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Mathabar Singh Thapa About this soundlisten  (Nepali: माथवरसिंह थापा, born 1798, Borlang, Gorkha - 17 May 1845, Basantapur, Kathmandu), also spelled Mathbar, Mathawar, Mathavar[1], variantly called Matabar Singh Thapa (Nepali: मातवरसिंह थापा)[2], was the Prime Minister of Nepal and the Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese Army from 1843 December 25 – 1845 May 17, until he was murdered by his nephew Jung Bahadur Rana. He was the first Mukhtiyar[note 1] to title himself as a Prime Minister, as per the British convention.[3][note 2] He was the nephew of Bhimsen Thapa, who was falsely sentenced for imprisonment for the death of King Rajendra's six months old son. Mathabar Singh Thapa fled to Shimla[4] after the execution of Bhimsen Thapa, to avoid his own execution as he was Bhimsen's nephew. Four years later, the second queen of Rajendra, Queen Rajya Lakshmi, called him back and installed him as the Mukhtiyar, paving the way for him to eventually title himself as the Prime Minister.. Mathabar Singh, however, enraged the queen by refusing to make her son, Ranendra Bikram, the king. The queen, in turn, had him shot by his own nephew Janga Bahadur Rana and thereby making him the last dynast of the Thapa dynasty.

Mukhtiyar General

Mathabar Singh Thapa

मुख्तियार जनरल
माथवरसिंह थापा
बहादुर
Mathabar Singh Thapa portrait.jpg
First Nepalese Head of Government with title Prime Minister and crown, Mathavar Singh Thapa
7th Mukhtiyar and First Prime Minister of Nepal
In office
November 1843 A.D. – 17 May 1845 A.D.
Preceded byFateh Jung Shah as Mukhtiyar
Succeeded byFateh Jung Shah
Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese Army
In office
November 1843 A.D. – 17 May 1845 A.D.
Preceded byRana Jang Pande
Succeeded byJang Bahadur Kunwar
Personal details
Born1798 A.D.
Borlang, Gorkha
Died17 May 1845 A.D. (aged 47)
Hanuman Dhoka Palace, Kathmandu
Childrensee below
MotherRana Kumari Pande
FatherNain Singh Thapa
Relativessee Thapa family; see Pande dynasty; see Rana dynasty; see Kunwar family
ResidenceThapathali Durbar
Bagh Durbar
Military service
Nickname(s)Kala Bahadur (Mister Artist)
Allegiance Kingdom of Nepal
Branch/serviceNepal Army
RankColonel (Nepali convention) (1831-1837)
General & Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese Army (1843-1845)
UnitSingha Nath Battalion (Battalion Commander)
CommandsCommander-In-Chief of the Nepalese Army
Battles/warsAnglo-Nepalese War as soldier

Contents

BirthEdit

Not much is known of Mathabar Singh Thapa's childhood. He was born in Borlang, Gorkha. He was the son of Kaji Nayan Singh Thapa who was killed in the war against the Kingdom of Kumaon. He was a nephew of Bhimsen Thapa and also the maternal uncle of Jang Bahadur Rana.[5] Through his mother's side, he was the grandson of Kaji Ranajit Pande, who was the son of Kaji Tularam Pande.[5] Kaji Tularam Pande was a cousin of Kaji Kalu Pande.

Early yearsEdit

 
Portrait of Colonel Mathabar Singh Thapa (1831)

Failed mission to BritainEdit

A royal letter was received from the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, ruler of Sikh Empire in Punjab, addressed to King Rajendra. The Nepalese court seized this opportunity to establish diplomatic contact with Punjab as well as other states such as Burma and Gwalior.[6] In April 1835, Bhimsen Thapa, hoping to force Britain to acknowledge the sovereignty of Nepal, chose his nephew Colonel Mathabar Singh Thapa as the representative of Nepal, bearing a few gifts and a letter from King Rajendra addressed to King William IV.[7][8][9] The idea was initially received favorably by Brian Houghton Hodgson as well as the Governor-General, who hoped that the mission could increase the trust between the two nations.[8] In this process, Mathabar Singh was promoted to Chota General; Ranbir Singh Thapa, the governor of Palpa, was made Full General; and Mathabar's nephew, the sixteen-year-old Sherjung Thapa, was made Commanding Colonel.[9] Both Rajendra and Samrajya Laxmi were also pleased with this plan, and on 1 November 1835, Bhimsen was conferred the title of Commander-in-Chief.[10][7] On 27 November 1835, Mathabar Singh left Kathmandu with a retinue of two thousand men, including 200 officers and 600 soldiers, for London via Calcutta.[10][11]

Mathabar was given a grand welcome in Calcutta by the acting Governor-General Charles Metcalfe; and while there, Mathabar started to indulge in needless luxuries and show offs.[12] Meanwhile, Hodgson sent a secret letter to Metcalfe asking him not to allow Mathabar to make a state visit to Britain.[13] Hence, Metcalfe was only willing to grant him the visa of an ordinary traveler, and not the diplomatic visa of a state representative. Mathabar thus returned to Nepal in March 1836, having wasted a vast sum of money, without accomplishing any of his goals.[7][13] The deliberate sabotage of Mathabar's mission was Hodgson's diplomatic attack against Bhimsen.[11][13] Mathabar Singh spent a sum of one lakh and fifty thousand in Calcutta on the fruitless mission.[14] Mathabar's extravagant expenditure was also heavily criticized by Queen Samrajya Lakshmi Devi, since at that time the state coffer was in dire condition; and to pacify her, Bhimsen had to reimburse the extra expenses from his own pockets.[15]

Poisoning CaseEdit

On 24 July 1837, Rajendra's youngest son, Devendra Bikram Shah, an infant of six months, died suddenly.[16][17] It was at once rumored that the child had died of poison intended for his mother the Senior Queen Samrajya Laxmi Devi: given at the instigation of Bhimsen Thapa, or someone of his party.[17][18][19] On this charge, Mathbar Singh with his family, the court physicians, Ekdev and Eksurya Upadhyay, and his deputy Bhajuman Baidya, with a few more of the nearest relatives of the Thapas were incarcerated, proclaimed outcasts, and their properties confiscated.[17][18][20][21]

Acquittal & ReleaseEdit

Fearful that the Pandes would re-establish their power, Fatte Jang Shah, Ranganath Poudel, and the Junior Queen Rajya Laxmi Devi obtained from the King the liberation of Bhimsen, Mathabar, and the rest of the party, about eight months after they were incarcerated for the poisoning case.[22][23][24] Some of their confiscated land, as well as the Bagh Durbar, was also returned. Upon his release, the soldiers loyal to Bhimsen crowded behind him in jubilation and followed him up to his house; a similar treatment was given to Mathabar Singh and Sherjung Thapa.[25]

Exile to IndiaEdit

In January 1838, King Rajendra of Nepal promoted Rana Jang Pande to the post of Commander in the armed force and his brother Karbir Pande as Kapardar ("Palace Chief Guard"). As a result, almost one hundred officers and soldiers resigned from the Singha Nath Battalion, openly calling themselves as the private followers of Mathawar Singh which showcased the popularity of Mathawar Singh in the military forces.[26] Around October 1838, Ranganath Poudel, finding himself unsupported by the King, resigned from the Mukhtiyari, which was then conferred on Pushkar Shah; but Pushkar Shah was only a nominal head, and the actual authority was bestowed on Ranjang Pande.[27] Sensing that a catastrophe was going to befall the Thapas, Mathabar Singh fled to India while pretending to go on a hunting trip.[24][28]

Rise to PowerEdit

 
Portrait of Mathabar Singh Thapa in National Museum of Nepal, Chhauni

Mathabar Singh Thapa had exiled to India when Bhimsen Thapa was maliciously accused to be guilty of murdering the King Rajendra's son who was 6 months old. After assigning administrative authority to Junior Queen Rajya Laxmi Devi by King Rajendra Bikram Shah in January 1843, she immediately asked Mathabar Singh to return to Nepal, to which Mathabar Singh left Shimla to stop at Gorakhpur for detailed study of political situation of Nepal.[29] Mathabar Singh's nephew Kaji Jung Bahadur Kunwar was sent to persuade his uncle after which he arrived in Kathmandu Valley in April 1843.[29] Historian Balchandra Sharma writes that Mathabar Singh arrived on 17 April 1843 where a great welcome was organized for him.[30] Mathawar Singh living in a public rest house, constantly urged that he would not enter his residence in Kathmandu until the framed charges against his family be released.[29] In July 1843, the case was re-discussed at the Bharadari Sabha (Council) in front of King Rajendra and Queen Rajya Laxmi, where Thapa family were declared innocent and their confiscated properties were restored.[29] It was also declared that the poisoning case was framed by the Kala Pandes. Mathawar Singh poisoned the already insane Rana Jang Pande after publicly disgracing him.[29] He also ordered the death penalty to two brothers of Rana Jang and four other persons which included Devi Bahadur Kunwar.[29] In the event, Kulachandra Shah was banished while Krishna Ram Mishra was exiled. The properties the above-mentioned persons together with other 40 persons who fled the event were confiscated.[29]

In November 1843, Mathabar Singh became Mukhtiyar as well as Minister and Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese Army[29] by the second queen of Rajendra, Queen Rajya Laxmi who had ambitions of making her own son, Prince Ranendra as the king of Nepal, with Mathabar Singh's help.[31] Though he was declared Mukhtiyar and as well as Minister and Commander-In-Chief in November 1843, his appointment letter was issued only on Aswin Badi 7, 1901 (i.e. September 1844):

From King Rajendra,
To Mathbar Singh Thapa Bahadur, son of Nain Singh Thapa, grandson of Ambar Singh Thapa, resident of Gorkha.


We hereby appoint you as Mukhtiyar of all civil and administrative affairs throughout our country, as well as Prime Minister, Commander-In-Chief and General with Jagir emoluments amounting to Rs 12,401. Remain in attendance during the war and other occasions as commanded by us, be faithful to our salt and utilize the following lands and revenues as your Jagir with due loyalty.
(Particulars of lands and revenue follow).
Aswin Badi 7, 1901
(September 1844)

 — Appointment of Mathbar Singh Thapa as Prime Minister by Baburam Acharya[32]

Consolidation of PowerEdit

 
Thapa Kaji Mathabar Singh's painting from the Prime Minister's office

Before he was made the Minister and the Commander-In-Chief, he had led to the murder of almost all of his enemies and political adversaries. Having seen the fall of Bhimsen Thapa, he believed that having a personal army would prevent his own downfall; so he founded three regiments dedicated to him and only him. He built army barracks around his house for his personal protection. For this, he used the army like slaves, prompting the British Resident Minister Sir Henry Lawrence to advise him not to do so.[33] However, too over-confident in his power, Mathabar Singh Thapa ignored him. He even claimed that he would be the first Prime Minister since the time of Prithvi Narayan Shah to die of old age and not out of the conspiracy. In 1845 January 4, he declared himself as the "Prime Minister of Nepal". This was the first time anyone had been titled "Prime Minister" in the history of Nepal. All the others before him were either titled as Mukhtiyar or Mul Kajis. It is believed that at that time he had become even more powerful than the King of Nepal. His power and over-influence in the Nepalese politics and even in the personal life of the monarchy itself led to the eclipse of his power and his downfall by the hands of Jang Bahadur Rana.

DownfallEdit

When Mathabar Singh Thapa declined the Queen's request to help her make her own son king, the Queen joined those against him and plotted his downfall. But just to appease him, he was provided the title of "Prime Minister" while conspiracy to murder him was going on behind. Finally, when all the preparations for his murder were made, he was called to the Royal Palace at night, informing him incorrectly, that the Queen had been ill from some disease. Though he was warned by his own son, and his mother, he went to the palace. When he was sleeping Jang Bahadur was hiding under his bed. He was shot multiple times on his back from under the bed by Jang Bahadur Rana where he immediately died. The next day King Rajendra declared that he had himself killed Mathabar Singh Thapa accusing him of several activities that he had done to undermine his own (Rajendra's) power.[34]

AftermathEdit

The murder of Mathabar Singh Thapa led to the political instability in Nepal. Though, Fatte Jung Shah was declared the Prime Minister (1845 September 23), Gagan Singh had more regiments (7) of the army under him and was more powerful. Jung Bahadur Rana also had 3 regiments under him. Fatte Jungh Shah himself had 3 regiments of the army under his control. Also Gagan Singh had the special support of the queen Rajya Laxmi Devi. British Resident Sir Henry Lawrence once mentioned that, "If there is struggle for power, that struggle will be between Gagan Singh and Jung Bahadur."[35] Ultimately, the extreme power of Gagan Singh led to him being assassinated by King Rajendra and Prime minister Fatte Jungh Shah in 1846 September 14 at 10 P.M.. The assassination of Gagan Singh led to the Kot massacre and ultimately, the rise of Jung Bahadur Rana.

LegacyEdit

Mathabarsingh Thapa was the first prime minister of Nepal to wear a crown. The 104 year-ruling Rana Dynasty was also related to him.

FamilyEdit

He had following sons as per various sources:

Land GrantsEdit

The land grants received by Mathbar Singh Thapa on various dates were[39]:

Number Particulars Location Area (muris/bighas) Estimated Income (NRs.)[note 3] Granted Date (V.S.)
1 Residential site Ganabahal, Kathmandu 194.25 muris 194.25 Shrawan Sudi 8, 1882
2 Rice fields Lubhu, Patan 261.25 muris 440.81 Shrawan Sudi 8, 1882
3 Rice fields granted for endowment as Guthi for the Sri Bhagawati temple Madi, Palpa 200.00 muris 50.00 Kartik Badi 3 , 1891
4 Land granted as Guthi for the Sri Bhimeshwar teemple Palpa not given 62.50 Falgun Badi 4 , 1900
5 Bartung village in Palpa, granted for endowment as

Guthi for the Sri Ambar Narayan temple

Bartung village, Palpa not given 50.00 Falgun Badi 4, 1900
6 Waste lands adjoining Prime Minister Mathbar Singh Thapa's gardens Sundhara, Kathmandu 41 muris 4.00 Baisakh Badi 7, 1901
7 Cultivated lands in the Parganna of Koradi Aurahi, Mahottari 200 bighas 1113.11 Shrawan Badi 3, 1901
8 Rice-fields in Bhadgaun Bhaktapur, Bhaktapur district 680 muris 967.31 Shrawan Badi 3, 1901
9 Villages of Sanupalati, Thulopalati, Kipchya, Jharlang, Sindhu, Tabe and Aginchok Various not given 4,062.77 Shrawan Badi 3, 1901
10 Rice-fields granted for endowment as Guthi for the Sri Bhimamukteshwar temple Various (Kathmandu, Kirtipur, Godavari) 1300 muris 1300 Shrawan Sudi 3, 1901
11 Lands in Mahottari Mahottari 6501 bighas 26,004.00 Poush Sudi 5, 1901
12 Thums at Chaurasi, Palanchok and various others various not given 4,281.00+1619.25+599.75 Poush Sudi 5, 1901
13 Lands in Saptari and Bara districts Saptari and Bara district 9,001 bighas 36,004.00 Falgun Badi 6, 1901
14 Lands in Rautahat and Bara districts Rautahat and Bara district 9,644 bighas 38,576.00 Falgun Sudi 1, 1901
15 Sikarbesi village Sikarbesi, Nuwakot district not given 35.00 Chaitra Sudi 10, 1901
16 Lands granted as Birta for use as orchard Tokhal and Sunthan 121.5 muris 1,121.50 Chaitra Sudi 10, 1901
17 Lands granted for endowment as Guthi Kirtipur, Chobhar and Patan 1000 muris 1,000.00 not given

AncestryEdit

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Mukhtiyar is translated as Chief Authority and was roughly equivalent to a Prime Minister or Head of Government.
  2. ^ His coronation of Premiership was the first in Nepal thereby making him the First Prime Minister and Commander-in-chief of Nepal as many of his predecessors bore the same position but not the title.
  3. ^ The figure in the journal shows Rs./Aana as used in ancient monetary measurements in Nepal. 1 Aana was equivalent to ​116th of Nepalese Rupee. Similar to Indian Anna.[40]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ D.R. Regmi 1970, p. 607.
  2. ^ Hasrat 1970, p. 296.
  3. ^ Kandel 2011, p. 10.
  4. ^ Acharya, Baburam (2057 B.S.) (2000). Aba Yesto Kailei Nahos. Sajha Prakashan.
  5. ^ a b JBR, PurushottamShamsher (1990). Shree Teen Haruko Tathya Britanta (in Nepali). Bhotahity, Kathmandu: Vidarthi Pustak Bhandar. ISBN 99933-39-91-1.
  6. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 152.
  7. ^ a b c Nepal 2007, p. 104.
  8. ^ a b Rana 1988, p. 18.
  9. ^ a b Acharya 2012, pp. 152–153.
  10. ^ a b Acharya 2012, p. 153.
  11. ^ a b Rana 1988, p. 19.
  12. ^ Acharya 2012, pp. 153–154.
  13. ^ a b c Acharya 2012, p. 154.
  14. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 150.
  15. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 156.
  16. ^ Acharya 2012, p. 158.
  17. ^ a b c Nepal 2007, p. 105.
  18. ^ a b Acharya 2012, p. 159.
  19. ^ Whelpton 2004, pp. 28–29.
  20. ^ Acharya 1971, p. 13.
  21. ^ Oldfield 1880, p. 310.
  22. ^ Oldfield 1880, p. 311.
  23. ^ Nepal 2007, p. 109.
  24. ^ a b Acharya 2012, p. 161.
  25. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 164.
  26. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 165.
  27. ^ Oldfield 1880, p. 313.
  28. ^ Nepal 2007, p. 110.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Acharya 1971, p. 17.
  30. ^ Sharma, Balchandra (2033 B.S.). Nepal ko Aitehasik Rooprekha. Varanasi: Krishna Kumari Devi. p. 295. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  31. ^ Acharya 1971, p. 18.
  32. ^ Acharya 1971, p. 24.
  33. ^ Indo-Nepalese Relations: 1816 to 1877. Delhi: S. Chand and Co. 1968. p. 228.
  34. ^ Acharya, Baburam (2057 B.S.). Aba Esto Kailei Nahos. Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  35. ^ Edwards, Herbert (1873). Life of Sir Henry Lawrence, Part II. London: Smith Elder and Co. p. 470.
  36. ^ Shrestha, Shree Krishna (1996) "Jangabahadura; Kathmandu
  37. ^ Shaha, R. (1990). 1769-1885. Manohar. ISBN 9788185425030. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
  38. ^ a b Regmi 1976, p. 99.
  39. ^ Regmi 1976, pp. 46-49.
  40. ^ "Republic India Coinage".Accessed 14 July 2011.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit