List of lishes

Since the 1930s English has created numerous portmanteau words using the word English as the second element. These refer to varieties of English that are heavily influenced by other languages or that are typical of speakers from a certain country or region. The term can mean a type of English heavily influenced by another language (typically the speaker's L1) in accent, lexis, syntax, etc., or to the practice of code-switching between languages.

In some cases, the word refers to the use of the Latin alphabet to write languages that use a difference script, especially common on computer platforms that only allow Latin input such as online chat, social networks, emails and SMS.

The practice of forming new words in this way has become increasingly popular since the 1990s and one scholarly article lists 510 such terms, known as "lishes".[1]

The following is a list of lishes that have Wikipedia pages.

Common lishesEdit


  1. ^ Lambert, James. 2018. A multitude of ‘lishes’: The nomenclature of hybridity. English World-Wide, 39(1): 1-33. doi: 10.1075/eww.38.3.04lam

Further readingEdit

  • Barrett, Grant (2006). The Official Dictionary of Unofficial English. New York: McGraw Hill Professional.
  • Burgess, Anthony (9 September 1973). "Ameringlish Isn't Britglish". New York Times Magazine: 86.
  • Campbell, Lyle (1998). Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Lambert, James (2018). "A multitude of 'lishes': The nomenclature of hybridity". English World-Wide: 1–33. doi:10.1075/eww.38.3.04lam.
  • McArthur, Tom (1995). "The Anglo-hybrids". English Today. 11: 2.
  • Rowse, Arthur E. (2011). Amglish In, Like, Ten Easy Lessons: A Celebration of the New World Lingo. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.