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The Macau Grand Prix (Portuguese: Grande Prémio de Macau; Chinese: 澳門格蘭披治大賽車) is a motorsport road race for automobiles and motorcycles held annually in Macau. It is the only street circuit racing event in which both cars and motorcycles participate.

Macau Grand Prix
Guia Circuit
Circuito da Guia GP.svg
Race information
Number of times held65
First held1954
Most wins (drivers)Hong Kong John MacDonald (4)
Circuit length6.120 km (3.803 mi)
Race length91.800 km (57.042 mi)
Laps15
Last race (2018)
Pole position
Podium
Fastest lap
Macau Grand Prix
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese澳門格蘭披治大賽車
Simplified Chinese澳门格兰披治大赛车
Portuguese name
PortugueseGrande Prémio de Macau
The entry into the Lisboa corner, Guia Circuit

The first Macau Grand Prix event was held in 1954, as a sports car event. In 1961, the title race became an open-wheel Formula Libre event. The event has also had a variety of support races in its duration. Production cars joined the event in 1957, which were superseded by touring cars in 1972. The event received world championship status from 2005 to 2014 as the final round of the World Touring Car Championship. In 1976, the Macau Motorcycle Grand Prix was introduced.[1] In 2008, a GT3 race was added to the event, which became known as the FIA GT World Cup.

The highlight of the race weekend is the Macau Formula Three Grand Prix, featuring many national Formula Three champions and drivers from around the world, with the winner being awarded the FIA Formula 3 World Cup. Due to the challenging nature of the circuit, which consists of fast straights (a Formula Three car can reach a top speed of 275 km/h (171 mph) at the end of the straight[2]), tight corners and uncompromising crash barriers, the Macau Grand Prix is considered one of the most demanding circuits in the world. Many current or former Formula One drivers have participated in the event early in their careers and some of them have won the prestigious prize. Previous winners include Riccardo Patrese, Ayrton Senna, Michael Schumacher, David Coulthard, Ralf Schumacher, Takuma Sato, Lucas di Grassi, Edoardo Mortara, António Félix da Costa[3] and Felix Rosenqvist.

HistoryEdit

The Macau Grand Prix was originally conceived in 1954 as a treasure hunt around the streets of the city,[4] but shortly after, it was suggested that the hunt's track could host a professional racing event for local motor enthusiasts.

 
Macau Tr2 racing at Malta Grand Prix

The race continued as an amateur race until 1966, when Belgian driver Mauro Bianchi entered the race in an Alpine A220 (chassis #1722).[5] Alpine Renault had also sent engineer Jean-Paul Castilleux to assist Bianchi with technical aspects of the car.[6] Bianchi's victory and exposure led to more professional racing teams entering the Grand Prix in the following years.

The motorcycle race was introduced in 1967, and in that year the first fatal tragedy struck the race: double champion Dodjie Laurel was killed when he lost control of his car and crashed. This raised the alarm for more safety improvements for the race. Teddy Yip was one of the main forces behind the Macau Grand Prix back in the 1970s and 1980s, leading this Grand Prix to be one of the world's most famous motor racing events. The Macau Grand Prix parties he hosted for many years at his home also became a central part of the social aspect of the Grand Prix.

In 1983, it was decided by the organisers that since Formula Pacific was becoming obsolete, the race would be held as a Formula Three event. Initially, they wanted to run a F2 race, but as they were unwilling to make any large circuit modifications, which included cutting down trees, the organisers decided to adopt Formula 3 cars for the feature race and it was sanctioned by FIA as the F3 World Cup title race. At the same time, Yokohama Tire was officially designated as the sole supplier of control tires for the competitors.[7]

This decision has seen the reputation of the event in the motorsport world increase rapidly, with the event attracting the best young drivers from Europe and Japan. The first F3 race was won by a young Ayrton Senna. The race in 1990 was a memorable one, as Michael Schumacher and Mika Häkkinen were involved in an incident when they were in first and second going into the final lap. At the main straight just after the Mandarin Oriental Bend, Häkkinen hit the back of Schumacher's car and crashed out when he attempted to overtake him, because Schumacher noticeably slowed down and Häkkinen could not avoid the contact.[8] Schumacher's car was able to continue with its rear wing damaged and eventually won the race with the best aggregate time. Other notable winners include Formula One drivers David Coulthard, Ralf Schumacher and Takuma Sato. Since the introduction of F3 races, the Macau GP has gradually become a stepping stone for many F3 drivers to higher class motor-racing competitions such as the FIA Formula 2 Championship and Formula One. However, only two drivers in the field in the 2010's -- Valtteri Bottas in 2011 and Charles Leclerc in 2015—who have started this race has won a Formula One race, and 1995 was the last time a Macau Grand Prix winner won a Formula One race.

FormatEdit

 
The 2008 Macau Grand Prix in progress.

The Macau Grand Prix race weekend normally starts on the Thursday and ends on the Sunday on the second or third week of November. The first two days (Thursday and Friday) are generally scheduled for practice and qualifying. All races are held on Saturday and Sunday, with the final rounds of the heavyweights Macau Formula 3 Grand Prix and the Touring Car Guia Race (the final 2 rounds of the World Touring Car Championship), as well as the FIA GT World Cup, held on the last day. Both the Macau Formula 3 Grand Prix and the Guia Race are sanctioned by the FIA and the winner of the Macau Formula 3 Grand Prix is awarded the FIA World Cup. Apart from the two major races held at the race weekend, the Macau Motorcycle Grand Prix is also one of the highlights of the weekend since it features former or current racers of the Superbike World Championship and stars of Britain's legendary open-road motorcycle races such as the Isle of Man TT.

Newly introduced into the 2007 race Macau GT Cup is the race for GT3 category cars. Since 2015 the winner of the race is awarded the FIA GT World Cup.

Over the years, the Macau Grand Prix's Guia Race four touring cars had belonged to the Asian Touring Car Championship, and the current GT Cup race was once the Supercar Cup for road going exotic sports cars., the Formula Renault race, the Porsche Carrera Cup Asia race, the scooter race for locals and in the past but on a less than frequent basis, a Jackie Chan endorsed race for celebrity women drivers (partnered with pro racers) involving Mitsubishis, with whom Chan hold a sponsorship deal.

Major accidentsEdit

1967: Dodjie Laurel: Killed when lost control of car and hit wall.

2012: Philip Yau: In a WTCC-spec Chevrolet Cruze in the CTM Touring Car Cup invitational, a part failure led to the car making contact with the Turn 2 (Mandarin Oriental) wall at speeds over 200 km/h. The rescue team tried to put out the fire with the fire extinguisher. The driver was airlifted to the hospital, but died shortly afterwards.

2018: Sophia Flörsch: Suffered a spinal fracture after her Formula 3 car became airborne after losing control leading into Lisboa corner, jumping the catch fencing and striking a photographers bunker.[9]

Motorcycle Fatalities:

  • Shea Lun Tsang 1973
  • Lam Sai-Kwan 1977
  • Chan Wai Chi 1983
  • Tung Sai-Wing 1993
  • Katsuhiro Tottori 1994
  • Bruno Bonhuil 2005
  • Luis Carreira 2012
  • Daniel Hegarty 2017

CircuitEdit

The 3.8 miles (6.2 km) Guia Circuit features a combination of fast straights and tight corners, with the circuit's minimum width being only seven metres. It is recognised as one of the most challenging circuits in the world.[10]

Title RaceEdit

WinnersEdit

Year GP Winner Entrant Chassis – Engine Rules
1954   Eduardo de Carvalho Triumph TR2 Sports car
1955   Robert Ritchie Austin-Healey 100 Sports car
1956   Doug Steane Mercedes-Benz 190SL Sports car
1957   Arthur Pateman Mercedes-Benz 300SL Sports car
1958   Chan Lye Choun Aston Martin DB3S Sports car
1959   Ron Hardwick Jaguar XKSS Sports car
1960   Martin Redfern Jaguar XKSS Sports car
1961   Peter Heath Lotus 15-Climax Formula Libre
1962   Arsenio Laurel Lotus 22-Ford Formula Libre
1963   Arsenio Laurel Lotus 22-Ford Formula Libre
1964   Albert Poon [zh] Lotus 23-Ford Formula Libre
1965   John MacDonald Lotus 18-Ford Formula Libre
1966   Mauro Bianchi [fr] Alpine-Renault T66 Formula Libre
1967   Tony Maw Lotus 20B-Ford Formula Libre
1968   Jan Bussell McLaren M4C Formula Libre
1969   Kevin Bartlett Mildren-Alfa Romeo [11][12][13] Formula Libre
1970   Dieter Quester BMW F270 Formula Libre
1971   Jan Bussell McLaren M4C Formula Libre
1972   John MacDonald Brabham BT36 Formula Libre
1973   John MacDonald Brabham BT40 Formula Libre
1974   Vern Schuppan   Theodore Racing March 72B-Ford Formula Pacific
1975   John MacDonald Ralt RT1-Ford Formula Pacific
1976   Vern Schuppan [14]   Theodore Racing Ralt RT1-Ford Formula Pacific
1977   Riccardo Patrese   Bob Harper Racing Chevron B40-Ford Formula Pacific
1978   Riccardo Patrese   Bob Harper Racing Chevron B42-Ford Formula Pacific
1979   Geoff Lees   Theodore Racing Ralt RT1-Ford Formula Pacific
1980   Geoff Lees   Theodore Racing Ralt RT1-Ford Formula Pacific
1981   Bob Earl Hayashi 200P-Toyota Formula Pacific
1982   Roberto Moreno Ralt RT4-Ford Formula Pacific
Year Formula 3 GP Winner Entrant Chassis – Engine Main Series of the winner
1983   Ayrton Senna   West Surrey Racing Ralt RT3-Toyota British Formula 3 Championship
1984   John Nielsen   Volkswagen Motorsport Ralt RT3-Volkswagen German Formula Three Championship
1985   Maurício Gugelmin   West Surrey Racing Ralt RT30-Volkswagen British Formula 3 Championship
1986   Andy Wallace   Madgwick Motorsport Reynard 863-Volkswagen British Formula 3 Championship
1987   Martin Donnelly   Intersport Racing Ralt RT31-Toyota British Formula 3 Championship
1988   Enrico Bertaggia   Forti Corse Dallara 388-Alfa Romeo Italian Formula Three Championship
1989   David Brabham   Bowman Racing Ralt RT33 [de]-Volkswagen/Spiess British Formula 3 Championship
1990   Michael Schumacher   WTS Racing Reynard 903-Volkswagen/Spiess German Formula Three Championship
1991   David Coulthard   Paul Stewart Racing Ralt RT35-Honda/Mugen German Formula Three Championship
1992   Rickard Rydell   Team TOM'S TOM'S 032F-Toyota All-Japan Formula Three Championship
1993   Jörg Müller   RSM Marko Dallara 393-Fiat/Novamotor German Formula Three Championship
1994   Sascha Maassen   WTS Racing Dallara F394-Opel/Spiess German Formula Three Championship
1995   Ralf Schumacher   WTS Racing Dallara F394-Opel/Spiess German Formula Three Championship
1996   Ralph Firman   Paul Stewart Racing Dallara F396-Honda/Mugen-NBE British Formula 3 Championship
1997   Soheil Ayari   Graff Racing Dallara F396-Opel/Spiess International Formula 3000
1998   Peter Dumbreck   Team TOM'S Dallara F398-Toyota/TOM'S All-Japan Formula Three Championship
1999   Darren Manning   Team TOM'S Dallara F399-Toyota/TOM'S All-Japan Formula Three Championship
2000   André Couto   Bertram Schäfer Racing Dallara F399-Opel/Spiess International Formula 3000
2001   Takuma Sato   Carlin Motorsport Dallara F301-Honda/Mugen-NBE British Formula 3 Championship
2002   Tristan Gommendy   ASM Dallara F302-Renault/Sodemo French Formula Three Championship
2003   Nicolas Lapierre   Signature Plus Dallara F302-Renault/Sodemo Formula 3 Euro Series
2004   Alexandre Prémat   ASM Dallara F304-Mercedes/HWA Formula 3 Euro Series
2005   Lucas di Grassi   Manor Motorsport Dallara F304-Mercedes/HWA Formula 3 Euro Series
2006   Mike Conway   Räikkönen Robertson Racing Dallara F306-Mercedes/HWA British Formula 3 Championship
2007   Oliver Jarvis   Team TOM'S Dallara F307-Toyota/TOM'S All-Japan Formula Three Championship
2008   Keisuke Kunimoto   Team TOM'S Dallara F308 [de]-Toyota/TOM'S All-Japan Formula Three Championship
2009   Edoardo Mortara   Signature Plus Dallara F308 [de]-Volkswagen GP2 Series
2010   Edoardo Mortara   Signature Plus Dallara F308 [de]-Volkswagen Formula 3 Euro Series
2011   Daniel Juncadella   Prema Powerteam Dallara F308 [de]-Mercedes/HWA Formula 3 Euro Series
2012   António Félix da Costa   Carlin Motorsport Dallara F312-Volkswagen GP3 Series
2013   Alex Lynn   Prema Powerteam Dallara F312-Mercedes European Formula 3 Championship
2014   Felix Rosenqvist   Mücke Motorsport Dallara F312-Mercedes European Formula 3 Championship
2015   Felix Rosenqvist   Prema Powerteam Dallara F315-Mercedes FIA Formula 3 European Championship
2016   António Félix da Costa[15]   Carlin Dallara F316-Volkswagen DTM/Formula E
2017   Dan Ticktum   Motopark with VEB Dallara F317-Volkswagen Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0
2018   Dan Ticktum   Motopark Academy Dallara F317-Volkswagen FIA Formula 3 European Championship
Year GP Winner Entrant Chassis – Engine Rules
2019 TBD TBD Dallara F3 2019-Mecachrome FIA Formula 3 Championship (non-championship round)

Multiple winnersEdit

Wins Driver Years
4   John MacDonald 1965, 1972, 1973, 1975
2   Arsenio Laurel 1962, 1963
  Jan Bussell 1968, 1971
  Vern Schuppan 1974, 1976
  Riccardo Patrese 1977, 1978
  Geoff Lees 1979, 1980
  Edoardo Mortara 2009, 2010
  Felix Rosenqvist 2014, 2015
  António Félix da Costa 2012, 2016
  Dan Ticktum 2017, 2018

Touring carsEdit

The first Guia race for touring cars was held in 1972. The event was notable in that very few touring car races were held on street circuits at the time. From 2005 to 2014, the race became the final two rounds of the FIA World Touring Car Championship. In 2015, the category was replaced by the TCR International Series with Robert Huff winning both the last WTCC and first TCR races at the circuit. Huff has won a record eight races at the circuit.

WinnersEdit

Year Touring Car Winner[note 1] Car Report
1957
to
1962
unknown
1963   Albert Poon [zh] Lotus Cortina
1964   Eugen Böhringer [de] Mercedes-Benz 300SE
1965   Grant Wolfkill Austin Cooper S
  George Baker Jaguar Mark 2
1966   Mauro Bianchi [fr] Alpine A210
1967   Albert Poon [zh] Alfa Romeo GTA
1968   Peter Chow
1969   Erich Waxenberger
  Albert Poon [zh]
Mercedes-Benz 300SEL 6.3
1970   Anne Wong Mini Cooper
1971   Dieter Glemser Ford Capri 2600RS
1972   John MacDonald Mini Cooper
1973   Peter Chow Toyota Celica
1974   Nobuhide Tachi Toyota Celica
1975   Nobuhide Tachi Toyota Celica
1976   Herb Adamczyk Porsche 911 Carrera RS
1977   Peter Chow Toyota Celica
1978   Peter Chow Toyota Celica
1979   Herb Adamczyk Porsche 911 Carrera RSR
1980   Hans-Joachim Stuck BMW 320i
1981   Manfred Winkelhock BMW 320i
1982   Helmut Greiner Porsche 935
1983   Hans-Joachim Stuck BMW 635 CSI
1984   Tom Walkinshaw Jaguar XJS
1985   Gianfranco Brancatelli Volvo 240 Turbo
1986   Johnny Cecotto Volvo 240 Turbo
1987   Roberto Ravaglia BMW M3
1988   Altfrid Heger BMW M3
1989   Tim Harvey Ford Sierra RS500
1990   Masahiro Hasemi Nissan Skyline GT-R
1991   Emanuele Pirro BMW M3 Evolution
1992   Emanuele Pirro BMW M3 Evolution
1993   Charles Kwan BMW M3 Evolution
1994   Joachim Winkelhock BMW 318is
1995   Kelvin Burt Toyota Corona EXIV
1996   Frank Biela Audi A4 Quattro
1997   Steve Soper BMW 320i
1998   Joachim Winkelhock BMW 320i
1999   Michael Bartels Audi A4 Quattro
2000   Patrick Huisman BMW 320i
2001   Duncan Huisman BMW 320i
2002   Duncan Huisman BMW 320i
2003   Duncan Huisman BMW 320i
2004   Jörg Müller BMW 320i
FIA World Touring Car Championship
2005   Augusto Farfus Alfa Romeo 156 Report
  Duncan Huisman BMW 320i
2006   Andy Priaulx BMW 320si Report
  Jörg Müller BMW 320si
2007   Alain Menu Chevrolet Lacetti Report
  Andy Priaulx BMW 320si
2008   Alain Menu Chevrolet Lacetti Report
  Robert Huff Chevrolet Lacetti
2009   Robert Huff Chevrolet Cruze LT Report
  Augusto Farfus BMW 320si
2010   Robert Huff Chevrolet Cruze LT Report
  Norbert Michelisz SEAT León TDI
2011   Robert Huff Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T Report
  Robert Huff Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T
2012   Yvan Muller Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T Report
  Alain Menu Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T
2013   Yvan Muller Chevrolet Cruze 1.6T Report
  Robert Huff SEAT León WTCC
2014   José María López Citroën C-Elysée WTCC Report
  Robert Huff Lada Granta WTCC
TCR International Series
2015   Robert Huff Honda Civic TCR Report
  Stefano Comini SEAT León Cup Racer
2016   Stefano Comini Volkswagen Golf GTI TCR Report
  Tiago Monteiro Honda Civic TCR
FIA World Touring Car Championship
2017   Mehdi Bennani Citroën C-Elysée WTCC Report
  Robert Huff Citroën C-Elysée WTCC
FIA World Touring Car Cup
2018   Jean-Karl Vernay Audi RS 3 LMS TCR Report
  Frédéric Vervisch Audi RS 3 LMS TCR
  Esteban Guerrieri Honda Civic Type R TCR (FK8)

MotorcyclesEdit

Macau is a special event for motorcycle riders. The Motorcycle Grand Prix has featured notable top-level riders, with winners of the race including MotoGP World Champion Kevin Schwantz, Superbike World Champion Carl Fogarty, notable MotoGP rider Ron Haslam and Isle of Man legends Michael Rutter, Michael Dunlop, and John McGuinness. Because of the street circuit nature, the course is closer to the legendary British open-road races than a regulation MotoGP circuit.

In 2014, the award-winning documentary Macau Gladiators by German director Andreas Knuffmann appeared.[16] The movie is about the 2013 edition of the Motorcycle Grand Prix and followed the Team of Frank Heidger with the German Didier Grams (8th place) and his Belgian teammate Marc Fistette (DNF).

WinnersEdit

Year Motorcycle GP Winner Bike Tyres Report
1967   Hiroshi Hasegawa Yamaha RD56
1968   Hiroshi Hasegawa Yamaha 250
1969   John MacDonald Yamaha
1970   Benny Hidayat Yamaha YSI
1971   Akiyasu Motohashi Yamaha
1972   Ikujiro Takai [ja] Yamaha TR3
1973   Ken Araoka [ja] Suzuki RG500
1974   Hiroyuki Kawasaki [ja] Yamaha
1975   Hideo Kanaya Yamaha
1976   Chas Mortimer Yamaha
1977   Mick Grant Kawasaki KR750
1978   Sadao Asami Yamaha TZ750
1979   Sadao Asami Yamaha TZ750
1980   Sadao Asami Yamaha TZ750
1981   Ron Haslam Honda RS1123
1982   Ron Haslam Honda RS1123
1983   Ron Haslam Honda NS500
1984   Mick Grant Suzuki RGB500
1985   Ron Haslam Honda RS500
1986   Ron Haslam Elf Honda 500
1987   Ron Haslam ROC Elf Honda 4
1988   Kevin Schwantz Suzuki RGV500 Michelin
1989   Robert Dunlop Honda RC30
1990   Steve Hislop Honda RC30
1991   Didier de Radiguès Suzuki RGV500 Dunlop
1992   Carl Fogarty Harris Yamaha 500 Dunlop
1993   Steve Hislop ROC Yamaha 500
1994   Steve Hislop Harris Yamaha 500
1995   Mike Edwards ROC Yamaha 500 Michelin
1996   Phillip McCallen Yamaha YZR500 Michelin
1997   Andreas Hofmann Kawasaki Ninja ZX-7R Michelin
1998   Michael Rutter Honda RVF750 RC45
1999   David Jefferies Yamaha YZF-R1
2000   Michael Rutter Yamaha YZF-R1 Dunlop
2001   John McGuinness Honda CBR954RR Dunlop
2002   Michael Rutter Ducati 998 Dunlop
2003   Michael Rutter Ducati 998 Dunlop
2004   Michael Rutter Honda CBR1000RR Michelin
2005   Michael Rutter Honda CBR1000RR Michelin
2006   Steve Plater Yamaha YZF-R1 Dunlop
2007   Steve Plater Yamaha YZF-R1 Dunlop
2008   Stuart Easton Honda CBR1000RR Pirelli
2009   Stuart Easton Honda CBR1000RR Pirelli
2010   Stuart Easton Kawasaki Ninja ZX-10R Pirelli
2011   Michael Rutter Ducati 1098 Pirelli
2012   Michael Rutter Honda CBR1000RR Pirelli
2013   Ian Hutchinson Yamaha YZF-R1 Dunlop
2014   Stuart Easton Kawasaki ZX-10R Metzeler
2015   Peter Hickman BMW S1000RR Dunlop
2016   Peter Hickman BMW S1000RR Metzeler
2017   Glenn Irwin Ducati 1199RS Metzeler
2018   Peter Hickman BMW S1000RR Dunlop

GT CupEdit

The FIA GT World Cup is a race for GT3-spec cars, organized by the Stéphane Ratel Organisation (SRO) and the Automobile General Association Macau-China (AAMC). The event was confirmed by the FIA at the World Motor Sport Council in Geneva on 20 March 2015.[17] The winning driver of the event is the winning driver of the Main Race, but the award for the FIA GT World Cup for Manufacturers is presented to the manufacturer supplying the cars with a manufacturer entry with the highest number of points after addition of the points of its two best cars awarded according to the result of the Main Race.

Starting in 2017, there is an age limit for drivers; drivers may be no older than 59 years 364 days, as bronze-level drivers are prohibited from participation. (Under FIA driver grading rules, any driver over 60 is a bronze driver, regardless of his accomplishments).

WinnersEdit

Year Winning Driver Winning Manufacturer Car
Macau GT Cup
2008   Darryl O'Young not applicable Porsche 997 GT3 Cup
2009   Keita Sawa Lamborghini Gallardo GT3
2010   Keita Sawa Lamborghini Gallardo GT3
2011   Edoardo Mortara Audi R8 LMS GT3
2012   Edoardo Mortara Audi R8 LMS GT3
2013   Edoardo Mortara Audi R8 LMS GT3
2014   Maro Engel Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3
FIA GT World Cup
2015   Maro Engel   Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3
2016   Laurens Vanthoor   Audi[18] Audi R8 LMS
2017   Edoardo Mortara   Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-AMG GT3
2018   Augusto Farfus   BMW BMW M6 GT3

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Chan, Pedro (19 November 2016). "Hickman wins Macau Motorcycle Grand Prix". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  2. ^ Takuma Sato's demonstration of a hot lap around the Guia Circuit, Macau Grand Prix Committee official website Archived 2006-11-01 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Chan, Pedro (20 November 2016). "Portuguese Antonio Felix da Costa clinches second Macau victory". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  4. ^ "Fernando Macedo Pinto, one of the founders of the Macau Grand Prix" (in Portuguese). Blog Macau Antigo. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
  5. ^ Smith, Roy (2010). Alpine & Renault: The Sports Prototypes, Volume 1, 1963–1969. Veloce Publishing Limited. pp. 108–110. ISBN 978-1-84584-191-1.
  6. ^ Smith, Roy (2010). Alpine & Renault: The Sports Prototypes, Volume 1, 1963–1969. Dorchester, Dorset, England: Veloce Publishing Limited. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-84584-191-1.
  7. ^ http://www.advan.com/english/event/macaugp/2012/his/index.html
  8. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZhJj-B3VqcU
  9. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2018/nov/18/formula-three-sophia-floersch-fractures-spin-huge-crash-macau-grand-prix
  10. ^ "Lewis Hamilton column: Racing has become more strategic".
  11. ^ Fung Billy Choo, Kevin Bartlett all the way, Autosport, 27 November 1969, page 14
  12. ^ Bartlett's International, Racing Car News, December 1969, page 5
  13. ^ Mildren's Macau, Racing Car News, January 1970, pages 56 & 57
  14. ^ Macau GP, Racing Car News, December 1976, page 26
  15. ^ Chan, Pedro (20 November 2016). "Portuguese Antonio Felix da Costa clinches second Macau victory". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  16. ^ Macao Gladiators, facts about the movie.
  17. ^ "GT World Cup in Macau confirmed". Motorsport.com. Smith, Sam. March 21, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  18. ^ http://www.fia.com/news/fia-gt-world-cup-won-driver-his-roof

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Prior to 1972, production car race

External linksEdit