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The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store captured solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity when the sun isn't shining.[1]

This is a list of energy storage projects worldwide, other than pumped hydro storage. Many individual energy storage projects augment electrical grids by capturing excess electrical energy during periods of low demand and storing it in other forms until needed on an electrical grid. The energy is later converted back to its electrical form and returned to the grid as needed. Most of the world's grid energy storage by capacity is in the form of pumped-storage hydroelectricity, which is covered in List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations. This article list projects using all other forms of energy storage.

Another energy storage method is the consumption of surplus or low-cost energy (typically during night time) for conversion into resources such as hot water, cool water or ice, which is then used for heating or cooling at other times when electricity is in higher demand and at greater cost per kilowatt hour (kWh). Such thermal energy storage is often employed at end-user sites such as large buildings, and also as part of district heating, thus 'shifting' energy consumption to other times for better balancing of supply and demand.

For a list of systems and forms of energy storage see energy storage and grid energy storage.

Contents

Projects and sitesEdit

Energy storage projects and sites
Name Type Energy
MWh
Power
MW
Hours Description Country Location Refs
Ruien Energy storage Battery, lithium-ion 32 25 1.2 RES is currently developing a Battery-based Energy Storage System (BESS) in Ruien (East Flanders, Belgium). The BESS aims to deliver ancillary services to European grid operators (TSOs) as well as energy services to local businesses at the site of the former 800MW coal-fired power plant currently under post-decommissioning redevelopment. Belgium Ruien http://www.res-nv.be/
Alata Battery, lithium-ion 4.3 ? ? Cofely Ineo solar, installed 2018 France Corsica [2]
Terhills Battery, lithium-ion ? 18.2 ? 140 Tesla Powerpacks, installed 2018 Belgium Terhills [3]
Dalian VFB - UET / Rongke Power Battery, vanadium redox flow 800 200 4 The battery arrays approved by the China National Energy Administration will be made up of ten (10X) 20MW/80MWh Vanadium Flow Battery (VFB) energy storage systems deployed in Dalian city and connected to the main grid of Liaoning Province which has experienced stress during extreme weather events. After full commissioning, the VFB energy storage system will be able to peak-shave approximately 8% of Liaoning Province's expected peaking capacity in 2020.In addition, the large-scale battery will form an additional load center, which will enhance grid stabilization including securing the power supply and providing black-start capabilities in the event of emergency. This project will be deployed in two phases, each with 100MW/400MWh. The first phase will be finished around the end of 2017 and the second will be finished around the end of 2018. This project is approved by China National Energy Administration, and the owner is a JV with the major shareholder being a local utility company, and the minor being RONGKE POWER. China Liaoning, Dalian [4][5][6]
Hyundai & Korea Zinc energy storage system Battery, lithium-ion ? 150 ? Hyundai completed, in April 2018, the mega industrial energy storage system (ESS) ordered by Korea Zinc, a metal smelting company, at a cost of €37,87 million. It is located at its Ulsan refinery near the southeast coast and is the largest battery in the world. South Korea Ulsan [7] [8]
Smarter Network Storage Battery, lithium-ion 10 6 1.65 The project is developing control and optimization systems for energy storage. Trials include providing service to distribution network operators and transmission system operators. United Kingdom England, Bedfordshire, Leighton Buzzard [9][10]
AES Kilroot Power Storage Battery ? 10 ? In April 2014 the AES Corporation announced plans to build a 100 MW energy storage facility to complement its existing North Ireland power station near Belfast. In January 2016 AES announced that it had completed 10MW of the project as a first step towards the planned 100MW total. United Kingdom Northern Ireland, Kilroot [11][12][13][14]
Orkney Storage Park Project Battery, lithium-ion 0.5 2 0.25 In 2013 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. with Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution (SHEPD) created a demonstration project using the UK's Orkney Islands distribution grid. Funding was provided by the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (OFGEM) under its Tier 1 Low Carbon Network Fund. The system capacity is 800 kWh nominal, 500 kWh normal usage using two 12 m containers for its batteries and one for its power conditioning system. United Kingdom Scotland, Orkney Islands, Kirkwall [4][15]
Andasol Solar Power Station Thermal storage, molten salt 1,030.5 134.7 7.5 A thermal storage system absorbs part of the daytime heat absorbed by the solar field, heating a molten salt mixture of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate. The heat is used to drive a turbine-generator when direct sunlight is not available, nearly doubling the available hours of operation. A full thermal reservoir holds 1,010 MWh of heat capability, enough to run the turbine for over seven hours at full load. Spain Granada, Guadix [1][16][17]
Hokkaido Battery Storage Project (provisional name) Battery, vanadium redox flow 60 15 Vanadium redox flow battery from Sumitomo near several solar energy projects on Hokkaido Island, operational in December 2015. Japan Hokkaido [18] [19]
Yerba Buena Battery Energy Storage System Pilot Project Battery, sodium-sulfur 24 4 6 The project uses sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS) to determine whether such batteries can improve power quality and reliability on the electrical grid. United States California, East San Jose [20][21][22]
Falkenhagen power-to-gas pilot plant Power to gas ? 2 ? On 28 August 2013, E.ON Hanse, solvicore and Swissgas inaugurated the commercial Power to Gas unit in Falkenhagen Germany. The two-megawatt unit can produce 360 cubic meters of hydrogen per hour. The plant uses wind power to extract hydrogen from water; the gas is then injected into the existing regional natural gas transmission system. Swissgas, which represents over 100 local natural gas utilities, is a partner in the project with a 20% capital stake and an agreement to purchase a portion of the gas produced. Germany Brandenburg, Falkenhagen [23][24]
Clear Creek Flywheel Wind Farm Project Flywheel 0.5 5 0.1 Temporal Power's flywheel energy storage (FES) technology is being deployed by Ontario's Hydro One Networks Inc. The 10-flywheel 5 MW installation will provide local power quality support, by balancing real and reactive power flows from a 20 MW wind farm Canada Ontario, Norfolk County [25]
BC Hydro Battery Energy Storage Project Battery, sodium-sulphur 6.5 1 6.5 A 1 MW battery is installed by BC Hydro on a 25 kV feeder near the community of Field, B.C. is able to operate islanded from the grid in order to provide back-up power to Field in the event of a feeder outage; it also discharges during peak hours from 4–8 pm daily. The C$13M facility was commissioned in September 2013, funded by BC Hydro and Canada's Department of Natural Resources after two years of construction and testing. Canada British Columbia, Field, Yoho National Park [25][26][27]
Electrochemical Energy Storage Project Battery, nickel-manganese-cobalt 1 1 1 The project was initially created in response to the university's need for emergency back-up power at the University of British Columbia Bioenergy Research and Demonstration Facility (BDRF), the energy storage system will advance research on integrating renewable-energy sources. Canada British Columbia, Vancouver [25]
NRStor Minto Flywheel Energy Storage Project Flywheel 0.5 2 0.25 NRStor was selected by Ontario's Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) to deliver 2 MW of frequency regulation services to the Ontario electricity grid. Temporal Power Ltd. is the flywheel manufacturer and supplies the 10-flywheel 2 MW facility. Canada Ontario, Minto, Harriston [25]
WEICAN Durathon Battery Project Battery, sodium-nickel chloride 20 10 2 The Wind Energy Institute of Canada contracted with S&C Electric Canada Ltd. to provide a Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery at their site on Prince Edward Island. The BESS will be operational by the fall of 2013. GE Energy Storage will provide the Durathon Battery Energy Storage System that will integrate into Prince Edward Island's pre-existing system. Canada Prince Edward Island, North Cape [25][28]
Huntorf CAES Plant Compressed air storage, in-ground natural gas combustion 870 290 3 First commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978, using nuclear-sourced night-time power to compress and inject the air into two caverns of 310,000 m³ total volume. The 600 m cavern depth ensures the air's stability through seasonal temperature changes, and guarantees the specified maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled daily; the other serves as backup when the nearby nuclear power plant goes offline. Germany Huntorf, Elsfleth [4][29]
Solana Generating Station Thermal storage, molten salt 1,680 280 6 Completed in 2013, the parabolic trough solar plant, with 6 hours storage by molten salt, is located near Gila Bend, Arizona. At the time it was the world's largest parabolic trough plant, and the first United States solar plant with thermal storage. United States Arizona, Gila Bend [30][31][32][33]
McIntosh CAES Plant Compressed air storage, in-ground natural gas combustion 2,860 110 26 The 2nd commercial CAES plant, in operation since 1991, stores compressed air in a salt cavern of 220 ft diameter, with ten million cubic foot total volume. The cavern is pressurized to 1,100 psi, and it is discharged down to 650 psi. During discharge, 340 pounds per second of air flow out of the cavern. The cavern can discharge for 26 hours. The plant also utilizes nuclear-sourced night-time power for compression and then produces peak power during the day by releasing the compressed air into a 110-MW gas-fired combustion turbine. The turbine unit also makes use of an air-to-air heat exchanger to preheat air from the cavern with waste heat from the turbine. The waste heat recovery system reduces fuel usage by roughly 25%. The system is fully operational within 15 minutes, uses a third of the fuel required for a fuel-only generating system, and can operate efficiently at low loads. The project is used for peak shaving. United States Alabama, McIntosh [4][29][34][35]
Notrees Wind Energy Storage Project Battery, advanced lead acid 24 36 0.67 A wind energy storage demonstration project at the Notrees Wind power project in western Texas created in 2013. The project provides 24 MW-hours energy storage with a peak instantaneous power output of 36 MW and a power management system. United States Texas, Notrees [4][15][36]
Laurel Mountain Battery, lithium-ion 8 32 0.25 The wind generation project includes 98 MW of wind generation and 32 MW of integrated battery-based energy storage. The project supplies the PJM Interconnection, the world's largest power market. United States West Virginia, Elkins [4][37]
Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) Battery, nickel cadmium 6.7 27 0.25 Completed in December 2003, the BESS is a Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) initiative to improve the reliability of service to GVEA members. When grid power fails, BESS provides up to 27 MW of power for 15 minutes. United States Alaska, Fairbanks [4]
Primus Power Modesto Wind Firming Energy Farm Battery, zinc chlorine redox flow 75 25 3 The project was initiated in the Modesto Irrigation District in California's Central Valley, in place of a proposed $78M / 50 MW fossil fuel plant; it will provide flexible capacity for the region and compensate for the variable nature of wind and solar energy. United States California, Modesto [4]
Angamos Battery, lithium-ion 6.6 20 0.33 A123 lithium-ion batteries supply reserve capacity to electrical grid in Northern Chile. The system continuously monitors the grid power, and if a significant frequency deviation occurs, the energy storage system can provide up to 20 MW of power nearly instantaneously, for up to 15 minutes. Chile Mejillones, Antofagasta [4]
Beacon New York Flywheel Energy Storage Plant Flywheel 5 20 0.25 A 20 MW flywheel plant used for frequency regulation in the NYISO service area, the world's largest flywheel installation. It consists of 200 individual spinning masses. United States New York, Stephentown [4][38][39][40]
Beacon Hazle Township Pennsylvania Plant Flywheel 5 20 0.25 Beacon's second 20 MW, 200-rotor frequency regulation facility serves the PJM regional electricity transmission market.[41] United States Pennsylvania, Hazle Township [4]
Kahuku Wind Farm Battery, advanced lead acid 3.7 15 0.25 A 15 MW fully integrated energy storage and power management system designed to provide load firming for a 30 MW wind farm in Hawaii. United States Hawaii, Oahu [4][39][42]
Los Andes Battery, lithium-ion 4 12 0.33 Provides reserve power to the electric grid in Northern Chile. The project continuously monitors the condition of the power system and if a significant frequency deviation occurs, the system provides up to 12 MW of power for up to 20 minutes. Chile Atacama, Copiapó [4]
Next Gen CAES using steel piping Compressed air storage, modular 40.5 9 4.5 9 MW plant will use steel piping to hold pressurized air instead of subterranean caverns. Groundbreaking slated for 2013 to 2014 time frame. United States New York, Queens [4]
Johnson City Battery, lithium-ion 2 8 0.25 A bank of 800,000 A123 lithium-ion batteries performs frequency regulation for the New York ISO. The system was the largest lithium-ion battery in commercial service on the US power grid when completed. United States New York, Johnson City [4]
Tehachapi Energy Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 32 8 4 A demonstration project evaluating the performance of an 8 MW, 4-hour (32 MWh) lithium-ion battery system to improve grid performance and integration of large-scale variable energy resourced generation. Southern California Edison installed the system at its Monolith substation on the Antelope-Bailey transmission system. Performance is measured for 13 operational parameters. United States California, Tehachapi [4][43][44][45]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (I) Battery, lithium iron phosphate 36 6 6 The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage with an overall investment of 12 billion RMB (1.89 billion USD). The project currently includes a total of 14 MW of lithium-ion batteries and a vanadium redox flow battery: (I) 6 MW–36 MWh Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries (BYD Auto) (II) 4 MW–16 MWh lithium-ion batteries (Amperex Technology Limited (ATL)) (III) 3 MW–9 MWh lithium-ion batteries. (IV) 1 MW, 2 MWh lithium-ion batteries (Wanxiang Group) (V) 2 MW–8 MWh Vanadium Redox Flow Battery. Original plans to include 4 MW of sodium-sulfur batteries have been delayed over safety concerns. Energy storage applications include wind solar and other renewable energy integration, frequency regulation and voltage support. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. China Hebei, Zhangbei [4]
PhaseStor Program for the USA Dept. of Defense ESTCP (Environmental Security Technology Certification Program) Thermal storage, bio-based phase change material 0.703 load dependant Phase Change Energy Solutions USA completed design and installation of the PhaseStor advanced thermal storage system utilizing an engineered bio-based polymeric gel to store latent energy. The installation completed in 2018, provides 200 ton-hours of thermal energy storage used to cool the building during the daily peak demand period. The PCM tanks, manufactured in North Carolina, consist of multiple tubular polypropylene heat exchangers fully submerged in the PCM. A unique feature of this design is based on a PCM that remains solid regardless of charge state. This characteristic eliminates all environmental concerns of accidental spillage during transport or when in operation.

The practical demonstration occurred over a 24-month test period, covering all seasonal conditions, during this period the demonstration validated PhaseStor's ability to store thermal energy at different preset temperatures, utilizing a formula engineered specifically to optimize existing site conditions. The system effectiveness was validated by modulating the energy output (Btu/kW) at ambient temperature, therefore proving the energy and cost saving potential, while providing a healthy, productive, and comfortable environment for the building occupants.

United States California, Fort Irwin [4]
Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program Phase 2 Thermal storage, ice 12 6 2 Ice Energy and REU will collaborate on the second phase. The program to install Ice Bear units within the northern California territory aims to reduce peak electricity load demand by up to 6 MW over five years. REU expects to have the thermal energy storage program completed in 2017. Skyway Machine, a local Redding manufacturing company, will provide final assembly of the new Ice Bear units. United States California, Redding [4]
Guodian Supply-Side Energy Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 10 5 2 This project is State Power's first supply-side energy storage project, incorporating 49.5 MW installed wind capacity and a 5 MW lithium-ion battery system. The energy storage system provides power during low-wind conditions. China Liaoning, Jinzhou [4]
PGE Salem Smart Power Center (Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration) Battery, lithium-ion 1.2 5 0.25 Now under construction, the project will test a 5 MW, 1.25 MWh storage resource designed to increase distribution system reliability, aid renewable resource integration and decrease peak-price risk. United States Oregon, Salem [4]
JC Penney Headquarters Thermal storage, ice 53.1 4.425 12 The system offsets the peak demands of electrical use by making ice each night to cool the building the following day. United States Texas, Plano [4]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (II) Battery, lithium-ion 16 4 4 The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. China Hebei, Zhangbei [4]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (III) Battery, lithium-ion 9 3 3 The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage. The project currently includes a total of 14 MW of lithium-ion batteries and a vanadium redox flow battery. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. China Hebei, Zhangbei [4]
University of Central Florida Thermal storage, chilled water 24 3 8 Chilled water thermal energy storage system that is integrated into the existing district cooling system for the university. United States Florida, Orlando [4]
PJM Regulation Services Project Battery, ultra 2.16 3 0.72 The PJM (Pennsylvania-Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) Regulation Services project in Lyon Station, PA, was selected and partly funded by the DOE to demonstrate the ability of the Ecoult and Deka UltraBattery energy storage system to enhance the reliability and efficiency of the grid. It will provide 3 MW of continuous frequency regulation services to the grid of PJM Interconnection, the largest Regional Transmission Organization/Independent System Operator in the US. The new system will also be used for peak demand management services to the local utility, Met-Ed (a First Energy Company). The PJM demonstration project has been implemented in both a building and a containerized format to demonstrate the modularity and mobility of the storage solutions. United States Pennsylvania, Lyon Station [4]
University of Arizona Thermal storage, ice 18 3 6 The university placed three separate orders for energy storage tanks and they were added to two of their three existing central plants in 2004, 2006 and 2007. There are 205 tanks in total at the two plants. United States Arizona, Tucson [4]
Pillar Mountain Wind Project Battery, advanced lead acid 0.7 3.0 0.25 A battery storage system on the Kodiak Island grid to supplement electricity generated by wind farms. The energy storage will allow Kodiak Electric to increase reliable wind generation from 4.5 MW to 9 MW. United States Alaska, Kodiak [4]
State Government of North Carolina Thermal storage, chilled water 20.8 2.6 8 2.68 million gallon, chilled water, Thermal energy storage tank. Built partially buried and serving the district cooling system for 25 state government buildings. United States North Carolina, Raleigh [4]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (V) Battery, vanadium redox flow 8 2 4 The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. China Hebei, Zhangbei [4]
LIRR Malverne WESS Battery, ultra capacitor, double-layer 0.04 2 0.02 The project, on Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) property near the Malverne station, performs regenerative braking, charging and discharging in 20-second time periods. United States New York, Malverne [4]
Santa Rita Jail Smart Grid – Advanced Energy Storage System Battery, lithium ferrous phosphate 4 2 2 Alameda County's Santa Rita Jail smart grid demonstration project in Dublin, California, is the country's largest CERTS-based microgrid with renewable generation and large-scale energy storage. United States California, Dublin [4][46]
Isothermal CAES to Support RE Production Compressed air storage, modular isothermal 1.5 1.5 1 A 1.5 MW pilot system, to demonstrate an isothermal compressed air energy storage system, was slated for 2013 completion, and production commencing in 2015. United States New Hampshire, Seabrook [4][29][34]
Xcel and SolarTAC Battery, advanced lead acid 0.37 1.5 0.25 The project will collect operational data on the integration of energy storage and solar energy systems at the Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC). United States Colorado, Aurora [4]
Kauaʻi Island Utility Cooperative Battery, advanced lead acid 0.37 1.5 0.25 The KIUC DPR is designed to mitigate the variability of the island grid, monitoring the power supply and correcting for frequency and voltage deviations. United States Hawaii, Koloa [4]
Glendale Water and Power - Peak Capacity Project Thermal storage, ice 9 1.5 6 This project installed a total of 180 Ice Thermal Energy storage units at 28 Glendale city buildings and 58 local small, medium-sized, and large commercial businesses during a one-year installation process. United States California, Glendale [4]
Kaheawa I Wind Project Battery, advanced lead acid 3.7 1.5 0.25 A demonstration project to perform Ramp Control for 3 MW of the 30 MW Kaheawa Wind Farm in Hawaii, using a patented energy storage and power management system. United States Hawaii, Maui [4]
Nissan Technical Center North America Inc. Thermal storage, ice 22.8 1.425 16 The Ice Thermal Storage System provides load shifting to the building. On most days, the building can be cooled solely by the ice system, but a chiller is included, which covers peak cooling demand. United States Michigan, Farmington Hills [4]
Lanai Sustainability Research Battery, advanced lead acid 0.28 1.125 0.25 A battery reservoir provides supplementary power at the Lanai Sustainability Research's 1.5 MW DC–1.2 MW AC solar farm in order to double the output of the solar and control the ramp rate to +/- 360 kW/min. United States Hawaii, Lanai [4]
Painesville Municipal Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Battery, vanadium redox flow 8.8 1.1 8 This system is designed to demonstrate a 1.08 MW vanadium redox battery (VRB) storage system at the 32 MW municipal coal-fired power plant. The system will provide operating data and experience to help the plant maintain its daily power output requirement more efficiently while reducing its carbon footprint. United States Ohio, Painesville [4]
Giheung Samsung SDI Project Battery, lithium-ion 1 1 1 Li-ion battery based energy storage system for industrial energy management with peak-shifting. The system is located at the Samsung SDI Headquarters in Yongin-Si, South Korea. South Korea Gyeonggi-do, Yongin-si [4]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (IV) Battery, lithium-ion 2 1 2 The Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project will eventually grow to include 500 MW of installed wind capacity, 100 MW of installed solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. China Hebei, Zhangbei [4]
Metlakatla BESS Battery, lead acid 1.4 1 1.4 Metlakatla Power and Light (MP&L) has a BESS installation consisting of Exide (GNB Industrial Power) VRLA cells, providing rapid spinning reserve, frequency control, and better power quality. Beginning operation in 1997, the MP&L BESS has a 1 MW peak power output, and 1.4 MWh energy capacity. It is capable of supporting continuous loads of 800 kilovolt amperes (KVA), pulse loads up to 1200 KVA, and consists of 378 Absolyte VRLA 100A75 modules. Nearly 5 MW of hydroelectric generation capacity provides almost all of MP&L's power, with a 3.3 MW diesel generation system relegated to reserve duty. MP&L's two hydroelectric plants, Purple Lake and Chester Lake, have reservoir storage capacity, though the hydro generators were too slow to respond to sudden load fluctuations. At the time of the BESS's initial operations, the MP&L peak load was approximately 4 MW. MP&L is now replacing the batteries after 12 years of service. United States Alaska, Metlakatla [4]
Wind-to-Battery MinnWind Project Battery, sodium-sulfur 7 1 7 In October 2008, this project began testing a one-megawatt battery-storage technology to store wind energy. The battery installation is connected to a nearby 11 MW wind farm. United States Minnesota, Luverne [4]
Detroit Edison Community Energy Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 2 1 2 This project is designed to demonstrate a proof of concept for aggregated Community Energy Storage Devices in a utility territory. The project installed 20 Community Energy Storage (CES) devices across a utility territory. United States Michigan, Detroit [4]
Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program Thermal storage, ice 6 1 6 Ice storage system assists building cooling during daylight hours. United States California, Redding [4]
Charleston Energy Storage Project Battery, sodium-sulfur 6 1 6 This was the first MW-Scale NAS application outside Japan, installed by American Electric Power to provide peak-shaving and transmission upgrade deferral benefits. This kind of system is particularly well-suited to transmission upgrade deferral because it can be moved to where it is needed most at any given time, unlike conventional transmission upgrade solutions. DOE/Sandia provided partial sponsorship, covering non-repeat expenses. Over the short term, the purpose of the Charleston Energy Storage Project is to mitigate current local capacity constraints and service reliability issues. The long term objective is to bring AEP one step closer to its vision of a storage-buffered grid of the future. United States West Virginia, Charleston [25]
PG&E Vaca Battery Energy Storage Pilot Project Battery, sodium-sulfur 14 2 7 This project will be located at a substation near the Vaca Dixon Solar Plant of Vacaville, CA It's a 2-MW–14 MWh installation that will address load shaping, renewables integration, and ancillary services. United States California, Vacaville [25]
Altairnano Hawaii Solar Integration Project Battery, lithium-ion titanate 1 1 1 Altairnano (ALTI) was awarded a firm contract with the Hawai'i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa to supply a 1 MW ALTI-ESS energy storage system for a test of solar energy integration. The contract requires Altairnano to build, ship, install and commission its ALTI-ESS advanced energy storage system, and provide technical support and system monitoring and reporting over a period of three years. The research project, funded through a grant from the Office of Naval Research, is designed to test the battery system for the technology to enable integration of solar energy into an electric grid. Hawaiian Electric Company plans to install the energy storage system at one of its utility sites on the island of Oahu in early 2014 due to a rapid increase in solar installations. United States Hawaii, Oahu [25]
Kansas City Power & Light Green Impact Zone Smart Grid Demonstration Battery, lithium-ion 1 1 1 Kansas City Power and Light Company (KCP&L) and its partners are demonstrating an end-to-end SmartGrid built around a major SmartSubstation with a local distributed control system based on IEC 61850 protocols and control processors. KCP&L is implementing a 1 MW by 1 MWh Li-ion battery system from Dow Kokam as part of this initiative. United States Missouri, Kansas City [25]
Saft Enel Substation Energy Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 0.5 1 0.5 Saft's substation is located in the Puglia region of Italy, an area with a high level of variable and intermittent power from renewable energy sources that can cause reverse power flows on the high/medium voltage transformers. The role of Saft's batteries in the energy storage system is to reduce the variability of power flow as well as allowing for more controllable energy exchange between the substation and the Italian national grid. Italy Apulia, Foggia [25]
CCET Technology Solutions for Wind Integration Battery, lithium-ion 1 1 1 Samsung SDI, an affiliate of Samsung Group, and Xtreme Power announced that they have been selected by the Center for the Commercialization of Electric Technologies (CCET) to install a 1 MW - 1 MWh Lithium Ion based Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) system at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, Texas as part of a Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP). The $27 million demonstration project will be connected to SPEC's distribution grid at the Reese Technology Center as part of an ongoing wind technology program managed by GroupNIRE and Texas Tech University. United States Texas, Lubbock [25]
University of Hawaii Smart Grid Regional and Energy Storage Demonstration Project Battery, lithium-ion 1 1 10 An advanced energy storage system will be installed at the Maui Electric Company substation in Wailea as part of the Maui Smart Grid Project. The Grid Battery System is being provided by A123 Systems, designed to deliver one megawatt of power for a full hour, reducing the peak energy load on the substation's transformers. United States Hawaii, Wailea [25]
Project Barbados Commercial Pilot Battery, lithium-ion ? 2.0 ? Project Barbados went online in November 2008 as the first Li-ion battery system connected to the power grid for commercial services. United States Pennsylvania, Norristown [25]
Anchorage Area Battery Energy Storage System Battery, lithium-ion 15 25 0.6 This project includes the installation of a 25 MW / 14 mWh Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in the Anchorage area. This device will add stability to the system and provide a measure of “spin” to facilitate spooling-up alternative generation in the event of an outage, part of Alaska Railbelt Cooperative Transmission and Electric Company's (ARCTEC) Unconstrain Bradley Lake Hydroelectric Project. United States Alaska, Anchorage [25]
Milton NaS Battery Energy Storage System Battery, sodium-sulfur 14.4 2 7.2 AEP's 2-MW units were deployed in 2008, and are capable of providing islanding (backup power) for over seven hours when loss of utility power from the substation occurs. Source: ""Energy Storage and Project Demos"" Electric Power Energy Research (EPRI) United States West Virginia, Milton [25]
Churubusco NaS Battery Energy Storage System Battery, sodium-sulfur 14.4 2 7.2 AEP's 2-MW units were deployed in 2008, and are capable of providing islanding (backup power) for over seven hours when loss of utility power from the substation occurs. United States Indiana, Churubusco [25]
Bluffton NaS Energy Storage System Battery, sodium-sulfur 14.4 2 7.2 American Electric Power in Ohio (AEP Ohio) has 2-MW units which were deployed in 2008, and are capable of providing islanding (backup power) for over seven hours when loss of utility power from a substation occurs. United States Ohio, Bluffton [25]
UC San Diego SGIP Energy Storage Project Battery 10 5 2 The University of California, San Diego has been approved for incentives from California's Self-Generation Incentive Program for the installation of energy storage, to be integrated with PV renewable generation United States California, San Diego [25]
Con Edison–Eos Energy Storage Distributed Energy Storage Pilot Battery, zinc hybrid cathode 6 1 6 Eos Energy Storage and Consolidated Edison stated that the pilot, targeted to begin in early 2014, is a milestone in the scale-up and commercialization of Eos's core product, a 1 MW–6 MWh grid-scale battery called the Eos Aurora. The Aurora is backed by Eos's novel, low-cost and proprietary zinc hybrid cathode technology, which has a 75% round-trip efficiency rate and a 10,000-cycle/30-year lifetime. United States New York, New York [25]
Electrochemical Energy Storage Project Battery, manganese cobalt 1 1 1 The project integrates one megawatt hour of stored energy into a power grid that supports three major campus facilities. Canada British Columbia, Vancouver [25]
Northern Powergrid Battery Storage Trial Battery 5.7 2.85 2 The trial is part of a larger project known as the Customer-Led Network Revolution (CLNR). Six energy-storage devices were installed across a mixture of rural and urban locations in Northern England, to help balance the supply and demand of electricity for thousands of residential and business properties and test the effectiveness of energy storage batteries as part of an overall smart grid solution. Three of the devices have a capacity of 100 kWh, two are 200 kWh and the largest one having a capacity of 5 MWh, making it one of the largest in Europe. Participating organizations include Northern Powergrid, British Gas, EA Technology, Durham and Newcastle universities, with funding by the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (OFGEM) under its Tier 1 Low Carbon Network Fund. United Kingdom England, Darlington;
plus Northumberland;
and Maltby, South Yorkshire
[47][48]
Modular Energy Storage Architecture Project Battery, lithium-ion 1 1 1 Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and 1Energy Systems will partner to develop a one-megawatt battery energy storage system, built on the Modular Energy Storage Architecture (MESA). United States Washington, Everett [25]
Khi Solar One Thermal Storage, Steam 100 50 2 Khi Solar One is a 50 MW concentrated solar power plant with a power tower that uses large, sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) to focus sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower. Water is pumped up to the tower mounted receiver and is converted to steam, which, in turn, is used in a conventional turbine generator to produce electricity. The power station will include a facility to store steam, enabling it to generate electricity for two hours when the sun is not shining. South Africa Northern Cape Province, Upington [25][49]
Drake Landing Solar Community Thermal Storage, Solar heat radiated to soil 1.5 Drake Landing Solar Community began operation in 2006. Solar thermal energy is collected in flat plate glazed collectors, pumped to a bore field where the heat is radiated to soil. That process is reversed to utilize the heat in 52 single family (detached) homes. In 2012, DLSC set a world record by heating the 52 homes with 97% renewable energy. The borefield that stores the heat is approximately 100 feet wide in each direction and 120 feet deep. Canada Okotoks, Alberta
KaXu Solar One Thermal storage, molten salt 300 100 3 KaXu Solar One is a 100 MW parabolic trough plant. The power station will have a storage capacity of three hours and use molten salt to store heat energy. In the parabolic trough system, the sun's energy is concentrated by parabolically curved, trough-shaped reflectors onto a receiver pipe running along the focal line of the curved surface. This energy heats oil flowing through the pipe, and the heat energy is then used to convert water to steam and generate electricity in a conventional steam generator. South Africa Northern Cape Province, Pofadder [25]
Bokpoort CSP Thermal storage, molten salt 450 50 9 The Bokpoort Concentrated Solar Plant (CSP) Project, being contracted in 2014, comprises a solar field, a power block, a thermal energy storage system and related infrastructure such as grid interconnection and water abstraction and treatment systems. The solar field comprises loops of parabolic trough solar collector assemblies which will collect the heat from the sun. The solar collectors will be capable of heating the heat transfer fluid up to 393 °C. The power block comprises a solar steam generator and a steam turbine delivering 50 MW (net). South Africa Northern Cape Province, Globershoop [25]
Hybrid energy storage system Braderup Battery, lithium-ion, vanadium redox flow 3 2.33 1.3 Since July 2014 the Energiespeicher Nord GmbH & Co. KG operates one of the biggest hybrid batteries in Europe. The hybrid system consists of a lithium-ion battery storage (2MW power, 2MWh storage capacity) and a vanadium redox flow battery storage (330 kW power, 1 MWh storage capacity). Sony delivers the lithium-ion modules, Vanadis Power GmbH the vanadium redox flow battery. The storage system is connected to the local community wind farm (18 MW installed capacity) to save a possible electricity surplus. Depending on wind strength and charge status of each battery the generated power of the wind turbines is distributed by a controlling system of the Robert Bosch GmbH to the suitable battery. Bosch furthermore stands responsible for the project implementation and system integration. Germany Schleswig-Holstein, Braderup [25][50]
Solar storage system Muswellbrook Battery 0.216 In November 2014 Photon Energy Australia Pty Ltd commissioned a solar energy storage system which supplies a broadcast antenna in Muswellbrook, Australia, as the primary energy source. The project was developed in cooperation with the German Energy Agency dena and uses mainly German technology. The 39 kWp solar array was installed at a higher angle, 40 degrees, to maximise yield in the winter months. The panels feed 216 kWh of solar batteries. Three inverters regulate the energy flow to the broadcast tower. In case of an emergency the system starts a back-up diesel generator. Australia New South Wales, Muswellbrook [51][52]
John Joseph Moakley United States Courthouse Thermal storage, ice ? Cheaper nighttime electricity freezes water using chilled circulating glycol, which is used to reduce electricity needed for daytime cooling United States Massachusetts, Boston [53]
Hornsdale Power Reserve Battery, lithium-ion 129 100 Tesla Powerpack is charged using renewable energy and delivers electricity during peak hours to help maintain the reliable operation of South Australia's electrical infrastructure. It provides up to 100 MW peak with a capacity of 129 MWh Australia South Australia, Jamestown [54]
Project brine4power EWE Gasspeicher Battery, salt water, polymers, redox flow 720 5.83 120 EWE Gasspeicher plans to build the battery by employing the well-known redox flow battery principle – in which electrical energy is stored in a liquid – along with new, environmentally friendly components in underground salt caverns. These kinds of caverns are currently used to store natural gas. EWE Gasspeicher is collaborating on the project – brine for power – with the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, which developed the innovative components. It uses salt water and recyclable polymers (plastics). Germany Lower Saxony, Jemgum [55][56]

Largest by technologyEdit

Largest energy storage projects by technology
Technology Name Energy
MWh
Power
MW
Hours Description Country Location Refs
Battery, lithium-ion Hornsdale Power Reserve 129 100 Tesla Powerpack is charged using renewable energy and delivers electricity during peak hours to help maintain the reliable operation of South Australia's electrical infrastructure. It provides up to 100 MW peak with a capacity of 129 MWh Australia South Australia, Jamestown [57]
Battery, lead acid
Battery, sodium-sulphur Sodium Sulfur Battery In Abu Dhabi 648 108 Abu Dhabi now boasts the world’s largest storage battery — a 108 MW/648 MWh behemoth that is five times larger than the Hornsdale battery installed in Australia by Tesla. The battery in Abu Dhabi uses sodium sulfur battery cells. United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi [58]
Battery, vanadium redox flow Dalian VFB - UET / Rongke Power 800 200 The battery arrays approved by the China National Energy Administration will be made up of ten (10X) 20MW/80MWh Vanadium Flow Battery (VFB) energy storage systems deployed in Dalian city and connected to the main grid of Liaoning Province which has experienced stress during extreme weather events. After full commissioning, the VFB energy storage system will be able to peak-shave approximately 8% of Liaoning Province's expected peaking capacity in 2020.In addition, the large-scale battery will form an additional load center, which will enhance grid stabilization including securing the power supply and providing black-start capabilities in the event of emergency. This project will be deployed in two phases, each with 100MW/400MWh. The first phase will be finished around the end of 2017 and the second will be finished around the end of 2018. This project is approved by China National Energy Administration, and the owner is a JV with the major shareholder being a local utility company, and the minor being RONGKE POWER. China Dalian
Compressed air storage Huntorf CAES Plant 870 290 First commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978, using nuclear-sourced night-time power to compress and inject the air into two caverns of 310,000 m³ total volume. The 600 m cavern depth ensures the air's stability through seasonal temperature changes, and guarantees the specified maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled daily; the other serves as backup when the nearby nuclear power plant goes offline. Germany Huntorf
Pumped Hydro Storage Bath County Pumped Storage Station 24,000 3,003 Described as the "largest battery in the world",[2] with a maximum generation capacity of 3,003 MW[3], an average of 2,772 MW [2], and a total storage capacity of 24,000 MWh [2]. The station consists of two reservoirs separated by about 1,260 feet (380 m) in elevation. USA Bath County, Virginia
Flywheel Beacon New York Flywheel Energy Storage Plant 5 20 A 20 MW flywheel plant used for frequency regulation in the NYISO service area, the world's largest flywheel installation. It consists of 200 individual spinning masses. USA New York

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

This article contains text from the United States Department of Energy, DOE Energy Storage Database, a work in the public domain.
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External linksEdit