List of energy storage power plants

  (Redirected from List of energy storage projects)

This is a list of energy storage power plants worldwide, other than pumped hydro storage. Many individual energy storage plants augment electrical grids by capturing excess electrical energy during periods of low demand and storing it in other forms until needed on an electrical grid. The energy is later converted back to its electrical form and returned to the grid as needed. Most of the world's grid energy storage by capacity is in the form of pumped-storage hydroelectricity, which is covered in List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations. This article list plants using all other forms of energy storage.

The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store captured solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity when the sun isn't shining.[1]

Another energy storage method is the consumption of surplus or low-cost energy (typically during night time) for conversion into resources such as hot water, cool water or ice, which is then used for heating or cooling at other times when electricity is in higher demand and at greater cost per kilowatt hour (kWh). Such thermal energy storage is often employed at end-user sites such as large buildings, and also as part of district heating, thus 'shifting' energy consumption to other times for better balancing of supply and demand.

For a list of systems and forms of energy storage see energy storage and grid energy storage.

Largest energy storage plantsEdit

Table is by default sorted by operational storage capacity in MWh. Minimum capacity for inclusion is either 20 MWh or 20 MW.

Energy storage power plants of at least 20 MW / 20 MWh
Name Type Capacity Country Location Year Description
MWh MW hrs
Ouarzazate Solar Power Station Thermal storage, molten salt 3,005 510 3 / 7 / 7.5 Morocco Ouarzazate 2018 World's largest concentrated solar power plant with molten salt storage built in 3 phases - 160 MW phase 1 with 3 hours heat storage, 200 MW phase 2 with 7 hours heat storage and 150 MW phase 3 with 7.5 hours heat storage.[2][3][4]
McIntosh CAES Plant [de] Compressed air storage, in-ground natural gas combustion 2,860 110 26 United States Alabama, McIntosh 1991 2nd commercial CAES plant. Stores compressed air in a salt cavern of 220 feet (67 m) diameter, with ten million cubic foot total volume. The cavern is pressurized to 1,100 psi, and it is discharged down to 650 psi. During discharge, 340 pounds per second of air flow out of the cavern. The plant also utilizes nuclear-sourced night-time power for compression and then produces peak power during the day by releasing the compressed air into a 110-MW gas-fired combustion turbine. The turbine unit also makes use of an air-to-air heat exchanger to preheat air from the cavern with waste heat from the turbine. The waste heat recovery system reduces fuel usage by roughly 25%. The system is fully operational within 15 minutes, uses a third of the fuel required for a fuel-only generating system, and can operate efficiently at low loads. The project is used for peak shaving.[5][6][7][8]
Cerro Dominador Solar Thermal Plant Thermal storage, molten salt 1,925 110 17.5 Chile Antofagasta 2021 A concentrated solar power plant with 17.5 hours molten salt storage[9]
Solana Generating Station Thermal storage, molten salt 1,680 280 6 United States Arizona, Gila Bend 2013 Completed in 2013, the parabolic trough solar plant, with 6 hours storage by molten salt, is located near Gila Bend, Arizona. At the time it was the world's largest parabolic trough plant, and the first United States solar plant with thermal storage.[10][11][12][13]
Moss Landing Energy Storage Facility Battery, lithium-ion 1,200 300 4 United States Moss Landing, California 2020 World's largest Li-ion battery; Phase 2 will add 100MW/400MWh[14]
Extresol Solar Power Station Thermal storage, molten salt 1,125 150 7.5 Spain Torre de Miguel Sesmero, Badajoz 2009 A concentrated solar power plant with 7.5 hours molten salt storage[15]
Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project Thermal storage, molten salt 1,100 110 10 United States Tonopah, Nevada 2016 A concentrated solar power plant with 10 hours molten salt storage[16]
Andasol Solar Power Station Thermal storage, molten salt 1,031 134.7 7.5 Spain Granada, Guadix 2009 A thermal storage system absorbs part of the daytime heat absorbed by the solar field, heating a molten salt mixture of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate. The heat is used to drive a turbine-generator when direct sunlight is not available, nearly doubling the available hours of operation. A full thermal reservoir holds 1,010 MWh of heat capability, enough to run the turbine for over seven hours at full load. [1][17][18]
Huntorf CAES Plant Compressed air storage, in-ground natural gas combustion 870 290 3 Germany Huntorf, Elsfleth 1978 First commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978, using nuclear-sourced night-time power to compress and inject the air into two caverns of 310,000 m³ total volume. The 600 m cavern depth ensures the air's stability through seasonal temperature changes, and guarantees the specified maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled daily; the other serves as backup when the nearby nuclear power plant goes offline.[5][6]
Bokpoort CSP Thermal storage, molten salt 450 50 9 South Africa Northern Cape Province, Globershoop 2015 The Bokpoort Concentrated Solar Plant (CSP) Project, being contracted in 2014, comprises a solar field, a power block, a thermal energy storage system and related infrastructure such as grid interconnection and water abstraction and treatment systems. The solar field comprises loops of parabolic trough solar collector assemblies which will collect the heat from the sun. The solar collectors will be capable of heating the heat transfer fluid up to 393 °C. The power block comprises a solar steam generator and a steam turbine delivering 50 MW (net). [19]
Alamitos Energy Center Battery, lithium-ion 400 100 4 United States Long Beach 2021 [20][21]
Saticoy BESS Battery, lithium-ion 400 100 4 United States Saticoy 2021 [22]
KaXu Solar One Thermal storage, molten salt 300 100 3 South Africa Northern Cape Province, Pofadder 2015 KaXu Solar One is a 100 MW parabolic trough plant. The power station will have a storage capacity of three hours and use molten salt to store heat energy. In the parabolic trough system, the sun's energy is concentrated by parabolically curved, trough-shaped reflectors onto a receiver pipe running along the focal line of the curved surface. This energy heats oil flowing through the pipe, and the heat energy is then used to convert water to steam and generate electricity in a conventional steam generator. [19]
Buzen Substation Battery, sodium-sulfur 300 50 6 Japan Buzen 2016 [23][24]
Minety Battery Energy Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 266 150 United Kingdom Minety 2021 [25][26]
Rokkasho Aomari Battery, sodium-sulfur 245 34 7 Japan Rokkasho 2008 [23][27]
Gateway Energy Storage Battery, lithium-ion 230 230 1 United States Otay Mesa, California 2020 [28][29]
Huanghe Hydropower Hainan Storage Battery 202.8 202.8 1 China Hainan, Qinghai 2020 Connected with adjacent 2.2 GW photovoltaic Huanghe Hydropower Hainan Solar Park[30][31]
Kunshan Energy Storage Power Station Battery, lithium-ion 194 111 ? China Kunshan 2020 [32]
Hornsdale Power Reserve Battery, lithium-ion 193.5 150 Australia South Australia, Jamestown 2017 Tesla Powerpack is charged using renewable energy and delivers electricity during peak hours to help maintain the reliable operation of South Australia's electrical infrastructure. It initially provided up to 100 MW peak with a capacity of 129 MWh, and was expanded in July 2020 to 150 MW/193.5MWh. [33][34]
Korea Zinc Energy Storage System Battery, lithium-ion 150 32.5 ? South Korea Ulsan 2018 Ordered by Korea Zinc, a metal smelting company, at a cost of €37.87 million. It is located at its Ulsan refinery near the southeast coast.[35][36]
Seosan PV ESS Battery 140 52 South Korea Seosan December 2018 Adjacent to 65 MW Seosan PV Farm[37]
Escondido Substation Battery, lithium-ion 120 30 4 United States Escondido 2017 [23][27]
Khi Solar One Thermal Storage, Steam 100 50 2 South Africa Northern Cape Province, Upington 2016 Khi Solar One is a 50 MW concentrated solar power plant with a power tower that uses large, sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) to focus sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower. Water is pumped up to the tower mounted receiver and is converted to steam, which, in turn, is used in a conventional turbine generator to produce electricity. The power station will include a facility to store steam, enabling it to generate electricity for two hours when the sun is not shining. [19][38]
Pomona Substation Battery, lithium-ion 80 20 4 United States Pomona 2017 [23][39]
Mira Loma Substation Battery, lithium-ion 80 20 4 United States Mira Loma 2017 [23][40]
Primus Power Modesto Wind Firming Energy Farm Battery, zinc chlorine redox flow 75 25 3 United States California, Modesto The project was initiated in the Modesto Irrigation District in California's Central Valley, in place of a proposed $78M / 50 MW fossil fuel plant; it will provide flexible capacity for the region and compensate for the variable nature of wind and solar energy. [5]
Hokkaido Battery Storage Project (provisional name) Battery, vanadium redox flow 60 15 Japan Hokkaido 2015 Vanadium redox flow battery from Sumitomo near several solar energy projects on Hokkaido Island, operational in December 2015.[41][42]
Lake Bonney Battery Energy Storage System Battery 52 25 Australia Millicent, South Australia 2019 Adjacent to Lake Bonney Wind Farm to allow owner to provide firmer electricity commitments [43]
Hyundai Heavy Industries ESS   50 24 ? South Korea Ulsan 2017 [37]
Stocking Pelham Battery, lithium-ion 50 50 1 United Kingdom Stocking Pelham 2018 [23][44]
Gannawarra Energy Storage System Battery 50 25 Australia Kerang, Victoria 2018 Colocated with Gannawarra Solar Farm[45]
Jardelund Battery, lithium-ion 50 48 1 Germany Jardelund 2018 [23][46]
Upton 2 Battery 42 10 4.2 United States 2018 [14]
Next Gen CAES using steel piping Compressed air storage, modular 40.5 9 4.5 United States New York, Queens 9 MW plant will use steel piping to hold pressurized air instead of caverns. Groundbreaking slated for 2013 to 2014 time frame. [5]
Minamisōma Substation Battery, lithium-ion 40 40 1 Japan Minamisōma 2016 [23][27]
National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Demonstration Project (I) Battery, lithium iron phosphate 36 6 6 China Hebei, Zhangbei Will eventually grow to include 500 MW of wind capacity, 100 MW of solar PV capacity and 110 MW of energy storage[clarification needed] with an overall investment of 12 billion RMB (US$1.89 billion). The project currently includes a total of 14 MW of lithium-ion batteries and a vanadium redox flow battery: (I) 6 MW–36 MWh Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries (BYD Auto) (II) 4 MW–16 MWh lithium-ion batteries (Amperex Technology Limited (ATL)) (III) 3 MW–9 MWh lithium-ion batteries. (IV) 1 MW, 2 MWh lithium-ion batteries (Wanxiang Group) (V) 2 MW–8 MWh Vanadium Redox Flow Battery. Original plans to include 4 MW of sodium-sulfur batteries have been delayed over safety concerns. Energy storage applications include wind solar and other renewable energy integration, frequency regulation and voltage support. The project is focused on using battery energy storage to enable interactive management of the electric power grid. [5]
Ruien Energy storage Battery, lithium-ion 32 25 1.2 Belgium Ruien Aims to deliver ancillary services to European grid operators (TSOs) as well as energy services to local businesses at the site of the former 800MW coal-fired power plant currently under post-decommissioning redevelopment.[47]
Tehachapi Energy Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 32 8 4 United States California, Tehachapi 2014 When commissioned in 2014, it was the largest lithium-ion battery energy storage project in North America. The facility is located near one of the largest wind generation hubs in the U.S. — the Tehachapi Wind Resource Area. It is capable of supplying 32 megawatt-hours of electricity — eight megawatts of power for four continuous hours, which is enough to power 6,000 homes. With the demonstration concluded, the facility is online as a distribution-level resource supporting SCE’s Monolith substation near Tehachapi, CA. [5][48] [49][50]
Ballarat Energy Storage System Battery 30 30 Australia Ballarat, Victoria 2018 [51]
Lumcloon BESS Battery 25 100 0.25 Ireland Ferbane 2020 [52][53]
Yerba Buena Battery Energy Storage System Pilot Project Battery, sodium-sulfur 24 4 6 United States California, East San Jose The project uses sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS) to determine whether such batteries can improve power quality and reliability on the electrical grid. [54][55][56]
Notrees Wind Energy Storage Project Battery, lithium-ion 24 36 0.67 United States Texas, Notrees A wind energy storage demonstration project at the Notrees Wind power project in western Texas created in 2013. The project provides 24 MW-hours energy storage with a peak instantaneous power output of 36 MW and a power management system. The project switched from lead-acid to lithium-ion in 2017. [5][57][58][59]
Terhills Battery, lithium-ion 22[60] 18.2 0.82 Belgium Terhills 2018 140 Tesla Powerpacks, installed 2018[61]
WEICAN Durathon Battery Project Battery, sodium-nickel chloride 20 10 2 Canada Prince Edward Island, North Cape 2013 The Wind Energy Institute of Canada contracted with S&C Electric Canada Ltd. to provide a Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery at their site on Prince Edward Island. The BESS will be operational by the fall of 2013. GE Energy Storage will provide the Durathon Battery Energy Storage System that will integrate into Prince Edward Island's pre-existing system.[19][62]
Anchorage Area Battery Energy Storage System Battery, lithium-ion 15 25 0.6 United States Alaska, Anchorage This project includes the installation of a 25 MW / 14 mWh Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in the Anchorage area. This device will add stability to the system and provide a measure of “spin” to facilitate spooling-up alternative generation in the event of an outage, part of Alaska Railbelt Cooperative Transmission and Electric Company's (ARCTEC) Unconstrain Bradley Lake Hydroelectric Project. [19]
Gyeongsan Substation Battery, lithium-ion 12 48 0.25 South Korea Gyeongsan-si 2016 [27]
Dalrymple ESCRI battery Battery 8 30 Australia Stansbury, South Australia 2018 Provides improved reliability and stability to Yorke Peninsula[63]
Laurel Mountain Battery, lithium-ion 8 32 0.25 United States West Virginia, Elkins The wind generation project includes 98 MW of wind generation and 32 MW of integrated battery-based energy storage. The project supplies the PJM Interconnection, the world's largest power market. [5][64]
Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) Battery, nickel cadmium 6.7 27 0.25 United States Alaska, Fairbanks 2003 Completed in December 2003, the BESS is a Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) initiative to improve the reliability of service to GVEA members. When grid power fails, BESS provides up to 27 MW of power for 15 minutes.[5]
Angamos Battery, lithium-ion 6.6 20 0.33 Chile Mejillones, Antofagasta A123 lithium-ion batteries supply reserve capacity to electrical grid in Northern Chile. The system continuously monitors the grid power, and if a significant frequency deviation occurs, the energy storage system can provide up to 20 MW of power nearly instantaneously, for up to 15 minutes. [5]
Beacon New York Flywheel Energy Storage Plant Flywheel 5 20 0.25 United States New York, Stephentown A 20 MW flywheel plant used for frequency regulation in the NYISO service area, the world's largest flywheel installation. It consists of 200 individual spinning masses. [5][65][66][67]
Beacon Hazle Township Pennsylvania Plant Flywheel 5 20 0.25 United States Pennsylvania, Hazle Township Beacon's second 20 MW, 200-rotor frequency regulation facility serves the PJM regional electricity transmission market.[68][5]

Under constructionEdit

Energy storage power plants of at least 10 MW / 10 MWh
Name Type Capacity Country Location Year Description
MWh MW hrs
Manatee Energy Storage Center Battery 900 409 2.2 United States Juno Beach, Florida 2021 Paired with existing solar plant[69]
Dalian VFB - UET / Rongke Power Battery, vanadium redox flow 800 200 4 China Liaoning, Dalian 2021 The battery arrays approved by the China National Energy Administration will be made up of ten 20MW/80MWh Vanadium Flow Battery (VFB) energy storage systems deployed in Dalian city and connected to the main grid of Liaoning Province which has experienced stress during extreme weather events. After full commissioning, the VFB energy storage system will be able to peak-shave approximately 8% of Liaoning Province's expected peaking capacity in 2020. In addition, the battery will form an additional load center, which will enhance grid stabilization including securing the power supply and providing black-start capabilities in the event of emergency. This project will be deployed in two phases, each with 100MW/400MWh. This project is approved by China National Energy Administration, and the owner is a JV with the major shareholder being a local utility company, and the minor being RONGKE POWER. [5][70][71]
Oakland Battery 145 36.25 4 United States 2022 [14]
DeCordova Battery 260 260 1 United States 2022 [14]

Largest thermal energy storage plantsEdit

Thermal energy storage plants of at least 1 MW / 1 MWh
Name Type Capacity Country Location Year Description
MWh MW hrs
Drake Landing Solar Community Thermal Storage, Solar heat radiated to soil 1.5 Canada Okotoks, Alberta Drake Landing Solar Community began operation in 2006. Solar thermal energy is collected in flat plate glazed collectors, pumped to a bore field where the heat is radiated to soil. That process is reversed to utilize the heat in 52 single family (detached) homes. In 2012, DLSC set a world record by heating the 52 homes with 97% renewable energy. The borefield that stores the heat is approximately 100 feet wide in each direction and 120 feet deep.
Nissan Technical Center North America Inc. Thermal storage, ice 22.8 1.425 16 United States Michigan, Farmington Hills The Ice Thermal Storage System provides load shifting to the building. On most days, the building can be cooled solely by the ice system, but a chiller is included, which covers peak cooling demand. [5]
JC Penney Headquarters Thermal storage, ice 53.1 4.425 12 United States Texas, Plano The system offsets the peak demands of electrical use by making ice each night to cool the building the following day.[5]
Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program Thermal storage, ice 6 1 6 United States California, Redding Ice storage system assists building cooling during daylight hours. [5]
Glendale Water and Power - Peak Capacity Project Thermal storage, ice 9 1.5 6 United States California, Glendale This project installed a total of 180 Ice Thermal Energy storage units at 28 Glendale city buildings and 58 local small, medium-sized, and large commercial businesses during a one-year installation process. [5]
State Government of North Carolina Thermal storage, chilled water 20.8 2.6 8 United States North Carolina, Raleigh 2.68 million gallon, chilled water, Thermal energy storage tank. Built partially buried and serving the district cooling system for 25 state government buildings. [5]
University of Arizona Thermal storage, ice 18 3 6 United States Arizona, Tucson The university placed three separate orders for energy storage tanks and they were added to two of their three existing central plants in 2004, 2006 and 2007. There are 205 tanks in total at the two plants. [5]
University of Central Florida Thermal storage, chilled water 24 3 8 United States Florida, Orlando Chilled water thermal energy storage system that is integrated into the existing district cooling system for the university.[5]
Redding Electric Utilities - Peak Capacity, Demand Response, HVAC Replacement Program Phase 2 Thermal storage, ice 12 6 2 United States California, Redding Ice Energy and REU will collaborate on the second phase. The program to install Ice Bear units within the northern California territory aims to reduce peak electricity load demand by up to 6 MW over five years. REU expects to have the thermal energy storage program completed in 2017. Skyway Machine, a local Redding manufacturing company, will provide final assembly of the new Ice Bear units.[5]

Largest by technologyEdit

Largest energy storage projects by technology
Technology Name Energy
MWh
Power
MW
Hours Description Country Location Refs
Battery, lithium-ion Moss Landing Energy Storage Facility 1200 300 4 United States Moss Landing, California [14]
Battery, lead acid
Battery, sodium-sulphur Sodium Sulfur Battery In Abu Dhabi 648 108 6 Virtual battery United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi [72]
Battery, vanadium redox flow Dalian VFB - UET / Rongke Power 800 200 The battery arrays approved by the China National Energy Administration will be made up of ten (10X) 20MW/80MWh Vanadium Flow Battery (VFB) energy storage systems deployed in Dalian city and connected to the main grid of Liaoning Province which has experienced stress during extreme weather events. After full commissioning, the VFB energy storage system will be able to peak-shave approximately 8% of Liaoning Province's expected peaking capacity in 2020.In addition, the large-scale battery will form an additional load center, which will enhance grid stabilization including securing the power supply and providing black-start capabilities in the event of emergency. This project will be deployed in two phases, each with 100MW/400MWh. The first phase will be finished around the end of 2017 and the second will be finished around the end of 2018. This project is approved by China National Energy Administration, and the owner is a JV with the major shareholder being a local utility company, and the minor being RONGKE POWER. China Dalian
Compressed air storage Huntorf CAES Plant 870 290 First commercial CAES plant, operational since 1978, using nuclear-sourced night-time power to compress and inject the air into two caverns of 310,000 m³ total volume. The 600 m cavern depth ensures the air's stability through seasonal temperature changes, and guarantees the specified maximum pressure of 100 bar. One cavern is cycled daily; the other serves as backup when the nearby nuclear power plant goes offline. Germany Huntorf
Pumped Hydro Storage Bath County Pumped Storage Station 24,000 3,003 Described as the "largest battery in the world",[73] with a maximum generation capacity of 3,003 MW,[74] an average of 2,772 MW,[73] and a total storage capacity of 24,000 MWh.[73] The station consists of two reservoirs separated by about 1,260 feet (380 m) in elevation. USA Bath County, Virginia
Flywheel Beacon New York Flywheel Energy Storage Plant 5 20 The flywheel plant is used for frequency regulation in the NYISO service area. It consists of 200 individual spinning masses. USA New York

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

This article contains text from the United States Department of Energy, DOE Energy Storage Database, a work in the public domain.
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