaining all areas of the ship in good condition and being a general repairman. He also maintained the tools and all necessary items to perform his carpentry tasks. His name is unknown, but his tasks were quite important to the safety and seaworthiness of the ship.[53][64]
  • Swabber: (various crewmen). This was the lowliest position on the ship, responsible for cleaning (swabbing) the decks. The swabber usually had an assistant who was responsible for cleaning the ship's beakhead (extreme front end), which was also the crew's toilet.[65]

Known Mayflower seamen

  • John Allerton: A Mayflower seaman who was hired by the company as labor to help in the Colony during the first year, then to return to Leiden to help other church members seeking to travel to America. He signed the Mayflower Compact. He was a seaman on ship's shallop with Thomas English on exploration of December 6, 1620, and died sometime before the Mayflower returned to England in April 1621.[66][67]
  • ____ Ely: A Mayflower seaman who was contracted to stay for a year, which he did. He returned to England with fellow crewman William Trevor on the Fortune in December 1621. Genealogist Dr. Jeremy Bangs believes that his name was either John or Christopher Ely (or Ellis), both of whom are documented in Leiden, Holland.[68]
  • Thomas English: A Mayflower seaman who was hired to be the master of the shallop (see Boatswain) and to be part of the company. He signed the Mayflower Compact. He was a seaman on the ship's shallop with John Allerton on exploration of December 6, 1620, and died sometime before the departure of the Mayflower for England in April 1621. He appeared in Leiden records as "Thomas England".[69][70]
  • William Trevore (Trevor): A Mayflower seaman who was hired to remain in Plymouth for one year. One reason for his hiring was his prior New World experience. He was one of those seamen to crew the shallop used in coastal trading. He returned to England with _____ Ely and others on the Fortune in December 1621. In 1623, Robert Cushman noted that Trevor reported to the Adventurers about what he saw in the New World. He did at some time return as master of a ship and was recorded living in Massachusetts Bay Colony in April 1650.[71][72][73]

Unidentified passenger

  • "Master" Leaver: Another passenger not mentioned by Bradford is a person called "Master" Leaver. He was named in Mourt's Relation, London 1622, under a date of January 12, 1621 as a leader of an expedition to rescue Pilgrims lost in the forest for several days while searching for housing-roof thatch. It is unknown in what capacity he came to the Mayflower and his given name is unknown. The title of "Master" indicates that he was a person of some authority and prominence in the company. He may have been a principal officer of the Mayflower. No more is known of him; he may have returned to England on the Mayflower's April 1621 voyage or died of the illnesses that affected so many that first winter.[74]

Later history

Three of Mayflower's owners applied to the Admiralty court for an appraisal of the ship on May 4, 1624, two years after Captain Jones' death in 1622; one of these applicants was Jones' widow Mrs. Josian (Joan) Jones. This appraisal probably was made to determine the valuation of the ship for the purpose of settling the estate of its late master. The appraisal was made by four mariners and shipwrights of Rotherhithe, home and burial place of Captain Jones, where the Mayflower was apparently then lying in the Thames at London. The appraisement is extant and provides information on ship's gear on board at that time, as well as equipment such as muskets and other arms. The ship may have been laid up since Jones' death and allowed to get out of repair, as that is what the appraisal indicates.[14][75] The vessel was valued at one hundred and twenty-eight pounds, eight shillings, and fourpence.[76]

What finally became of the Mayflower is an unsettled issue. Charles Edward Banks, an English historian of the Pilgrim ship, claims that the ship was finally broken up, with her timbers used in the construction of a barn at Jordans village in Buckinghamshire. Tradition claims that this barn still exists as the Mayflower Barn, located within the grounds of Old Jordan in South Buckinghamshire. In 1624, Thomas Russell supposedly added to part of a farmhouse already there with timbers from a ship, believed to be from the Pilgrim ship Mayflower, bought from a shipbreaker's yard in Rotherhithe. The well-preserved structure was a tourist attraction, receiving visitors each year from all over the world and particularly from America, but it is now privately owned and not open to the public.[14]

Second Mayflower

Another ship called the Mayflower made a voyage from London to Plymouth Colony in 1629 carrying 35 passengers, many from the Pilgrim congregation in Leiden that organized the first voyage. This was not the same ship that made the original voyage with the first settlers. This voyage began in May and reached Plymouth in August. This ship also made the crossing from England to America in 1630 (as part of the Winthrop Fleet), 1633, 1634, and 1639. It attempted the trip again in 1641, departing London in October of that year under master John Cole, with 140 passengers bound for Virginia. It never arrived. On October 18, 1642, a deposition was made in England regarding the loss.[77]

Place in history

The Pilgrim ship Mayflower has a famous place in American history as a symbol of early European colonization of the future United States.[78]

The main record for the voyage of the Mayflower and the disposition of the Plymouth Colony comes from the letters and journal of William Bradford, who was a guiding force and later the governor of the colony.

The 400th anniversary of the Mayflower sailing will take place in 2020. The Harwich Mayflower Project is hoping to build a replica of the ship at Harwich, England.[79]

See also

References

  1. ^ Folsom, George. et al. Historical Magazine: and Notes and Queries Concerning the Antiquities, History, and Biography of America. (C. B. Richardson, 1867) page 277
  2. ^ a b Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers (Indiana: Xlibris Corp., 2006), p. 33
  3. ^ Bertrand Brown, 'To Celebrate the 300th Anniversary of America's Origin', The Journal of Education", Vol. 92, No. 6 (Trustees of Boston University, August 1920), p. 151
  4. ^ a b Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War (Penguin Books 2006), p. 24
  5. ^ a b c Nick Bunker, Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and their New World a History (New York: Knopf 2010), p. 37
  6. ^ a b Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers (Indiana: Xlibris Corp., 2006), p. 30
  7. ^ "Cross-Section". MayflowerHistory.com. 
  8. ^ a b Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers (Indiana: Xlibris Corp., 2006), p. 31
  9. ^ a b c "MayflowerHistory.com". 
  10. ^ a b Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers (Indiana: Xlibris Corp., 2006), pp. 30, 31
  11. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623 (orig. pub: 1929, reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 19
  12. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623 (orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 17.
  13. ^ "The Mayflower". HISTORY.com. 
  14. ^ a b c d Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623 (orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 22
  15. ^ R. G. Marsden, "The Mayflower", English Historical Review (19 October 1904), p. 675
  16. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 28
  17. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623, (orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), pp. 17–19
  18. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 29
  19. ^ John Boulden (2013). "Newlyn was last port for Mayflower". The Herald. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  20. ^ "Tregwary Cottage: Some "interesting" facts about Newlyn". tregwarycottage.co.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Hodgson, Godfrey. A Great and Godly Adventure. Public Affairs: New York, 2006
  22. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 4
  23. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620–1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 413
  24. ^ Bjoern Moritz, The Pilgrim-Fathers' Voyage with the Mayflower (ShipsOnStamps 2003) [1]
  25. ^ William Bradford. History of Plymouth Plantation by William Bradford, the second Governor of Plymouth (Boston. 1856 Not in copyright) p. 448
  26. ^ George Ernest Bowman, The Mayflower Compact and its signers, (Boston: Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1920). Photocopies of the 1622, 1646 and 1669 versions of the document pp. 7–19.
  27. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), pp. 65–66
  28. ^ Philbrick, pp. 61–62
  29. ^ Winslow, Edward; William Bradford (1622). A Relation or Journal of the Beginning and Proceedings of the English Plantation Settled at Plimoth in New England. London, England: John Bellamie. pp. 8–10. 
  30. ^ Philbrick, pp. 65–70
  31. ^ William Bradford, William T. Davis (ed), Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606–1646, (Scribners 1908) p. 25 (the only written account of the voyage)
  32. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), pp. 90–91
  33. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 91
  34. ^ John Harris, Saga Of The Pilgrims(historical analysis), (Globe Newspaper Co., 1983), webpages (no links between): UCcom-saga1 and UCcom-saga11
  35. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), pp. 100–101
  36. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 101
  37. ^ Donald F. Harris, PhD., The Mayflower Descendant (July 1994) vol. 44 no. 2 p. 111
  38. ^ R.C. Johnson, The Transportation of Vagrant Children from London to Virginia, 1618–1622, in H.S. Reinmuth (Ed.), Early Stuart Studies: Essays in Honor of David Harris Willson, Minneapolis, 1970.
  39. ^ The Mayflower Descendant (July 2, 1994) vol. 44 no. 2 pp. 110, 111
  40. ^ Donald F. Harris, PhD., The Mayflower Descendants. vol 43 (July 1993), vol. 44 (July 1994.
  41. ^ David Lindsay, Mayflower Bastard: A Stranger amongst the Pilgrims (St. Martins Press, New York, 2002) Introduction
  42. ^ a b Caffrey, Kate. The Mayflower. New York: Stein and Day, 1974
  43. ^ a b Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War, (Viking 2006).
  44. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers (Indiana: Xlibris Corp., 2006), p. 195
  45. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English ancestry and homes of the Pilgrim Fathers who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2006), pp. 73–74
  46. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 18
  47. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620–1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 21
  48. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623,(orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), pp. 18–19
  49. ^ a b c Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A story of Courage, Community and War (New York:Viking, 2006), p. 25
  50. ^ Nick Bunker, Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and their New World a History (New York: Knopf 2010), p. 31
  51. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 19–20
  52. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006) pp. 25, 28, 31
  53. ^ a b c d e Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 19
  54. ^ Nick Bunker, Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and their New World a History (New York: Knopf 2010), p. 24
  55. ^ a b Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), pp. 32–33
  56. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 32
  57. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A story of Courage, Community and War (New York:Viking, 2006), p. 24
  58. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), pp. 33–34
  59. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 7–8, 19
  60. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. p. 34, 46
  61. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 7, 19. 27–28
  62. ^ a b Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 35
  63. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 34
  64. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), pp. 34–35
  65. ^ In the tradition of the sea, each Monday a crew member was appointed the "liar" or swabber assistant. This person was the first person caught telling a lie the previous week, and the crew would harass him around the main mast with calls of "liar, liar." (Johnson p. 35)
  66. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), pp. 71–72, 141
  67. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620–1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) pp. 21, 234
  68. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620–1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) pp. 21, 289
  69. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), p. 141
  70. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620–1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 289
  71. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 90
  72. ^ Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and her passengers (Indiana:Xlibris Corp., Caleb Johnson, 2006), pp. 240–242
  73. ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620–1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) pp. 21, 364
  74. ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) pp. 8–9
  75. ^ R. G. Marsden, The Mayflower English Historical Review (19 October 1904), p. 677
  76. ^ Kate Caffrey, The Mayflower Rowman & Littlefield Publishers; Reissue edition (October 18, 2014), p. 324
  77. ^ Pierson, RichardE.; Pierson, Jennifer (1997). Pierson Millennium. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, Inc. ISBN 0-7884-0742-2. 
  78. ^ Philbrick, pp. 4–5
  79. ^ "Ship Build". Harwich Mayflower Project. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 

Further reading

  • Bradford, William (1908). Davis, William T., ed. Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606–1646. Scribners.  (the only written account of the voyage)
  • Marble, Annie Russell (1920). The Women Who Came in the Mayflower. Boston: Pilgrim Press
  • R. G. Marsden, "The 'Mayflower,'" English Historical Review 19 (October 1904): 669–80.
  • Philbrick, Nathaniel (2006). Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War. Viking. ISBN 0-670-03760-5. 
  • Usher, Roland G (1984). The Pilgrims and their History. Williamstown, Massachusetts: Corner House Publishers. ISBN 0-87928-082-4.  (originally published in 1918)

External links