FIA Formula 2 Championship
The FIA Formula 2 Championship is a second-tier single-seater racing championship organised by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The championship was introduced in 2017, following the rebranding of the long-term Formula One feeder series GP2.
|Category||One-make open-wheel single-seater Formula auto racing|
|Drivers' champion||Nyck de Vries|
Designed to make racing affordable for the teams and to make it an ideal training ground for life in Formula One, Formula 2 has made it mandatory for all of the teams to use the same chassis, engine and tyre supplier so that true driver ability is reflected. Formula 2 mainly races on European circuits, but has appearances on other international race tracks as well with their most recent races in the 2017 season at the Bahrain International Circuit in Bahrain and the Yas Marina Circuit in United Arab Emirates.
The numbering system in FIA Formula 2 Championship is currently based on the previous season's team standings (similar to Formula One 1996–2013 numbering system) that was used since the formation of GP2 Series in 2005 until present. Additionally, since the 2020 season the number #19 has been retired along with #18 to honor Anthoine Hubert who sustained fatal injuries during one of the previous season's races (the 2019 Belgian Grand Prix's support race).
On Friday, drivers have a 45-minute free practice session and a 30-minute qualifying session. The qualifying session decides the grid order for Saturday's race which has a length of 180 kilometres (112 miles).
During Saturday's race (Feature Race), each driver must complete one compulsory pitstop and must use at least one set of each specification of dry-weather tyres.
Sunday's race (Sprint Race) is run over 120 kilometres (75 miles). The grid is decided by the Saturday result with top 8 being reversed, so the driver who finished 8th on Saturday will start from pole position and the winner will start from 8th place.
The exceptions to these rules are the Monaco and Budapest where the Feature Race is run over 140 km (87 miles) and 160 km (100 miles), respectively and the Monaco Sprint Race where the race is run over 100 km (60 miles). The races length is also limited to 60 minutes for Feature Race and 45 minutes for Sprint Race.
Usually the Monaco round race sessions held in Friday and Saturday since 2005.
Feature races have a scoring system similar to the one used in Formula One, shown below:
|Point system for Feature Race|
The driver who qualified in pole position for the feature race receives an additional 4 points.
The fastest lap is awarded 2 points. In order to qualify for fastest lap points the driver must have completed 90% of the total race laps and must finish in the top 10.
The top eight finishers in a sprint race receive points as follows:
|Point system for Sprint Race|
The fastest lap in the sprint race also receives 2 points as in the feature race.
The maximum number of points a driver can score at any round will be 48.
A count-back system is used to decide places of drivers with equal points in the championship with the driver with most wins ranking highest of those with equal points totals. If there is still a tie, the most second-place finishes, then the most third-place finishes, etc., is used to split the tied drivers. This count-back system is applied at all stages of the championship.
The FIA Formula 2 Championship car is used by all of the teams, and features a carbon-fiber monocoque Dallara chassis, powered by a single-turbocharged direct-injected Mecachrome V6 engine and mounted dry slick and rain treaded Pirelli tyres. Overall weight is 755 kg including the driver.
First-generation (third-generation overall)Edit
The first-generation (third-generation overall) 2011–17 spec GP2/11 car which was used in the first season of the rebranded championship had been designed by Dallara Automobili. The obsolete GP2/11 car was fitted with the old Mecachrome 4.0-litre V8 naturally-aspirated engine as well as a taller and narrower rear wing inspired by those used in Formula One from 2009–16.
Second-generation (fourth-generation overall)Edit
The F2 Championship currently utilizes the second-generation (fourth-generation overall) 2018 specification F2 2018 car, designed by Dallara Automobili. It would be used for the 2018 through 2020 seasons but, due to the COVID-19 outbreak, could be used for an additional season in 2021.
The cost of a Dallara F2 2018 car is approximately up to €500,000. This includes the wheels, wings, steering wheel and other components. The €500,000 does not include the engine however. The current FIA Formula 2 chassis material is a mix of carbon/aluminium and aramid honeycomb structures fitted with Zylon anti-intrusion panels.
The current gearbox is manufactured by Hewland and features an 8-position barrel with ratchet body and software upgrades as well as a new transverse shafts fixing system designed to facilitate improved gear selection. Currently, the series uses a 6-speed sequential transmission gearbox configuration with electronically-controlled paddle shifters with reverse operated by a button on the steering wheel. The clutches of all cars are supplied by ZF Sachs with the multi-plate clutch operated by a hand-paddle lever.
O.Z. Racing exclusively supplies wheel rims for all cars since 2005. The wheel size of O.Z. Racing F2 wheels are 12 in × 13 in (305 mm × 330 mm) on front and 13.7 in × 13 in (348 mm × 330 mm) on rear until 2019. From 2020 onwards all cars will switch to 18 in (457 mm) road car-inspired wheel rims for the preparation of expanding to Formula One from 2022 onwards and also data sharing. The new wheel rim sizes will be 12 in × 18 in (305 mm × 457 mm) on fronts and 13.7 in × 18 in (348 mm × 457 mm) on rears.
The wheel rims of all FIA Formula 2 cars are made of magnesium alloy.
Similar to the 2011 change for Formula 1, Pirelli is now the sole tyre supplier for the series. The FIA Formula 2 Championship runs the different compounds and size as F1 since 2017 (due to in fact Formula 1's 2017-present tyres are wider, the FIA Formula 2 Championship carried over the pre-2017 Pirelli F1 tyres). The front tyre size are 245/660-R13 (9.6/26-R13) and rear tyre size are 325/660-R13 (12.8/26-R13) and will be used until the end of 2019 season. The compounds of Pirelli Formula 2 tyres are currently four dry compounds (purple supersoft (abolished after 2019), red soft, yellow medium and white hard) carrying P Zero brand and two wet compounds (green intermediate and blue wet) carrying Cinturato brand.
The new tyres were unveiled during the 2019 Monza FIA Formula 2 round with 18-inch wheel rims mounted. The tyre sizes will slightly different sizes as 2011-2019 but the only changes are the wheel rim diameter increase (275/705-R18 (10.8/27.7-R18) on the fronts and 325/705-R18 (12.8/27.7-R18) on the rears).
Brembo supplies monoblock brake calipers and disc bells, which are exclusive to Formula 2. Carbone Industrie also supplies carbon brake discs and pads for FIA Formula 2 Championship. The brake discs are 278 mm × 28 mm (10.94 in × 1.10 in) in size.
The current Dallara F2 2018's fuel tank carried over the FIA standard Premier FT5 tank with the capacity up to 125 litres.
Refuelling during a race is banned due to safety and cost.
The suspension of all FIA Formula 2 Championship cars are upper and lower steel wishbones, pushrod operated, coupled with twin Koni dampers and torsion bars suspension (front) and spring suspension (rear) similar to current Formula One car suspension.
Since 2011, XAP Technology exclusively provides the XAP single-seater F2 steering wheel as well as XAP SX steering wheel dash display for all FIA Formula 2 Championship cars. The XAP steering wheel features 6 buttons in the front with 5 paddles (DRS, gear shift and clutch) in the back of steering wheel. From the 2018 season, all FIA Formula 2 Championship cars will utilize the all-new XAP Single-seat Formula 2451 S3 steering wheel with a larger dash screen and also three new rotary switches (similar to the current Formula E steering wheel).
The most current safety innovations are a top priority of the FIA Formula 2 Championship. Front, side, rear and steering column impact tests are the FIA safety standards. All cars include front and rear roll hoops, impact structures and monocoque push tests. Anti-intrusion survival cell protection panels have been used since 2011. Wheel retainer safety cables are also featured to avoid wheels flying similar to Formula One, IndyCar Series (known as SWEMS) and other single-seater Formula racing series. The seat belts of all FIA Formula 2 cars are supplied by Sabelt with a 6-point seat belt configuration similar to Formula One. From 2018 onwards, the “halo” cockpit protection system has been introduced to protect the drivers in crashes.
All FIA Formula 2 cars carry a Marelli-provided electronic control unit (Marvel SRG 480 model) as well as Marelli PDU 12–42 power supply management unit. Live telemetry is used only for television broadcasts, but the data can be recorded from the ECU to the computer if the car is in the garage and not on the track. Rear-view mirrors for all FIA Formula 2 cars are fully mandated to easily view opponents behind.
The aerodynamics of current Formula 2 cars are currently resembling the Formula One 2017-style aerodynamics with wider and curved front wings and also lower rear wings with parallelogram rear wing plates. Side winglets are also banned. The undertrays of all cars are grounds-effect underbody as opposed to flat-bottom underbody that is usually utilized in Formula One.
Drag Reduction Systems (DRS)Edit
Since 2015, the Drag Reduction Systems (DRS) were introduced in a purpose for overtaking maneuver assist by tilting the upper-element rear wing while approaching the opponent less than a second away by activating the DRS paddle behind the steering wheel. The upper-element rear wing angle is the same as a Formula One car which has over 40 degrees of angle. In an event of rainy conditions, Drag Reduction Systems are automatically deactivated for safety reasons.
Starting in 2005 (under GP2 Series name), Formula 2 cars were powered by 4.0 litres (244 cubic inches) V8, four-stroke piston, Otto cycle unleaded gasoline-burning, prototype production-based, naturally-aspirated engines, produced by Mecachrome. Per Formula 2 rules, the engines sold for no more than €70,000 and were rev-limited to 10,000 rpm. They produced around 612 hp (456 kW; 620 PS) and weighed up to 148 kg (326 lb).
FIA Formula 2 Championship first-generation engines were rev-limited to 10,000 rpm and produce approximately 612 hp. The valve train is a dual overhead camshaft configuration with four valves per cylinder. The crankshaft is made of alloy steel, with five main bearing caps. The pistons are forged aluminium alloy, while the connecting rods are machined alloy steel. The electronic engine management system is supplied by Magneti Marelli, firing a CDI ignition system. The engine lubrication is a dry sump type, cooled by a single water pump.
The series utilizing four-stroke piston Otto cycle 620 hp 3.4-litre V6 DOHC single-turbocharged direct-injected fuel-efficient engines which resemble the GP3 Series/FIA Formula 3 Championship engine model supplied by Mecachrome, prepared, tuned-up and maintained by Teos Engineering. The V634 Turbo was unveiled in 2017 along with the new Dallara F2 2018 chassis but will be used from 2018 onwards. Dutch turbocharger company Van Der Lee Turbo Systems currently supplies the turbochargers for all FIA Formula 2 Championship all-new engines.
All FIA Formula 2 Championship cars switched from a traditional classic 4.0 litres (244 cubic inches) V8 naturally-aspirated indirect electronic injection to an all-new 4-stroke piston Otto cycle fuel-efficient 3.4 litres (207 cubic inches) V6 turbocharged direct injection engine from the 2018 season onwards. This will mark the introduction of turbocharged engines in 2018 season for the first time ever in the history of the sport. The all-new engine fuel delivery currently gasoline direct injection instead of traditional electronic indirect injection. The power output of all-new FIA Formula 2 engine was increased from 612 to 620 hp (456 to 462 kW; 620 to 629 PS). Mecachrome will continue providing FIA Formula 2 new engines from 2018 season beyond. The new Mecachrome V634 Turbo engine rev limit scaled down to 8,750 rpm and weighed up to 132 kg (291 lb) including turbocharger. The firing ignition of Mecachrome V634 Turbo engine are revolutionary digital inductive. The fuel-mass flow restrictor rate of second-generation FIA Formula 2 Championship engine is roughly rated at 105 kg/h (231 lb/h).
The Mecachrome V634 Turbo 3.4-litre single-turbocharged direct-injected Mecachrome V6 engine is an evolution of the GP3 engine, which is the solely supplied engine for the FIA Formula 2 Championship. With the addition of a single turbo, the engine has undergone rigorous dyno testing, ahead of its racing debut. The Mecachrome V634 Turbo engines sold for up to €67,000 per unit.
The current second-generation FIA Formula 2 engines allocation are limited to one engine per season and lasted up to 8,000 kilometres (5,000 miles) after rebuild. Mid-season engine change including during race weekend is banned and may resulted grid penalty for race session.
The turbochargers are introduced from the start of 2018 season. The turbo configuration is single-turbocharged and producing the turbo boost level pressure up to 1.5 bar (22 psi). Dutch turbocharger company Van Der Lee Turbo Systems currently supplies the turbochargers for all FIA Formula 2 Championship all-new engines using the MT134-50120 model. The turbocharger spin rev limit spins up to 125,000 rpm but not exceeding 130,000 rpm due to lower turbo boost pressure.
Fuel and lubricants componentsEdit
All Formula 2 cars currently use ordinary unleaded racing gasoline as fuel (similar to commercial vehicle unleaded street gasoline), which has been the de facto standard in second tier single-seater formula racing since the introduction of GP2 Series in 2005. Current Elf LMS 102 RON unleaded gasoline resembles ordinary unleaded gasoline but produces better mileage while being environmental-friendly and safer than leaded fuels. Since 2005 GP2 Series season, Elf exclusively continues providing the LMS 102 RON unleaded fuel and also Elf HTX 840 0W-40 lubricants for all FIA Formula 2 Championship cars due to in fact of Mecachrome's long-term technical partnership with Elf.
The car also features internal cooling upgrades, a new water radiator, radiator duct, oil/water heat exchanger, modified oil degasser, new oil and water pipes and new heat exchanger fixing brackets.
According to research and pre-season stability tests, the 2005 model can accelerate from 0 to 200 km/h (124 mph) in 6.7 seconds. The car has a top speed of 320 km/h (199 mph) meaning that it is the fastest single seater racing car behind Formula One and IndyCar Series.
The 2011 model can accelerate from 0–200 km/h (0–124 mph) in 6.6 seconds.
The car has a top speed of 330 km/h (205 mph) with the Monza aero configuration.
- Engine displacement: 4.0 L (244 cu in) DOHC V8
- Gearbox: 6-speed sequential paddle shift (must have reverse)
- Weight: 688 kg (1,517 lb) (including driver)
- Power output: 612 hp (456 kW)
- Fuel: Elf LMS 89.6 MON, 101.6 RON, 99.6 AKI unleaded
- Fuel capacity: 33 US gallons (125 litres)
- Fuel delivery: Fuel injection (ported multi-point electronic indirect)
- Aspiration: Naturally aspirated
- Length: 5,065 mm (199 in)
- Width: 1,800 mm (71 in)
- Wheelbase: 3,120 mm (123 in)
- Steering: Non-assisted rack and pinion
- Tyres: Pirelli P Zero dry and Cinturato intermediate and wet
Current specifications (2018–present)Edit
- Engine displacement: 3.4 L (207 cu in) DOHC V6
- Gearbox: 6-speed sequential paddle shift (must have reverse)
- Weight: 720 kg (1,587 lb) in 2018 later 755 kg (1,664 lb) in 2019 later 785 kg (1,731 lb) including driver and fuel
- Power output: 620 hp (462 kW) in 2018-2019 later 640 hp (477 kW) in 2020-present
- Fuel: Elf LMS 89.6 MON, 101.6 RON, 99.6 AKI unleaded
- Fuel capacity: 125 litres (33 US gallons)
- Fuel delivery: Gasoline direct injection that produced over 200 bar (2,900.75 psi; 20,000.00 kPa; 150,012.34 Torr; 197.38 atm; 5,906.00 inHg) of GDI pressure by Magneti Marelli
- Aspiration: Single-turbocharged
- Turbo boost level pressure: Restricted to 1.5 bar (21.76 psi; 150.00 kPa; 1,125.09 Torr; 1.48 atm; 44.29 inHg)
- Length: 5,224 mm (206 in)
- Width: 1,900 mm (75 in)
- Wheelbase: 3,135 mm (123 in)
- Steering: Non-assisted rack and pinion
- Tyres: Pirelli P Zero dry and Cinturato intermediate and wet
The 2017 season consisted of eleven rounds, ten of which supported the 2017 Formula One World Championship and a stand-alone event at the Circuito de Jerez. It started at Bahrain International Circuit on 15 April and finished at Yas Marina Circuit on 26 November. The season saw rookie and reigning GP3 Series champion Charles Leclerc, driving for Prema Racing, take the drivers' title with seven race wins. The inaugural teams' championship was taken by Russian Time. This was also the final season for the Dallara GP2/11 chassis which débuted in 2011 when the series was known as GP2 and the Mecachrome 4.0 litre (244 cu in) V8 naturally-aspirated engine package which débuted in the inaugural GP2 season in 2005. Russian Time driver Artem Markelov finished the season as runner-up and DAMS driver Oliver Rowland was third. Champion Leclerc graduated to Formula One with Sauber, the only full-time driver of 2017 to do so. Sergey Sirotkin, who took part in a single round as a reserve driver for ART Grand Prix and had finished third in the 2016 GP2 Series, also graduated to Formula One with Williams.
The 2018 season consisted of twelve rounds, all supporting the 2018 Formula One World Championship, starting in Bahrain on 7 April and finishing in Abu Dhabi on 25 November. The 2018 season also introduced the new Dallara F2 2018 car as well as the all-new Mecachrome 3.4 litre (207 cu in) V6 turbo engine with a large single turbo and a double waste gate, supplied by Dutch turbocharger manufacturer Van Der Lee Turbo Systems. The car also featured the halo safety device for the first time, a device that was introduced into Formula One in the same year.
The Racing Engineering and Rapax teams left the series prior to the 2018 season, having competed in Formula 2 and the predecessor GP2 Series since 2005 and 2010 respectively. Carlin returned to the series after a year's absence and Charouz Racing System joined the championship after the World Series Formula V8 3.5 was discontinued. Carlin went on to win the teams' championship for the first time, having not done so during their time in the GP2 Series. The drivers' championship was won by rookie and reigning GP3 Series champion George Russell, who drove for ART Grand Prix and took seven race victories. Carlin driver Lando Norris finished as runner-up with DAMS driver Alexander Albon in third. All three drivers graduated to Formula One, with Russell, Norris and Albon joining Williams, McLaren and Toro Rosso respectively.
On 31 August 2019, on the second lap of the feature race at Spa-Francorchamps, a high-speed accident occurred involving Anthoine Hubert, Juan Manuel Correa and Giuliano Alesi. Hubert and Correa were taken to the circuit's medical centre where Hubert died from his injuries. Correa's injuries forced him to miss the rest of the season, whilst Alesi was unhurt. The race was abandoned and the sprint race on the following day was cancelled as a mark of respect. The Formula One Belgian Grand Prix at the circuit on the day after the accident began with a moment of silence. Most drivers wore a black ribbon in remembrance. 2017 Formula 2 champion Charles Leclerc, a friend of Hubert, won the race and dedicated his victory to Hubert.
French team DAMS won the teams' championship, having last done so in 2014. The drivers' championship was won by ART Grand Prix driver Nyck de Vries in his third year of Formula 2, taking four race victories. DAMS driver Nicholas Latifi finished as runner-up with UNI-Virtuosi Racing driver Luca Ghiotto in third. Only Latifi would graduate to Formula One, joining Williams, whilst champion de Vries signed for Mercedes-Benz in Formula E.
Hitech Grand Prix, who had briefly entered the 2005 GP2 Series in partnership with Piquet GP and had since raced only in Formula Three championships, entered Formula 2 as the eleventh team. Arden, who had raced in Formula 2 and its predecessors since 1997, left the series. Their entry was taken over by HWA Team and became BWT HWA Racelab.
The season was due to begin at the Bahrain International Circuit on 21 May. However, the first five rounds were postponed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The season began at the Red Bull Ring on 4 July after a revised calendar was published.
Champions and awardsEdit
|2017||Charles Leclerc||Prema Racing||8||7||10||4||282||Race 19 of 22||72|
|2018||George Russell||ART Grand Prix||5||7||11||6||287||Race 23 of 24||68|
|2019||Nyck de Vries||ART Grand Prix||5||4||12||3||266||Race 21 of 24||52|
|2017||Russian Time||1||6||14||6||395||Race 22 of 22||15|
|2018||Carlin||2||1||17||2||383||Race 23 of 24||33|
|2019||DAMS||2||6||16||7||418||Race 23 of 24||72|
Anthoine Hubert AwardEdit
At the prize-giving ceremony in Monaco in 2019 was introduced Anthoine Hubert Award named after Anthoine Hubert who was killed during the 2019 Spa-Francorchamps FIA Formula 2 round and was the only rookie in the season to score two wins. The award is given to the highest-placed driver without previous Formula 2 experience.
|2019||Guanyu Zhou||UNI-Virtuosi Racing||1||0||5||2||140|
Drivers graduated to F1Edit
|Driver||F2||F1||Other major titles|
|Charles Leclerc||2017||22||7||9||2018–2020||Sauber||47||2||7||12||GP3 Series|
|Sergey Sirotkin||2017||2||0||0||2018||Williams||21||0||0||0||Formula Abarth European Series|
|Alexander Albon||2017–2018||44||4||10||2019–2020||Toro Rosso||26||0||0||0|
|Lando Norris||2017–2018||20||1||8||2019–2020||McLaren||26||0||0||1||Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0|
FIA Formula 3 European Championship
|George Russell||2018||20||7||11||2019–2020||Williams||26||0||0||0||GP3 Series|
The television rights are held by Formula One Management, which also manages the rights to Formula One. Sky Sports F1 show every practice, qualifying and race live in the United Kingdom, and so does Movistar Fórmula 1 in Spain and Eleven Sports in Portugal. In Brazil the races are shown live by Sportv, that also shows Formula One. Coverage in North America is available exclusively on TSN5 (Canada) and ESPN3 (USA). In South East Asia, the races are shown live on Fox Sports Asia.
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- Benson, Andrew (1 September 2019). "Formula 2 driver Anthoine Hubert killed in Belgium crash". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
- Duncan, Phil; Slater, Luke (1 September 2019). "Belgian Grand Prix winner Charles Leclerc dedicates maiden victory to Anthoine Hubert". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Allen, Peter (12 December 2019). "F2 introduces Anthoine Hubert Award, presented to Guanyu Zhou". formulascout.com. Formula Scout. Retrieved 12 December 2019.