List of visionary tall buildings and structures

This is a list of buildings and other structures that have been envisioned.

The X-Seed 4000 is one of the tallest structures ever conceived. Shown in this image is the Burj Khalifa (828 m (2,717 ft)), tallest structure in the world at the time of completion in 2010 to this year (2022), and the X-Seed 4000 project. (4,000 m (13,000 ft))

Proposed structuresEdit

The definition of 'vision' is that used by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.[1] The list does not include under construction buildings as these are listed at list of future tallest buildings.

StructuresEdit

Name Pinnacle height Year of first proposal Structure type Main use Country Place Description Floors
The Space Elevator 100,000 km (62,137 mi) 1895 Massive space tether

Space tourism, space exploration, and space colonization

  United States[2][3]
  Japan[4]
  China[5]

Pacific Ocean[a] An extraordinarily long cable, anchored on or near the equator, held up by the rotation of the Earth. N/A
The Orbital Ring 160 km (99 mi) to 80 km (50 mi) of minimal height 1982 Suspended ring structure around Earth

Space tourism/exploration/colonization, Space manufacturing, Telecommunication, and Space-based solar power[6]

undetermined undetermined The Orbital ring is a concept of an artificial ring shaped cable placed around Earth and set rotating at such a rate that the apparent centrifugal force is large enough to counteract the force of gravity.[7][8][9] A motorized platform is placed on the cable that runs in the opposite direction at the speed that makes the ring structure become stationary relative to the ground at much lower attitude compare to space elevator which has to maintain its center of mass around geostationary orbit. Multiple tethers can be connected from orbital ring to the ground enabling mass-transport to space.[6] N/A
The Launch Loop 80 km (50 mi) 1981 Suspended Maglev Track

Space tourism, space exploration, and space colonization

undetermined undetermined The Launch loop is a concept that has been proposed for the purposes of orbital launch.[10] N/A
Scaled-down space elevator 20 km (12 mi) 2009 Pneumatic tower

Tourism, communications, wind generation, and reduced cost space launch.[11]

undetermined undetermined A sub-orbital or mini version.[12] The structure would be free standing and actively guyed over its base.[11] N/A
StarTram Generation 2 20 km (12 mi) 2001 Suspended Maglev Track

Space tourism, space exploration, and space colonization

  United States undetermined The StarTram is a proposed concept for orbital launches. It has a long (1000–1500 km) vacuum tube, levitated via strong currents in superconducting cables. N/A
Tokyo Tower of Babel[13] 10 km (33,000 ft) 1992 Arcology Mixed Use   Japan Tokyo The Tokyo Tower of Babel is the tallest building ever envisioned and if ever built would house roughly 30 million people within and take 100-150 years to build. The cost would be around ¥3 quadrillion ($22 trillion). 1000+
X-Seed 4000 4 km (13,000 ft) 1995 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail real estate, as well as heavy industry   Japan Tokyo The X-Seed 4000 is the tallest building ever fully envisioned. Its proposed 4,000 m (13,000 ft) height, 6 km (3.7 mi) wide sea-base, and 800-floor capacity could accommodate five hundred thousand to one million inhabitants. 800
Ultima Tower 3.2187 km (10,560 ft) 1991 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   United States San Francisco The Ultima Tower is a hypothetical super-tall skyscraper, designed by American architect Eugene Tsui in 1991. With a total height of 3,218 metres (10,558 ft), the tower would be 2 miles tall, and comprise 500 stories. 500
Dubai City Tower 2.4 km (7,900 ft) 2008 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   United Arab Emirates Dubai The Dubai City Tower is a proposed 400-floor, 2,400 m (7,900 ft) tall building to be built in Dubai, consisting of six outer buildings entwining a central core. 400
Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid 2 km (6,600 ft) 1996 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   Japan Tokyo The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid is a proposed project for construction of a massive pyramid over Tokyo Bay in Japan. The structure would be approximately 14 times as high as the Great Pyramid of Giza, and would house 750,000 people. If built, it will be the largest man-made structure on Earth. 240
The Dutch Mountain 2 km (6,600 ft) 2012 Artificial Mountain Tourism, leisure, commercial and wind generation   Netherlands Flevoland "De Nederlandse Berg", Dutch for "The Dutch Mountain" is a proposal for an artificial mountain by Thijs Zonneveld.[14][15][16] N/A
Millennium Challenge Tower 1.852 km (6,080 ft) 2005 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   Kuwait Kuwait City A super-tall skyscraper designed by architect Omero Marchetti as part of his proposed "ethic city" concept. The aims of the project are to reach a nautical mile in height while "not using concrete, orthogonal grids, traditional systems, mortars, [and] cranes."[17] If built, the tower would reach 1,852 metres (6,076 ft). N/A
Times Squared 3015 1.733 km (5,686 ft) 2015 Vertical City Mixed Use   United States New York City Times Squared 3015 is a Vertical City envisioned in New York City. N/A
Sky Mile Tower 1.7 km (5,577 ft)[18] 2015 Skyscraper Mixed Use   Japan Tokyo Sky Mile Tower is the central hub of Next Tokyo, a visionary project that would serve as a combatant for climate change by serving as a dam and supplying water to its 55,000 residents. The complex and Sky Mile Tower's plans are being reviewed by Tokyo's administration as of 7 February 2016. 421
Xtopia 1.614 km (5,295 ft) 2010 Skyscraper Multiple   China Shanghai Xtopia is a concept building for a 300-floor high-rise self-contained community. 300
Bionic Tower 1.228 km (4,030 ft) 1997 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   China Shanghai and Hong Kong have both expressed serious interest The Bionic Tower is a proposed vertical city, an extremely large building designed for human habitation, designed by architects Eloy Celaya, Mª Rosa Cervera and Javier Gómez Pioz. It would have a main tower 1,228 m (4,029 ft) high, with 300 stories that would house about 100,000 people. 300
Azerbaijan Tower 1.050 km (3,440 ft) 2012 Skyscraper Commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   Azerbaijan Baku Azerbaijan Tower, 1,050 m (3,440 ft) tall, is a proposed building in Baku, Azerbaijan and is planned as part of the proposed "Khazar Islands" project.[19] 189
Murjan Tower 1.022 km (3,350 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   Bahrain Manama Murjan Tower, 1.022 km (3,350 ft) tall, is a Swedish company's proposal for a super-tall skyscraper in Bahrain. Designed by architect Henning Larsens Tegnestue A/S, it is expected to comprise 200 floors.[20] 200
Burj Mubarak al-Kabir 1.001 km (3,280 ft) 2007 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   Kuwait Madinat al-Hareer The Mubarak al-Kabir Tower, 1,001 m (3,284 ft) tall, in Madinat al-Hareer (City Of Silk Kuwait) by Eric Kuhne and Associates[clarification needed] 234
Green Float 1,000 m (3,281 ft) 2010 Arcology Mixed Use   Japan Tokyo The Green Float located in Tokyo Bay would be able to house up to 40,000 people. N/A
Sky City 1000 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 1989 Arcology Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   Japan Tokyo The Sky City 1000, 1,000 m (3,300 ft) tall, is an arcology project proposal aimed at helping put an end to major congestion and lack of greenspace in the Tokyo, Japan metropolitan area. The plan consists of a building 1,000 m (3,281 ft) tall and 400 m (1,312 ft) wide at the base, and a total floor area of 8 km2 (3.1 sq mi). Drawn up by construction firm Takenaka for the city of Tokyo in 1989, its design was the first of the modern super-tall mega-structures to gain serious attention and consideration by any government. 196
Oblisco Capitale 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 2018 Skyscraper Mixed Use   Egypt New Administrative Capital Oblitale Capitale was a proposed skyscraper in Cairo, Egypt. 165
Buenos Aires Forum 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 2009 Skyscraper Mixed Use   Argentina Buenos Aires If built, it would be the tallest building in the world. As of 2020, no construction has been started. 200
Europa Tower (Brussels) 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 1993 Skyscraper Office, observation, restaurant   Belgium Brussels Europa Tower was a skyscraper project designed by L35 Arquitectos. The tower is articulated in nine modules, the first one is 100 meters high and next ones are 96 meters high.[21] The project was reported in the CERCHA N°19 architecture magazine in July 1993.[22] N/A
Nansha Tower 900 m (3,000 ft) 2015 Skyscraper Mixed Use   China Guangzhou Nansha Tower was a proposed skyscraper in Guangzhou, China. 165
Millennium Tower (Tokyo) 840 m (2,760 ft) 1989 Skyscraper Mixed Use   Japan Tokyo A Skyscraper that is envisioned by Norman Foster. If built, it would be taller than the world's current tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. It would be located in the Tokyo Bay. 170
Sky City (Changsha) 838 m (2,749 ft) 2012 Skycraper Mixed use   China Changsha If it is built as planned, Sky City would be the tallest building in the world. 202
DIB-200 800 m (2,600 ft) 1993 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   Japan Tokyo DIB-200, 800 m (2,600 ft) tall, is a possible mixed use supertall skyscraper project proposed by Kajima Construction, and designed by Sadaaki Masuda and Scott Howe. 200
The Mandragore 737 m (2,418 ft) 2020 Skyscraper Mixed Use   United States New York The Mandragore was a proposed skyscraper in New York, United States. 160
Shimao Shenzhen–Hong Kong International Centre 700 m (2,297 ft) 2017 Skyscraper Hotel, Office   China Shenzhen Shimao Shenzhen–Hong Kong International Center is a concept building for a 148-floor for Shenzhen. 148
Princesa Tower 680 m (2,231 ft) 2018 Observation tower Leisure, retail, and observation   Philippines Puerto Princesa N/A
Dream Tower 665 m (2,182 ft) 2009 Skyscraper Commercial and retail real estate   South Korea Seoul Dream Tower, 665 m (2,182 ft) tall, is a proposed tower to be built in Seoul, South Korea; it will have 150 floors.[23] 150
Bengaluru Turf Tower 663 m (2,175 ft) N/A Skyscraper Residential   India Bangalore N/A 157
Gateway Tower (Chicago) 610 m (2,000 ft) 2016 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   United States Chicago The Gateway Tower (Chicago) is a proposed super-tall skyscraper, designed by American architectural firm Gensler as a replacement for the Chicago Spire site. With a total height of 610 metres (2,000 ft), the tower would be the tallest in the Western Hemisphere, and comprise 127 stories if built. 127
The Big Bend 610 m (2,000 ft) 2015 Skyscraper Residential   United States New York City N/A
Malaya 115 596.6 m (1,957 ft) N/A Skyscraper Mixed Use   Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Malaya Tower was a proposed skyscraper in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. and it will be the second tallest building in Malaysia and Southeast Asia, also sixth tallest building in the world, surpassing the Lotte World Tower in South Korea. If completed, it would reach a height of 596.6 m (1,957 ft), representing the independence year of Malaysia (1957). 115
Port Tower 593.5 m (1,947 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   Pakistan Karachi The Port Tower is a project approved for construction in Karachi, the financial capital of Pakistan. If completed, it would reach a height of 593 m (1,947 ft), representing the independence year of Pakistan (1947). 130
Hudson Spire 550 m (1,800 ft) 2014 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   United States New York The Hudson Spire is a supertall skyscraper proposed by a developer from Tishman Speyer as part of Manhattan's Hudson Yards development. With a total height of 550 metres (1,800 ft), the tower would be the tallest in the Western Hemisphere. 110
Al Noor Tower 540 m (1,770 ft) 2014 Skyscraper Mixed Use   Morocco Casablanca The Proposed Al Noor tower will become Africa's tallest building if completed. 114
GIFT Diamond Tower 410 m (1,350 ft) 2002 Skyscraper Commercial   India Gandhinagar GIFT Diamond Tower is a skyscraper proposed for Gujarat International Finance Tec-City in Gandhinagar in the Indian state of Gujarat. The proposed height is 410 metres (1,345 ft) in height.[24] Diamond Tower and the core CBD of GIFT will comprise a total of 25,800,000 sq ft (2,400,000 m2). 87
Solar updraft tower 400–1,000 m (1,300–3,300 ft) 2001 Power plant Power generation   Australia Buronga, New South Wales Solar updraft tower, Buronga, Australia, planned height between 400 m (1,300 ft) and 1,000 m (3,300 ft), state uncertain. N/A
Empire 88 Tower 333 m (1,093 ft) 2020 skyscraper Hotel, Residential   Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City empire city building was replaced by Empire 88 Tower and empire 88 tower would be completed by 2022 either September or October. And it would be the third largest building in vietnam. 88
Time Square Da Nang 230 m (750 ft) 2022 Skyscraper Mixed Use   Vietnam Da Nang Times Square Danang is a high-end luxury development with over 85% of units having a direct view of the sea in Da Nang. Each apartment in Da Nang Times Square is delicately and artistically created in the style of modern European architecture, incorporating a full range of new 5-star standard services and facilities that buyers are promised. Indulge in a stylish and appealing setting. N/A

Cancelled projectsEdit

Name Pinnacle height Year of first proposal Structure type Main use Country City Year of projected completion Description
Houston Tower 2,092 m (6,864 ft) 1979 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, leisure real estate,

office

  United States Houston Never begun The Houston Tower was an envisioned skyscraper that would have been nearly 1.3 miles (2.1 km) tall (6864 ft/2092 m) and taken up 16 city blocks in Houston.
Aeropolis 2001 2,000 m (6,600 ft) 1989 Arcology Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   Japan Tokyo Never begun The Aeropolis 2001 was a proposed project for construction of a massive 500-story high-rise building over Tokyo Bay in Japan. It was proposed to be a 2,000 m (6,562 ft) high building.
The Illinois 1,609 m (5,279 ft) 1956 Skyscraper Commercial, Residential, and leisure real estate   United States Chicago Never begun The Illinois, envisioned by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1956, was to be a mile high (1609 m / 5280 ft) skyscraper in Chicago.
Nakheel Tower 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 2003 Skyscraper residential, hotel, office   United Arab Emirates Dubai 2020 (cancelled 2009) Cancelled due to financial problems.
Sky City (Changsha) 838 m (2,749 ft) 2013 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   China Changsha 2014 (cancelled 2014) Cancelled due to concerns over the building's impact on the local environment.[25]
India tower 707.5 m (2,321 ft) 2010 Skyscraper residential / hotel / office   India Mumbai (Cancelled 2015) In May 2011 Mumbai's civic building proposals department issued a stop-work order due to a payment dispute with the developers, halting the tower's construction indefinitely. The tower was cancelled on 16 October 2015.
Phare du Monde 701 m (2,300 ft) 1934 Concrete observation tower Leisure and retail real estate   France Paris 1937 (construction never begun) Phare du Monde, was a project for a 701 metre tall observation tower for the world exhibition in Paris, 1937. It was planned as a concrete tower similar to a modern TV tower, but also with a ramp for drive up access.
Grollo Tower 678 m (2,224 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and leisure real estate   Australia Melbourne 2004 (cancelled 2001) Construction was cancelled on the Grollo Tower (named after the architect) in Melbourne's developing Dockland precinct in April 2001 after Melbourne's Docklands Authority ruled it out of the tender for development of the Batman Hill's precinct due to disagreements over who would pay for infrastructure improvements. The area is now occupied by a mixture of smaller commercial and residential buildings. The Grollo Tower would have been the world's tallest building at the time at 560 m (1837 ft) tall, down from the originally planned 678 m (2,224 ft) height, and still would have been the tallest building in the southern hemisphere.
Millenium Tower Las Vegas 671 m (2,201 ft) 2001 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   United States Las Vegas 2001 (cancelled in 2002) Millenium Tower Las Vegas in Las Vegas was proposed to be 671 m (2,201 ft) as the tallest building in the world, but it was cancelled in 2002 because of its massive height.
PAGCOR Tower 665 m (2,182 ft) 2008 Observation tower Leisure and observation facilities   Philippines Manila Cancelled in 2010 Originally part of the plans for the PAGCOR Entertainment City, the project was scrapped due to various reasons including air traffic regulations due to close proximity to the Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Warsaw radio mast 646 m (2,119 ft) Original in 1968, Replacement in 1992 Guyed mast VHF-UHF transmission   Poland Warsaw 1997 (cancelled 1995) Until late 1995, there were plans to rebuild the collapsed 646 m (2,119 ft) Warsaw Radio Mast to its previous height on the same site, using the basements of the old mast. Although some refurbishment of the basements started, work was canceled after violent protests by local residents, who feared harmful radiation effects from the high-power transmitter served by the antenna. A new transmission facility with two smaller masts measuring 330 and 289 m was built as a replacement in 1998–99 at Solec Kujawski.
Changchun World Trade Center 631 m (2,070 ft) 2017 Skyscraper Serviced, apartaments, hotel, and office   China Changchun 2028 (cancelled in 2020) Canceled due to height restriction.
Philippine Diamond Tower 612 m (2,008 ft) 2014 Observation tower Leisure, observation, and broadcast   Philippines Quezon City 2019 (construction never begun; projected to be completed within three years) The observation tower's height of 612 m (2,008 ft) is meant to signify the date of the Philippine declaration of independence (June 12).
Old Chicago Main Post Office Twin Towers 610 m (2,000 ft) 2011 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and hotel   United States Chicago 2022 (cancelled in 2014) Cancelled due to the dissolution of the construction company and abandonment of the project.
7 South Dearborn 610 m (2,000 ft) 1999 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate as well as communications facilities   United States Chicago 2004 (cancelled in 2000 due to lack of funding) 7 South Dearborn in Chicago was planned in 1999 to be 610 m (2,001 ft).
Chicago Spire 610 m (2,000 ft) 2005 Skyscraper Residential real estate   United States Chicago 2019 (cancelled in 2016) The Chicago Spire designed by Santiago Calatrava was intended to be the tallest building in the western hemisphere as well as the tallest residential building in the world. It was abandoned in 2008 due to financial problems. As of March 11, 2014, as long as the project is funded, it assumed to resume construction.
Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle 610 m (2,000 ft) 1988 Skyscraper Commercial, and Residential real estate   United States Chicago 1994 (cancelled 1992) The Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle in Chicago was to be 610 m (2,001 ft)[26] tall in 1988.
1 Dubai 600 m (2,000 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Unknown   United Arab Emirates Dubai 2010 (cancelled in 2009) 1 Dubai is a proposal in Dubai to planned to be completed, but in 2009, it was cancelled.
International Business Center 580 m (1,900 ft) 2007 Skyscraper Commercial real estate   South Korea Seoul 2013 (cancelled 2008) International Business Center was a proposed skyscraper to be constructed in Seoul, South Korea for a height of 580 m (1,900 ft), it was to have 130 floors planned to be completed in 2013.
Crown Las Vegas 575 m (1,886 ft) 2006 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, and retail real estate   United States Las Vegas 2006 (cancelled in 2008) Crown Las Vegas in Las Vegas was proposed to be 575 m (1,886 ft), but it was cancelled in 2008 after 2 major redesigns.
Kowloon MTR Tower 574 m (1,883 ft) 2003 Skyscraper Office   China Hong Kong 2003 (cancelled 2005) Now built as the International Commerce Center.
Grollo Tower 560 m (1,840 ft) 2001 Skyscraper Residential and Commercial real estate   Australia Melbourne 2001 (cancelled in 2004) Revised version of the Grollo Tower shown above.
New York Stock Exchange Tower 546 m (1,791 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Office   United States New York 2004 (cancelled 2001) The 546 m tall, 140 story tower was cancelled in 2001 due to 9/11.
Grant USA Tower 533.4 m (1,750 ft) 1970 Skyscraper Commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   United States Newark, New Jersey 1986 (cancelled 1986) The Grant USA Tower was planned by developer Harry Grant, who started New York Apple Tours. The building was to be completed in 1986 in Newark, New Jersey and to be the tallest hotel, tallest building and tallest structure. Harry Grant went bankrupt and the building never broke ground.[27]
Television City Tower 510 m (1,670 ft) 1985 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   United States New York 1988 (cancelled 1985) The 510 m tall, 150 story, Helmut Jahn-designed tower proposed by Donald Trump in New York, United States was cancelled in 1988 due to serious local opposition.
Eaton's / John Maryon Tower 503 m (1,650 ft) 1971 Skyscraper Commercial and leisure real estate   Canada Toronto 1976 (cancelled 1972) Eaton's / John Maryon Tower was a planned 503 m (1,650 ft) (686m to spire) tall building in Toronto in 1971.
10 Columbus Circle 500 m (1,600 ft) 1986 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   United States New York 1987 (cancelled 1986) The 500 m tall, 137 story, 10 Columbus Circle in New York, United States was cancelled in 1987.
Dragon Tower 500 m (1,600 ft) 1996 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   Indonesia Jakarta 2002 (cancelled 1998) The 500 m tall, 101 story, Dragon Tower in Jakarta, Indonesia was cancelled in 1998 due to the Asian financial crisis.
Kaisa Feng Long Center 500 m (1,600 ft) 2011 Skyscraper Hotel / office   China Shenzhen 2012 (cancelled 2011)
Empire City Tower 462 m (1,516 ft) 2015 Skyscraper Mixed use   Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City 2022 (cancelled 2017) The 462 m tall, 86 story, Empire City Tower in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam was cancelled in 2017, It will be replaced by the 333 meter Empire 88 Tower.
The Hyperboloid 455 m (1,493 ft) 1956 Skyscraper Residential, commercial, retail, and leisure real estate   United States New York 1959 (cancelled 1957) The 108 story, Hyperboloid in New York, United States, designed by I. M. Pei, was cancelled in 1957. Now built as the Metlife Tower.
Brisbane Central Tower 450 m (1,480 ft) 1987 Skyscraper Unknown   Australia Brisbane 1987 (cancelled in 1993)
Minuzzo Tower 450 m (1,480 ft) 1993 Skyscraper Unknown   Australia Brisbane 1993 (cancelled in 1995)
Twin Towers 2 450 m (1,480 ft) 2004 Skyscraper Office, observation, communication   United States New York 2018 (cancelled in 2010)
CBD-1 445 m (1,460 ft) 1993 Skyscraper Unknown   Australia Sydney 1995 (cancelled in 1997)
Psary, Poland broadcast tower 440 m (1,440 ft) 2009 Reinforced concrete and steel television tower DVB-T signal transmission   Poland Psary, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship undetermined At Bodzentyn, Poland a 440 metres tall tower is proposed for distributing DVB-T signals from the satellite station to TV broadcasting sites.[28] It will be, if built, the tallest man-made structure in Europe outside Russia.
Bank of the Southwest Tower 429 m (1,407 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Office   United States Houston 1982 (cancelled 1984) The 86 story tower was cancelled in 1984 due to an oil bust in Texas.
Palace of Soviets 415 m (1,362 ft) 1932 Skyscraper Bureaucratic administrative center and conference hall   Soviet Union Moscow 1947 (cancelled 1942) The Palace of Soviets in Moscow, planned in 1932, was to be 415 m (including a 100 m Lenin statue), and would have been the tallest building in the world at the time if completed. Construction was halted during World War II, during which the uncompleted structure was partially dismantled; its foundations were later to serve as the world's largest open-air swimming pool before being razed in 1995.
The Monument to the Third International 400 m (1,300 ft) 1919 Grand Monument Conference hall, bureaucratic administrative center, information administrative center   Soviet Union Moscow None given During the Russian October Revolution of 1917, Vladimir Tatlin designed a structure named The Monument to the Third International, which was to serve as the international headquarters of the Komintern. Better known as the Tatlin Tower, the structure was to rise to a height of 400 m (1,312 ft), which would have made it by far the tallest building in the world at that time, but time & resource shortages as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the Russian Civil War, economic mismanagement, and political repressions halted the project.
Millennium Freedom Tower 376.8 m (1,236 ft) 1998 Observation tower Leisure and observation facilities   United States Newport, Kentucky 2000 (above ground construction never begun) The Millennium Freedom Tower was a project to be located in Newport, Kentucky, United States was originally proposed in 1998 to be dedicated on Dec 31, 1999. The original height was a proposed 1,234 feet (376 m) and was later lowered to 1,103 ft (306 m). Pilings were driven in 1998, but construction never continued above ground.[29]
Watkin's Tower 358 m (1,175 ft) 1890 Iron latticed observation tower Leisure and retail real estate   United Kingdom Wembley 1894 (construction halted 1896) Watkin's Tower in Wembley, London was planned in 1891 to surpass the Eiffel Tower by 50 m (164 ft), but construction stopped before that height was reached due to unstable land and insufficient funds. The tower remnants were dismantled in the 1900s, and the site was redeveloped as Wembley Stadium.
Scandinavian Tower 325 m (1,066 ft) 1997 Skyscraper Residential   Sweden Malmö 2004 The Scandinavian Tower was intended to be the tallest skyscraper in Europe.[30] It was abandoned in 2004 in favor of Malmö Tower.
World Science Tower N/A 1964 Guyed mast Leisure facilities   United States Larkspur, Colorado N/A The World Science Tower was going to be one of the world's tallest buildings, proposed in 1964. It was to be located near Larkspur, Colorado, U.S. It would have had an amusement park at its base.
Volkshalle 290 m (950 ft)
with spire 320 m (1,050 ft)
1937 Skyscraper Cultural and convention center   Nazi Germany Berlin 1950 (cancelled 1942) Huge domed monument building planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer for Germania, the projected renewal of the German capitol Berlin.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts suggested building space elevator on equatorial floating platform located at the “lightning-free” zone within international waters off the coast of Ecuador, about 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) west of the Galapagos Islands.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrnter.com. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  2. ^ Edwards, Bradley C. (2000). "Design and Deployment of a Space Elevator" (PDF). Acta Astronautica. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 47 (10): 735–744. doi:10.1016/s0094-5765(00)00111-9. ISSN 0094-5765.
  3. ^ a b Edwards, Bradley C. (2003). "The Space Elevator - NIAC phase II final report" (PDF). www.niac.usra.edu. NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  4. ^ Lewis, Leo (22 September 2008). "Japan hopes to turn sci-fi into reality with elevator to the stars". The Times. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010. Lewis, Leo; News International Group; accessed 22 September 2008.
  5. ^ Xia, Zhang (17 November 2017). "China Shoots for Stars With Plans to Build Space Elevator by 2045". Yicai Global. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  6. ^ a b Meulenberg, Andrew; Karthik Balaji, P.S. (2011). "The LEO Archipelago: A system of earth-rings for communications, mass-transport to space, solar power, and control of global warming" (PDF). Acta Astronautica. Elsevier BV. 68 (11–12): 1931–1946. arXiv:1009.4043. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.12.002. ISSN 0094-5765. S2CID 119271804.
  7. ^ Paul Birch, "Orbital Ring Systems and Jacob's Ladders - I", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 35, 1982, pp. 475–497. (see pdf) (Accessed 6 April 2016).
  8. ^ Paul Birch, "Orbital Ring Systems and Jacob's Ladders - II", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 36, 1982, 115. (pdf).
  9. ^ Paul Birch, "Orbital Ring Systems and Jacob's Ladders - III", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 36, 1982, 231. (pdf).
  10. ^ PDF version of Lofstrom's 1985 launch loop publication (AIAA 1985) Archived September 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ a b Quine, B.M.; Seth, R.K.; Zhu, Z.H. (2009). "A free-standing space elevator structure: a practical alternative to the space tether". Acta Astronautica. 65 (3–4): 365–375. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.02.018. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  12. ^ "Canadian Mini Space Elevator Paper Available - The Space Elevator Reference". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  13. ^ These futuristic cities are housed inside a single, gigantic building
  14. ^ "Die Berg Komt Er - Wie zijn wij". diebergkomter.nl. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
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