List of lishes
Since the 1930s English has created numerous portmanteau words using the word English as the second element. These refer to varieties of English that are heavily influenced by other languages or that are typical of speakers from a certain country or region. The term can mean a type of English heavily influenced by another language (typically the speaker's L1) in accent, lexis, syntax, etc., or to the practice of code-switching between languages.
In some cases, the word refers to the use of the Latin alphabet to write languages that use a difference script, especially common on computer platforms that only allow Latin input such as online chat, social networks, emails and SMS.
The practice of forming new words in this way has become increasingly popular since the 1990s and one scholarly article lists 510 such terms, known as "lishes".
The following is a list of lishes that have Wikipedia pages.
- Amerglish – American English
- Arablish - a mixture of Arabic and English
- Auslish – Australian English
- Benglish – a mixture of Bengali and English
- Bislish – a mixture of Visayan and English
- Brenglish – British English
- Brunglish – Brunei English
- Canadinglish - Canadian English
- Chinglish – a mixture of Chinese and English; Chinese English
- Czenglish – a mixture of Czech and English
- Danglish – a mixture of Danish and English
- Denglisch – a mixture of German and English
- Dunglish – a mixture of Dutch and English
- Espanglish = Spanglish
- Eurolish – European English
- Finglish – a mixture of Finnish and English
- Frenglish – a mixture of French and English; Franglais
- Germlish - a mixture of German and English; Denglisch
- Greeklish – a mixture of Greek and English
- Heblish – a mixture of Hebrew and English
- Hinglish – a mixture of Hindi and English
- Hunglish – a mixture of Hungarian and English
- Indlish – Indian English
- Itanglish – a mixture of Italian and English; Itanglese
- Janglish – a mixture of Japanese and English
- Kanglish – a mixture of Kannada and English
- Kiwilish – New Zealand English
- Konglish – a mixture of Korean and English
- Manglish – a mixture of Malay and English
- Namlish – Namibian English
- Nepanglish – a mixture of Nepali and English
- Nihonglish – a mixture of Japanese and English; Janglish
- Ozlish – Australian English
- Paklish – Pakistani English
- Pinglish – Pakistani English; Palestine English; Persian English; Polish English; Punjabi English
- Poglish - a mixture of Polish and English
- Punjlish - a mixture of Punjabi and English
- Runglish - a mixture of Russian and English
- Siculish - a mixture of Sicilian and English
- Singlish - Colloquial Singaporean English
- Spanglish - a mixture of Spanish and English
- Swenglish - a mixture of Swedish and English
- Taglish - a mixture of Tagalog and English
- Tanglish - a mixture of Tamil and English
- Tenglish - a mixture of Telugu and English
- Tinglish - a mixture of Thai and English
- Uglish - Ugandan English
- Vietglish - a mixture of Vietnamese and English
- Wenglish - a mixture of Welsh and English; Welsh English
- Yanklish – American English
- Yeshivish - Yeshiva English
- Yidlish - a mixture of Yiddish and English
- Zimblish - Zimbabawean and English
- Barrett, Grant (2006). The Official Dictionary of Unofficial English. New York: McGraw Hill Professional.
- Burgess, Anthony (9 September 1973). "Ameringlish Isn't Britglish". New York Times Magazine: 86.
- Campbell, Lyle (1998). Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
- Lambert, James (2018). "A multitude of 'lishes': The nomenclature of hybridity". English World-Wide: 1–33. doi:10.1075/eww.38.3.04lam.
- McArthur, Tom (1995). "The Anglo-hybrids". English Today. 11: 2.
- Rowse, Arthur E. (2011). Amglish In, Like, Ten Easy Lessons: A Celebration of the New World Lingo. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.