Manidae is the only extant family of pangolins from superfamily Manoidea.[5] This family comprises three genera (Manis from subfamily Maninae, Phataginus from subfamily Phatagininae, and Smutsia from subfamily Smutsiinae),[1] as well as extinct Fayum pangolin.[6]

Temporal range: 37.9–0 Ma Late Eocene - present[1]
Living speacies of pangolins
CITES Appendix I (CITES)[3]
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Clade: Pholidotamorpha
Order: Pholidota
Suborder: Eupholidota
Superfamily: Manoidea
Family: Manidae
Gray, 1821[2]
Type genus
Minus ranges.png
Species ranges:
list of synonyms:
  • Manida (Kalandadze & Rautian, 1992)
  • Manididae (Gray, 1865)
  • Manina (Gray, 1825)[4]
  • Manisia (Rafinesque, 1815)
  • Perilepia (Rafinesque, 1815)

Classification and phylogenyEdit

History of classificationEdit

All species of living pangolin had been assigned to the genus Manis until the late 2000s, when research prompted the splitting of extant pangolins into three genera: Manis, Phataginus, and Smutsia.[5][7]



Phylogenetic position of family Manidae within superfamily Manoidea.[5][7][8][9][1]






†Pholidota sp. (BC 16’08)









Manis culionensis

Manis javanica  


Manis palaeojavanica


Manis sp. (Scale_H4 & Scale_H8)


Manis lydekkeri

Manis crassicaudata  


Manis hungarica

Manis pentadactyla


Manidае sp. (DPC 3972 & DPC 4364)


Phataginus tetradactyla  

Phataginus tricuspis  


Smutsia gigantea  

Smutsia sp. (Olteţ River Valley, Romania)

Smutsia temminckii  

 sensu stricto 
 sensu lato 
 sensu stricto 
 (Pholidota sensu lato) 


  1. ^ a b c Philippe Gaubert, Agostinho Antunes, Hao Meng, Lin Miao, Stéphane Peigné, Fabienne Justy, Flobert Njiokou, Sylvain Dufour, Emmanuel Danquah, Jayanthi Alahakoon, Erik Verheyen, William T Stanley, Stephen J O’Brien, Warren E Johnson, Shu-Jin Luo (2018) "The Complete Phylogeny of Pangolins: Scaling Up Resources for the Molecular Tracing of the Most Trafficked Mammals on Earth" Journal of Heredity, Volume 109, Issue 4, Pages 347–359
  2. ^ J. E. Gray. (1821.) "On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals." The London Medical Repository Monthly Journal and Review 15:296-310
  3. ^ "The CITES Appendices". Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. CITES. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  4. ^ J. E. Gray. (1825.) "An outline of an attempt at the disposition of Mammalia into Tribes and Families, with a list of genera apparently appertaining to each Tribe." Annals of Philosophy, new series 10:337-344
  5. ^ a b c Gaudin, Timothy (2009). "The Phylogeny of Living and Extinct Pangolins (Mammalia, Pholidota) and Associated Taxa: A Morphology Based Analysis" (PDF). Journal of Mammalian Evolution. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Science+Business Media. 16 (4): 235–305. doi:10.1007/s10914-009-9119-9. S2CID 1773698.
  6. ^ Daniel Gebo, D. Tab Rasmussen (1985.) "The Earliest Fossil Pangolin (Pholidota: Manidae) from Africa" Journal of Mammalogy 66(3):538
  7. ^ a b Kondrashov, Peter; Agadjanian, Alexandre K. (2012). "A nearly complete skeleton of Ernanodon (Mammalia, Palaeanodonta) from Mongolia: morphofunctional analysis". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 32 (5): 983–1001. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.694319. ISSN 0272-4634. S2CID 86059673.
  8. ^ Du Toit, Z.; Grobler, J. P.; Kotzé, A.; Jansen, R.; Brettschneider, H.; Dalton, D. L. (2014). "The complete mitochondrial genome of Temminck's ground pangolin (Smutsia temminckii; Smuts, 1832) and phylogenetic position of the Pholidota (Weber, 1904)". Gene. 551 (1): 49–54. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2014.08.040. PMID 25158133.
  9. ^ du Toit, Z.; du Plessis, M.; Dalton, D. L.; Jansen, R.; Paul Grobler, J.; Kotzé, A. (2017). "Mitochondrial genomes of African pangolins and insights into evolutionary patterns and phylogeny of the family Manidae". BMC Genomics. 18 (1): 746. doi:10.1186/s12864-017-4140-5. PMC 5609056. PMID 28934931.

External linksEdit