List of villages depopulated during the Arab–Israeli conflict
Below is a list of villages depopulated or destroyed during the Arab–Israeli conflict.
A number of these villages, those in the Jezreel Valley, were inhabited by tenants of land which was sold by a variety of owners, some local and others absentee landlord families, such as the Karkabi, Tueini, Farah and Khuri families and Sursock family of Lebanon. In some cases land was sold directly by local fellahim (peasant owners). The sale of land to Jewish organizations meant that tenant farmers were displaced.
List of Palestinian villages from which tenant farmers were uprooted before 1948, with the cause of the uprooting (i.e., sale by landlord or some other cause) given along with the name of Jewish settlements on newly acquired land (in parentheses) can be seen below.
1929 Palestine riots
During the 1929 Palestine riots:
1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine
During the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine:
1948 Arab–Israeli War
Palestinian Arab residents were expelled from hundreds of towns and villages by the Israel Defense Forces, or fled in fear as the Israeli army advanced. Around 400 Arab towns and villages were depopulated.
- In areas that became Israel
- In areas that became the West Bank
- Atarot
- Beit HaArava
- Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem)
- Kalia
- Neve Yaakov
- Gush Etzion near Jerusalem:
- In areas that became Gaza Strip (All-Palestine protectorate)
- Israel-Syria border
- Hauran
- In Transjordan
Three Arab villages, Bayt Nuba, Imwas and Yalo, located in the Latrun Corridor were destroyed on the orders of Yitzhak Rabin due to the corridor's strategic location and route to Jerusalem and because of the residents' alleged aiding of Egyptian commandos in their attack on the city of Lod. The residents of the three villages were offered compensation but were not allowed to return.
In the Negev/Sinai Desert
- Auja al-Hafir – A demilitarized zone
Over 100,000 Golan Heights residents were evacuated from about 25 villages whether on orders of the Syrian government or through fear of an attack by the Israeli Defense Forces and expulsion after the ceasefire. During the following months, more than a hundred Syrian villages were destroyed by Israel.
1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty
Israel's unilateral disengagement plan
As a part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, 21 civilian Israeli settlements were forcibly evacuated, as well as an area in the northern West Bank containing four Israeli villages. The residential buildings were razed by Israel but public structures were left intact. The religious structures not removed by Israel were later destroyed by Palestinians.
|In the Gaza Strip (all 21 settlements, as well as 1 Bedouin village):|
|In the West Bank (4 settlements):|
- Said and Hitchens, 2001, p. 217; notes 28, 29, on p. 232
- Kenneth W. Stein, The Land Question in Palestine, 1917–1939, UNC Press Books, 1987 p.60. The Sursocks sold Jinujar, Tall al-Adas, Jabata, Khuneifis, Jeida, Harbaj, Harithiya, Affula, Shuna, Jidru, Majdal.
- Barbara Jean Smith, The Roots of Separatism in Palestine: British Economic Policy, 1920–1929, Syracuse University Press, 1993 pp.96–97;
- Mark A. Tessler, A History of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict, Indiana University Press, 1994 p.177, writes 'The Sursock deal is known to have involved the eviction of about 8000 tenants "compensated" at three pounds ten shillings [about $17] a head.'
- Huneidi and Khalidi, 2001, p. 223
- Palestine Commission on the Disturbances of August 1929, H.M.S.O., 1930, vol.1 p.437:'The Sursock titles should have been looked into as was acknowledged by the government officials themselves.The transfer became an irregular one, if not an illegal one, because the peasants' claims were not satisfied.'
- Henry Laurens, La Question de Palestine, vol.2 (Une mission sacrée de civilisation), Fayard, Paris, 2002 pp.143–148.
- Benny Morris, Righteous Victims. First Vintage 2001 edition, p55.
- Avneri, 1984, pp. 96-98
- Avneri, 1984, p. 203
- Karmon, 1960, p. 167
- Moshe Dayan, cited in Rogan and Shlaim, 2001, p. 207
- Grootkerk, 2000, pp. 280-1
- Stein, 1987, p. 60
- Karmon, 1960, p. 163
- Khalidi, 1992, p. xix
- Khalidi, 1992, pp. XIX-XX
- Barron, 1923, Table IX, Sub-district of Baisan, p. 31
- Mills, 1932, p. 79
- Pringles, 1997, p. 62
- Avneri, 1984, pp. 156-7
- Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 14
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 49
- Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 13
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 47
- Avneri, 1984, p. 210, note #87, on p. 297
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 158
- Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Haifa, p. 34
- Sandra Marlene Sufian and Mark LeVine (2007) Reapproaching Borders: New Perspectives on the Study of Israel–Palestine Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-4639-X pp. 32
- Avneri, 1984, p. 122
- Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol 6, entry "Colonies, Agricultural", p. 287.
- "(List of villages destroyed before 1948)רשימת הכפרים שנהרסו לפני 1948". Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001, p.319
- Sylva M. Gelber, No Balm in Gilead: A Personal Retrospective of Mandate Days in Palestine, Carleton University/McGill University Press 1989 p.88.
- Friedland, Roger; Hecht, Roger (2000). To Rule Jerusalem. University of California Press. p. 436. ISBN 978-0-520-22092-8.
- Shragai, Nadav (January 4, 2004). "11 Jewish families move into J'lem neighborhood of Silwan". Haaretz.
- Palestine Post, August 15, 1938, p. 2
- History of the Etzion Bloc: The Siege and Fall Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine Page 8 of 11
- Oren, 2002, pp. 307.
- UN Doc A/8389 Archived 2014-02-03 at the Wayback Machine of 5 October 1971
- REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE ISRAELI PRACTICES AFFECTING THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE POPULATION OF THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES Archived 2015-02-23 at the Wayback Machine (UN Doc A/8089) 5 October 1970
- "The Fate of Abandoned Arab Villages, 1965–1969" by Aron Shai (History & Memory - Volume 18, Number 2, Fall/Winter 2006, pp. 86–106)
- Avneri, Arieh L. (1984). The Claim of Dispossession: Jewish Land-settlement and the Arabs, 1878–1948. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-87855-964-7.
- Barron, J.B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945.
- Grootkerk, Salomon E. (2000). Ancient sites in Galilee: a toponymic gazetteer (Illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-11535-4.
- Hadawi, S. (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Centre.
- Huneidi, Sahar; Khalidi, W. (2001). A Broken Trust: Herbert Samuel, Zionism and the Palestinians 1920-1925. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-172-5.
- Kark, R.; Oren-Nordheim, Michal (2001). Jerusalem and its environs: quarters, neighborhoods, villages, 1800-1948 (Illustrated ed.). Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2909-2.
- Karmon, Y. (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine" (PDF). Israel Exploration Journal. 10 (3, 4): 155–173, 244–253.
- Khalidi, W. (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Pringle, Denys (1997). Secular Buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: An Archaeological Gazetter. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-46010-7.
- Rogan, E.; Shlaim, A. (2001). The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79476-5.
- Said, E.; Hitchens, C. (2001). Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question. Verso. p. 217. ISBN 1859843409. Retrieved 29 October 2014.