Longwy (French pronunciation: [lɔ̃wi]; older German: Langich, [ˈlaŋɪç]; Luxemburgish: Lonkech) is a commune in the French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, Lorraine, administrative region of Grand Est, northeastern France.
|• Mayor (2020–2026)||Jean-Marc Fournel|
|5.34 km2 (2.06 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||250–396 m (820–1,299 ft) |
(avg. 254 m or 833 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
The inhabitants are known as Longoviciens.
In 2008, the ville neuve ("New Town") was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the "Fortifications of Vauban" group for its contributions to the development of military architecture and engineering.
The town is also known for its artistic faience, produced there since 1798. It is produced today by the Société des faïenceries de Longwy et Senelle, often in cooperation with artists and ceramists. Overglaze enamel decoration, known as émaux and often in a manner similar to cloisonné, has been produced in Longwy ceramics since 1872. Initially produced under the direction of Amadeo de Carenza, this style reached a peak in the Art Deco style, retailed by the Parisian department store Printemps.
Longwy initially belonged to Lotharingia. After the division of that kingdom, the town became part of Upper Lorraine and ultimately the Duchy of Bar. Longwy was ceded to Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg in 1368, but was returned to Bar in 1378. The Duchy of Bar was then annexed into the Duchy of Lorraine in 1480.
From 1648 to 1660 Longwy was part of the Kingdom of France, returning to the Duchy of Lorraine afterwards. It was made part of France again in 1670, a situation which was finalized in the Treaties of Nijmegen in 1678. Vauban fortified the town during the reign of Louis XIV, having demolished the medieval Château de Longwy, of which one tower remains.
After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, almost all of the Moselle department, along with Alsace and portions of the Meurthe and Vosges departments, was ceded to the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfurt on the ground that the population in those areas spoke German dialects. Only one fifth of Moselle, including Longwy, was spared annexation. Otto von Bismarck later bitterly regretted his decision when it was discovered that the region of Briey and Longwy was rich with iron ore, exploited by the Aciéries de Longwy among other members of the cartel Comptoir Métallurgique de Longwy.
After the Battle of the Ardennes in August 1914, Longwy was occupied by the Imperial German army until the 1918 Armistice. At the start of the war the fort at Longwy was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Natalis Constant Darche. With a force of 3,500 men he was able to hold up the German 5th Army for three weeks.
- "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020.
- "Populations légales 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
- "Fortifications of Vauban". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
- Emaux de Longwy,
- Historique: émaux et faïences
- Campbell, Gerald (19 December 2019). Verdun to the Vosges: Impressions of the War on the Fortress Frontier of France. Good Press. p. 63.
- Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE