Manis is a genus of South Asian and East Asian pangolins, the Asiatic pangolins, from subfamily Maninae, within family Manidae.[5][6]

Asiatic pangolin
Temporal range: 12.9–0 Ma Middle Miocene - present[1]
Living pangolins from genus Manis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Pholidota
Family: Manidae
Subfamily: Maninae
Gray, 1821
Genus: Manis
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Manis pentadactyla
Linnaeus, 1758
Manis ranges.png
synonyms of subfamily:
  • Mania
  • Manidae (Gray, 1821)
  • Manina (Gray, 1825)[4]
  • Pholidotina (Gray, 1873)
synonyms of genus:
  • Pangolin (Gray, 1873)
  • Pangolinus (Rafinesque, 1821)
  • Paramanis (Pocock, 1924)
  • Phatages (Sundevall, 1843)
  • Phatagenus (Sundevall, 1843)
  • Pholidotus (Brisson, 1762)
  • Quaggelo (Frisch, 1775)


Carl Linnaeus (1758) invented the Neo-Latin generic name Manis apparently as a feminine singular form of the Latin masculine plural Manes, the Ancient Roman name for a type of spirit, after the animal's strange appearance.[7]



Phylogenetic position of genus Manis within family Manidae.[8][9][1]






†Pholidota sp. (BC 16’08)










Smutsiinae (sensu stricto)  

 sensu lato 

Manidae sp. (DPC 3972 & DPC 4364)


Manis pentadactyla


Manis hungarica

Manis crassicaudata  


Manis lydekkeri


Manis sp. (Scale_H4 & Scale_H8)

Manis culionensis

Manis javanica  


Manis palaeojavanica

 sensu stricto 
 (Pholidota sensu lato) 


  1. ^ a b Philippe Gaubert, Agostinho Antunes, Hao Meng, Lin Miao, Stéphane Peigné, Fabienne Justy, Flobert Njiokou, Sylvain Dufour, Emmanuel Danquah, Jayanthi Alahakoon, Erik Verheyen, William T Stanley, Stephen J O’Brien, Warren E Johnson, Shu-Jin Luo (2018) "The Complete Phylogeny of Pangolins: Scaling Up Resources for the Molecular Tracing of the Most Trafficked Mammals on Earth" Journal of Heredity, Volume 109, Issue 4, Pages 347–359
  2. ^ Palmer, Theodore Sherman (1904). Index Generum Mammalium: A List of the Genera and Families of Mammals. U. S. Government Printing Office. p. 822.
  3. ^ "Taxonomic history of the genus Manis". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
  4. ^ J. E. Gray. (1825.) "An outline of an attempt at the disposition of Mammalia into Tribes and Families, with a list of genera apparently appertaining to each Tribe." Annals of Philosophy, new series 10:337-344
  5. ^ "Oldstyle id: d36852dde74a91d7c965591b175947ec". Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.
  6. ^ Schlitter, D.A. (2005). "Order Pholidota". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 530–531. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  7. ^ "ITIS Report Manis Linnaeus, 1758". Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  8. ^ Gaudin, Timothy (2009). "The Phylogeny of Living and Extinct Pangolins (Mammalia, Pholidota) and Associated Taxa: A Morphology Based Analysis" (PDF). Journal of Mammalian Evolution. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Science+Business Media. 16 (4): 235–305. doi:10.1007/s10914-009-9119-9. S2CID 1773698.
  9. ^ Kondrashov, Peter; Agadjanian, Alexandre K. (2012). "A nearly complete skeleton of Ernanodon (Mammalia, Palaeanodonta) from Mongolia: morphofunctional analysis". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 32 (5): 983–1001. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.694319. ISSN 0272-4634. S2CID 86059673.