Battery storage power station

A battery storage power station is a type of energy storage power station that uses a group of batteries to store electrical energy. Battery storage is the fastest responding dispatchable source of power on electric grids, and it is used to stabilise those grids, as battery storage can transition from standby to full power within milliseconds to deal with grid failures.

Tehachapi Energy Storage Project, Tehachapi, California

At full rated power, battery storage power stations are generally designed to output for up to a few hours. Battery storage can be used for short-term peak power[1] and ancillary services, such as providing operating reserve and frequency control to minimize the chance of power outages. They are often installed at, or close to, other active or disused power stations and may share the same grid connection to reduce costs. Since battery storage plants require no deliveries of fuel, are compact compared to generating stations and have no chimneys or large cooling systems, they can be rapidly installed and placed if necessary within urban areas, close to customer load.

As of 2021, the power and capacity of the largest individual battery storage power plants is an order of magnitude less than that of the largest pumped storage power plants, the most common form of grid energy storage. For example, the Bath County Pumped Storage Station, the second largest in the world, can store 24GWh of electricity and dispatch 3GW while the first phase of Vistra Energy's Moss Landing Energy Storage Facility can store 1.2GWh and dispatch 300MW.[2] Grid batteries do not however have to be large, and smaller ones can be deployed widely across a grid for greater redundancy.

As of 2019, battery power storage is cheaper than open cycle gas turbine power for use up to two hours, and there was around 365 GWh of battery storage deployed worldwide, growing extremely rapidly.[3] Levelized cost of electricity from battery storage has fallen rapidly, halving in two years to US$150 per MWh as of 2020.[4][5][6]

ConstructionEdit

 
A rechargeable battery bank used in a data center

Battery storage power plants and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are comparable in technology and function. However, battery storage power plants are larger.

For safety and security, the actual batteries are housed in their own structures, like warehouses or containers. As with a UPS, one concern is that electrochemical energy is stored or emitted in the form of direct current (DC), while electric power networks are usually operated with alternating current (AC). For this reason, additional inverters are needed to connect the battery storage power plants to the high voltage network. This kind of power electronics include GTO thyristors, commonly used in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission.

Various accumulator systems may be used depending on the power-to-energy ratio, the expected lifetime and the costs. In the 1980s, lead-acid batteries were used for the first battery-storage power plants. During the next few decades, nickel–cadmium and sodium–sulfur batteries were increasingly used.[7] Since 2010, more and more utility-scale battery storage plants rely on lithium-ion batteries, as a result of the fast decrease in the cost of this technology, caused by the electric automotive industry. Lithium-ion batteries are mainly used. A flow battery system has emerged, but lead-acid batteries are still used in small budget applications.[8]

SafetyEdit

Some batteries operating at high temperatures (sodium–sulfur battery) or using corrosive components are subject to calendar ageing, or failure even if not used. Other technologies suffer from cycle ageing, or deterioration caused by charge-discharge cycles. This deterioration is generally higher at high charging rates. These two types of aging cause a loss of performance (capacity or voltage decrease), overheating, and may eventually lead to critical failure (electrolyte leaks, fire, explosion).

Examples of the latter include a Tesla Megapack in Geelong which caught fire,[9][10] the fire and subsequent explosion of a battery farm in Arizona, and the fire at Moss Landing battery farm.[11] Concerns about possible fire and explosion of a battery module were also raised during residential protests against Cleve Hill solar farm in United Kingdom.[12] Battery fire in Illinois resulted in "thousands of residents" being evacuated, and there were 23 battery farm fires in South Korea over the period of two years. Battery fires may release a number of dangerous gases, including highly corrosive and toxic hydrogen fluoride.[13]

Some batteries can be maintained to prevent loss of performance due to aging. For example, non-sealed lead-acid batteries produce hydrogen and oxygen from the aqueous electrolyte when overcharged. The water has to be refilled regularly to avoid damage to the battery; and, the inflammable gases have to be vented out to avoid explosion risks. However, this maintenance has a cost, and recent batteries such as Li-Ion, are designed to have a long lifespan without maintenance. Therefore, most of the current systems are composed of securely sealed battery packs, which are electronically monitored and replaced once their performance falls below a given threshold.

Sometimes battery storage power stations are built with flywheel storage power systems in order to conserve battery power.[14] Flywheels may handle rapid fluctuations better than older battery plants.[15]

Operating characteristicsEdit

Since they do not have any mechanical parts, battery storage power plants offer extremely short control times and start times, as little as 10 ms.[citation needed] They can therefore help dampen the fast oscillations that occur when electrical power networks are operated close to their maximum capacity. These instabilities – voltage fluctuations with periods of as much as 30 seconds – can produce peak voltage swings of such amplitude that they can cause regional blackouts. A properly sized battery storage power plant can efficiently counteract these oscillations; therefore, applications are found primarily in those regions where electrical power systems are operated at full capacity, leading to a risk of instability.[citation needed] Batteries are also commonly used for peak shaving for periods of up to a few hours.[1]

Battery storage systems may be active on spot markets while providing systems services such as frequency stabilization.[16] Arbitrage is an attractive way to benefit from the operating characteristics of battery storages.

Storage plants can also be used in combination with an intermittent renewable energy source in stand-alone power systems.

Installation examplesEdit

 
Battery storage power plant at Schwerin (interior view 2014, modular rows of accumulators)

Some of the largest battery storage power plants are described below, and are arranged by type, date, and size.

Lithium-ionEdit

United StatesEdit

In 2014, Southern California Edison commissioned the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project, which was the largest lithium-ion battery system operating in North America at the time of commissioning and one of the largest in the world.[17]

In 2015, the largest grid storage batteries in the United States were reported to include the 31.5 MW battery at Grand Ridge Power plant in Illinois and the 31.5 MW battery at Beech Ridge, West Virginia, both using lithium ion batteries.[18]

Tesla installed a grid storage facility for the Southern California Edison, with a capacity of 80 MWh at a power of 20 MW, between September 2016 and December 2016. As of 2017, the storage unit is one of the largest accumulator batteries on the market. Tesla installed 400 lithium-ion Powerpack-2 modules at the Mira Loma transformer station in California. The capacity serves to store energy at a low network load, and then feed this energy back into the grid at peak load. Before this, gas-fired power stations were used.[19][20]

In 2017, Tesla built a 52 MWh lithium-ion project on Kauai, Hawaii, to entirely time-shift a 13 MW solar farm's output to the evening. The aim is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels on the island.[21]

In 2019, National Grid built a 48 MWh battery storage facility on Nantucket Island.[22]

In December 2020, Vistra Energy's Moss Landing Energy Storage Facility, on the site of the Moss Landing Power Plant, was connected to the grid. At the time, the 300MW/1.2GWh facility was by far the largest in the world.[23] This project was backed by a 20-year resource adequacy contract with Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E)

AustraliaEdit

External image
  Map of large grid batteries in Australia

In 2018, the largest battery storage power station was the Australian Hornsdale Power Reserve, adjacent to the Hornsdale wind farm, built by Tesla.[24] Its 100 MW output capacity is contractually divided into two sections: 70 MW running for 10 minutes and 30 MW with a 3-hour capacity.[25] Samsung 21–70-size cells are used.[26] The plant is operated by Neoen and provides a total of 129 megawatt-hours (460 GJ) of storage capable of discharge at 100 MW into the power grid. The system helps to prevent load-shedding blackouts[27][28] and provides stability to the grid (grid services)[29] while other slower generators can be started in the event of sudden drops in wind or other network issues. It was built in less than 100 days, starting from 29 September 2017,[30][31] when a grid connection agreement was signed with ElectraNet, and some units were operational.[27] The battery construction was completed, and testing began on 25 November 2017. It was connected to the grid on 1 December 2017.[32] During two days in January 2018 where South Australia was hit by price spikes, the battery made its owners an estimated 1M AUD as they sold power from the battery to the grid for a price of around 14k AUD/MWh.[33] In 2022, the Australian renewable energy development firm Edify Energy will receive $6.6 million in funding from the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) to develop an advanced battery and inverter system capable of stabilising the electricity network.[34]

CanadaEdit

In Ontario, Canada, battery storage with 53 MWh capacity and 13 MW of power was put in service in 2016. The Swiss battery manufacturer Leclanché supplied the batteries, and Deltro Energy Inc. planned and built the plant. The order was placed by the network operator Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO). The energy storage is used to provide fast grid services, mainly for voltage and reactive power control. In Ontario and the surrounding area, there are many wind and solar power plants, whereby the power supply varies widely.[35]

United KingdomEdit

In July 2018, a 50 MW lithium-ion battery storage facility with a capacity of 50 MWh was installed in Stocking Pelham.[36][37]

South KoreaEdit

Since January 2016, in South Korea, three battery storage power plants are in operation. There are two new systems, a 24 MW system with 9 MWh and a 16 MW system with 6 MWh. These both use batteries based on lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide and supplement a few month's older system with 16 MW and 5 MWh whose batteries are based on lithium titanate oxide. Together the systems have a capacity of 56 MW and serve the South Korean utility company Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) for frequency regulation. The storage comes from the company Kokam. After completion in 2017, the system should have a power of 500 MW. The three already installed storage plants reduce annual fuel costs by an estimated $13 million US, as well as cutting greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the saved fuel costs will exceed the cost of battery storage significantly.[38]

GermanyEdit

A 13 MWh battery made of worn lithium-ion batteries from electric cars is being constructed in Germany, with an expected second life of 10 years, after which they will be recycled.[39]

In Schwerin, Germany, the electricity supplier WEMAG operates lithium-ion battery storage to compensate for short-term power fluctuations. Younicos supplied the battery storage power station. The South Korean company Samsung SDI supplied the lithium-ion cells. The storage has a capacity of 5 MWh and an output of 5 MW. It entered operation in September 2014.[40] The lithium-ion battery storage consists of 25,600 lithium manganese cells, and has about five medium-voltage transformers, with both the regional distribution connected as well with the nearby 380 kV high-voltage grid.[41]

Since July 2014, the energy storage company Nord GmbH & Co. KG has been operating some of the largest hybrid batteries in Europe in Braderup (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). The system consists of a lithium-ion battery storage (2 MW power 2 MWh storage) and a vanadium flow battery storage (330 kW power, 1 MWh storage capacity). The lithium-ion modules used are from Sony, and the flow battery is made by Vanadis Power GmbH. The storage system is connected to the local community wind park (18 MW installed capacity).[42]

PortugalEdit

On the Azores island of Graciosa, a 3.2 MWh lithium-ion storage was installed. Along with a 1 MW photovoltaic plant and a 4.5 MW wind farm, the island is almost completely independent of the previously used diesel generators. The old power plant only serves as a backup system when power from solar and wind power plant can not be generated over a longer period, due to bad weather. The sharp decline of expensive diesel imports means that electricity is cheaper than before. The generated profit will be divided equally among the investor in the new plant and the end-users. More Azores islands are to follow.[43]

NamibiaEdit

In December 2021, the German State-Owned Investment and Development Bank (KfW), granted Namibia Power Corporation (NamPower) €20 million, as partial funding (approx. 80 percent) towards the establishment of Erongo Battery Energy Storage System (Erongo Bess). The 58MW/72MWh installation is under development outside Omaruru in the Erongo Region, in central Namibia.[44][45]

Liquid-basedEdit

Mitsubishi installed a sodium–sulfur battery storage facility in Buzen, Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan with 300 MWh capacity and 50 MW power. The storage is used to stabilize the network to compensate for fluctuations caused by renewable energies. The accumulator is in the power range of pumped storage power plants. The batteries are installed in 252 containers. The plant occupies an area of 14,000 square meters.[46][47]

A 108 MW / 648 MWh high-temperature sodium–sulfur battery was deployed as 15 systems in 10 locations in Abu Dhabi in 2019. The distributed systems can be controlled as one virtual power plant.[48]

Lithium iron phosphateEdit

The Chinese company BYD operates battery banks with 40 MWh capacity and 20 MW maximum power in Hong Kong. The large storage is used to cushion load peaks in energy demand and can contribute to the frequency stabilization in the net. The battery is made up of a total of almost 60,000 individual lithium iron phosphate cells, each with 230 amp-hour capacity. The project was started in October 2013 and went online in June 2014. The actual installation of the storage lasted three months. The use of price differences between loading and unloading by day and night electricity, an avoided grid expansion for peak loads and revenue for grid services such as Frequency stabilization enable economic operation without subsidies. There are currently 3 locations for a 1,000 MW peak power to 200 MWh capacity storage power plant to be examined.[49]

Lead–acidEdit

A 36 MW lead–acid battery was in Notrees, Texas (36 MW for 40 minutes).[50][51] It was replaced with lithium-ion in 2017.[52]

The existing photovoltaic power plant Alt Daber near Wittstock in Brandenburg, Germany received battery storage of 2 MWh. A special feature is that this is a turnkey solution supplied and installed in containers, for immediate use on-site without major construction work. The storage uses lead-acid batteries.[53]

The Chino Battery Storage Project operated from 1988 to 1997 by the Southern California Edison in the Californian city Chino. It served primarily for grid stabilization and could be used by frequent power outages in the region as a static var compensator and the black start of non-black bootable power plants. The plant had a peak power of 14 MW, which was, however, far too little for effective stabilization in the net of Southern California Edison, and a storage capacity of 40 MWh. The system consisted of 8,256 lead-acid batteries in eight strands, which were divided into two halls.[54]

Nickel–CadmiumEdit

Golden Valley Electric – FairbanksEdit

One of the largest and located with the Stand 2010 operating system is operated by the Golden Valley Electric in Fairbanks. The power grid in Alaska is operated due to the large distances as a stand-alone grid with no direct connection to neighboring North American interconnections within the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. The battery storage power plant with a maximum capacity of 25 MW is used to stabilize the grid for up to 15 minutes, covering high peak and reactive power compensation. The plant was put into operation in 2003 and consists of 13,760 nickel–cadmium batteries in four strands. The NiCd cells are manufactured by Saft, the inverters by ABB.[7][55]

Lithium polymerEdit

Battery storage FeldheimEdit

In Feldheim in Brandenburg, Germany, battery storage with a capacity of 10 MW and a storage capacity of 6.5 MWh[56] was put into operation in September 2015. The project cost 12.8 million euros. The storage provides energy for the power grid to compensate for fluctuations caused by wind and solar power plants. The store is operated by the company Energiequelle.[57][58]

Battery storage DresdenEdit

Stadtwerke Dresden, Germany (Drewag) have taken battery storage with a peak power of 2 MW online on March 17, 2015. The costs amounted to 2.7 million euros. Lithium polymer batteries are being used. The batteries including the control system are deployed in two 13 m long containers and can store a total of 2.7 MWh. The system is designed to compensate for peak power generation of a nearby solar plant.[59]

ProjectsEdit

250–280 MW NV Energy and GoogleEdit

NV Energy has announced a partnership with Google to produce "the largest battery-backed solar corporate agreement in the world." Located in Nevada with 250–280 MW battery storage, the new project will power Google's Henderson data centre near Las Vegas.[60]

400 MWh Southern California Edison projectEdit

Under construction in 2015 is the 400 MWh (100 MW for 4 hours) Southern California Edison project. Developed by AES Energy it is a lithium-ion battery system. Southern California Edison found the prices for battery storage comparable with other electricity generators.[21]

250 MWh IndonesiaEdit

At present (2/2016) is under construction a 250 MWh battery storage in Indonesia. There are about 500 villages in Indonesia which should be supplied, so far they depend on the power supply of petroleum. In the past, the prices fluctuated greatly and there was often power outages. Now the power will be generated through wind and solar power.[21]

United KingdomEdit

In 2016, the UK National Grid issued contracts for 200 MW of energy storage in its Enhanced Frequency Response (EFR) auction. Within the auction, National Grid accepted eight tenders from seven providers including EDF Energy Renewables, Vattenfall, Low Carbon, E.ON UK, Element Power, RES and Belectric. The capacity for each successfully tendered site ranged from 10 MW to 49 MW.[61]

In December 2019, Penso Power's Minety Battery Energy Storage Project started construction near Minety, Wiltshire.[62] Chinese investment provided the finance and the China Huaneng Group was responsible for construction and operation. The designed capacity is 136 MWh, using LiFePO4 batteries.[63][62] The main equipment of the project was manufactured and integrated by Chinese companies; more than 80% of equipment was made in China.[64][65] It started operation in July 2021 and was reported to be the biggest storage battery facility in Europe.[66] In 2020, Penso Power decided to expand the project to 266 MWh, to be completed in 2021.[62][67]

In November 2022, the Pillswood 198 MWh battery storage system using Tesla Megapack lithium-ion batteries, capable of producing 98 MW for 2 hours, was commissioned adjacent to Creyke Beck substation near Cottingham for the Dogger Bank Wind Farm.[68][69]

Evonik battery storageEdit

Evonik is planning to build six battery storage power plants with a capacity of 15 MW to be put into operation in 2016 and 2017. They are to be situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at the power plant sites Herne, Lünen and Duisburg-Walsum and in Bexbach, Fenne and Weiher in the Saarland.[70][71]

Storage for Aboriginal community in AustraliaEdit

An existing system in an Aboriginal community in Australia consisting of a combination photovoltaic system and diesel generator will be extended by a lithium-ion battery to a hybrid system. The battery has a capacity of about 2 MWh and a power of 0.8 MW. The batteries store the excess solar power and take over the previously network-forming functions such as network management and network stabilization of diesel generators. Thus, the diesel generators can be switched off during the day, which leads to cost reduction. Moreover, the share of renewable energy rises in the hybrid system significantly. The system is part of a plan to transform the energy systems of indigenous communities in Australia.[72]

ChinaEdit

In 2022, China connected a battery farm consisting of 800 MWh redox flow batteries with vanadium electrolyte to the grid. With the ability to supply 200 MW of electricity for up to 4 hours, it is the largest battery farm of its kind in the world.[73] The power station is located in the city of Dalian, and its first phase, half the capacity, entered commercial operation in May 2022.[74]

Largest grid batteriesEdit

10 largest battery storage power plants by storage capacity
Name Commissioning date Energy (MWh) Power (MW) Duration (hours) Type Country Location/coords Refs
Vistra Moss Landing battery 2021 Q2 1600 400 4 Lithium-ion United States Moss Landing [75][76]
Crimson October 2022 1400 350 4 Lithium-ion United States Riverside County, California [77]
Desert Sunlight August 2022 920 230 4 Lithium-ion United States Riverside County, California [78]
Manatee Energy Storage December 2021 900 409 2.25 Lithium-ion United States Southfork Solar, Florida [79][80][81][82]
Diablo Energy Storage 2022 800 200 4 Lithium-ion United States Contra Costa County, California [83]
Moss Landing Elkhorn battery 2022 730 182.5 4 Lithium-ion United States Moss Landing [84][85]
Slate, California March 2022 561 140 4 Lithium-ion United States Kings County, California [86]
Valley Center March 2022 560 140 4 Lithium-ion United States Valley Center [87]
Lancaster Area Battery September 2022 508 127 4 Lithium-ion United States Lancaster, California [88]
Victorian Big Battery December 2021 450 300 1.5 Lithium-ion Australia Moorabool [89][90]

Planned or under constructionEdit

10 largest battery power plants under construction
Name Planned commissioning date Energy (MWh) Power (MW) Duration (hours) Type Country Refs
Ravenswood Energy Storage Project 2024 2528 316 8 Lithium-ion United States [91][92]
InterGen DP World London Gateway 2024 640 320 2 Lithium-ion United Kingdom [93]
Andes Solar IIB 2022 560 112 5 Lithium-ion Chile [94]
Andes Solar IV 2023 735 147 5 Lithium-ion Chile [95]
Kapolei, Hawaii 565 185 3 United States [96]
CEP Energy, Kurri Kurri project 2023 4800 1200 4 Lithium-ion Australia [97][98]
Waratah Origin 2025 1915 909 2 Lithium-ion Australia [99][100][101]
Neoen Wallerawang Great Western Battery 2022 1000 500 4 Lithium-ion Australia [102]
Energy Australia Jeeralang big battery 2026 1400 350 4 Lithium-ion Australia [103]
Morocco - UK Power Project 2027 20000 5000 4 Lithium-ion Morocco [104]

Market development and deploymentEdit

While the market for grid batteries is small compared to the other major form of grid storage, pumped hydroelectricity, it is growing very fast. For example, in the United States, the market for storage power plants in 2015 increased by 243% compared to 2014.[105] The 2021 price of a 60MW / 240MWh (4-hour) battery installation in the United States was US$379/usable kWh, or US$292/nameplate kWh, a 13% drop from 2020.[106][107]

As of May 2021, 1.3 GW of battery storage was operating in the United Kingdom, with 16 GW of projects in the pipeline potentially deployable over the next few years.[108]

In 2010, the United States had 59 MW of battery storage capacity from 7 battery power plants. This increased to 49 plants comprising 351 MW of capacity in 2015. In 2018, the capacity was 869 MW from 125 plants, capable of storing a maximum of 1,236 MWh of generated electricity. By the end of 2020, the battery storage capacity reached 1,756 MW.[109][110] At the end of 2021, the capacity grew to 4,588 MW.[111]

In 2020, China added 1,557 MW to its battery storage capacity, while storage facilities for photovoltaics projects accounting for 27% of the capacity,[112] to the total 3,269 MW of electrochemical energy storage capacity.[113]

There is a lot of movement in the market, for example, some developers are planning to build storage systems from old batteries of electric cars, where costs can probably be halved compared to conventional systems from new batteries.[114]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Spector, Julian (2019-07-01). "What Comes Next After Batteries Replace Gas Peakers?". www.greentechmedia.com. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  2. ^ "'Manufacturer reveals involvement in world's biggest battery energy storage system so far'". Energy Storage News. 17 June 2021.
  3. ^ "Behind the numbers: The rapidly falling LCOE of battery storage". Energy Storage News. 6 May 2020.
  4. ^ "BloombergNEF: 'Already cheaper to install new-build battery storage than peaking plants'". Energy Storage News. 30 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Grid Energy Storage Technology Cost and Performance Assessment" (PDF). US Department of Energy. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  6. ^ "Energy Storage Cost and Performance Database". US Department of Energy. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  7. ^ a b Batteries for Large-Scale Stationary Electrical Energy Storage (PDF; 826 kB), The Electrochemical Society Interface, 2010, (engl.)
  8. ^ Große Batteriespeicher erobern die Stromnetze. pv-magazine.de. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  9. ^ "Large battery fire in Moorabool". www.frv.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  10. ^ "Fire breaks out at giant battery project near Geelong". www.abc.net.au. 2021-07-30. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  11. ^ "The world's largest battery facility has gone dormant in Moss Landing, with no timetable on return". Archived from the original on 2021-09-16.
  12. ^ Southworth, Phoebe (2020-05-10). "UK's largest solar farm could cause explosion on scale of small nuclear bomb, residents complain". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  13. ^ "UK's giant battery 'farms' spark fears of explosions even worse than the Beirut port blast". The Global Warming Policy Forum. 2021-07-11. Retrieved 2021-09-02.
  14. ^ utilitydive.com, PG&E contracts for 75 MW of energy storage on its way to 580 MW of capacity. Dec. 4, 2015
  15. ^ zdf-video, ZDF - Planet E - Schwungradspeicher. 27 February 2013
  16. ^ Nitsch, Felix; Deissenroth-Uhrig, Marc; Schimeczek, Christoph; Bertsch, Valentin (2021-09-15). "Economic evaluation of battery storage systems bidding on day-ahead and automatic frequency restoration reserves markets". Applied Energy. 298: 117267. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117267. ISSN 0306-2619.
  17. ^ International, Edison. "SCE Unveils Largest Battery Energy Storage Project in North America". Edison International. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  18. ^ Invenergy's Grand Ridge energy storage facility wins 2015 Best Renewable Project Award Archived 2016-01-10 at the Wayback Machine, Solar Server, December 12, 2015
  19. ^ Tesla nimmt Netzspeicher in Kalifornien in Betrieb In: golem.de. 25 January 2017, retrieved 27 January 2017.
  20. ^ Tesla quietly brings online its massive – biggest in the world – 80 MWh Powerpack station with Southern California Edison In: electrek.co. 23 January 2017, retrieved 27 January 2017.
  21. ^ a b c 5 battery energy storage projects to watch in 2016 , Utility Dive, Krysti Shallenberger, November 30, 2015
  22. ^ Iulia, Gheorghiu (2019-10-10). "There once was a 48 MWh Tesla battery on Nantucket, which saved National Grid $120M in its budget". Utility Dive. Retrieved 2022-02-06.
  23. ^ Vistra Energizes Massive 1.2-GWh Battery System at California Gas Plant In: Power Magazine. 14 January 2021, retrieved 21 July 2021.
  24. ^ "Hornsdale Power Reserve". Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  25. ^ "Explainer: What the Tesla big battery can and cannot do". RenewEconomy. 10 July 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  26. ^ KANEMATSU, YUICHIRO (2017-09-30). "Tesla taps Samsung cells for huge Aussie energy-storage facility". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 2017-10-09. Retrieved 2017-10-09.
  27. ^ a b Nick Harmsen (29 September 2017). "Elon Musk: Tesla reaches halfway point of construction on 'world's biggest' battery". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  28. ^ Parkinson, Giles (14 December 2017). "Tesla big battery goes the full discharge – 100 MW – for first time". RenewEconomy. RenewEconomy. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  29. ^ Parkinson, Giles (19 December 2017). "Tesla big battery outsmarts lumbering coal units after Loy Yang trips". RenewEconomy. RenewEconomy. Retrieved 19 December 2017. But in reality, the response from the Tesla big battery was even quicker than that – in milliseconds – but too fast for the AEMO data to record. Importantly, by the time that the contracted Gladstone coal unit had gotten out of bed and put its socks on so it can inject more into the grid – it is paid to respond in six seconds – the fall in frequency had already been arrested and was being reversed.
  30. ^ Scopelianos, Sarah; Fedorowytsch, Tom; Garcia, Sara (7 July 2017). "Elon Musk's Tesla to build world's biggest lithium ion battery to secure power for South Australia". ABC News. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  31. ^ Harmsen, Nick (7 July 2017). "What is Tesla's SA battery and how will it be used?". ABC News. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  32. ^ "Tesla's Giant Battery Farm Ready to Flick the Switch". The urban developer. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  33. ^ Leary, Kyree (2018-01-24). "Tesla's Australian Battery Shows It Can Also Make Huge Profits". futurism.com. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  34. ^ "Can big batteries beat network blues?". Australian Renewable Energy Agency. Retrieved 2022-08-15.
  35. ^ Leclanché soll eines der weltgrößten Energiespeicher-Systeme mit 13 MW/53 MWh nach Ontario liefern Archived March 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. solarserver.de. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  36. ^ "UK's 'largest' grid battery storage facility completed in Hertfordshire". www.businessgreen.com. July 10, 2018.
  37. ^ "UK's largest battery storage facility comes online in Hertfordshire". edie.net.
  38. ^ Kokam: Liefert 56 MW für Speicherprojekt zur Frequenzregulierung. ee-news.ch. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  39. ^ "Daimler and partners deploying world's largest 2nd-life EV battery storage unit for grid support". Green Car Congress.
  40. ^ Younicos Batteriespeicher Schwerin der WEMAG, Pressemitteilung zum Younicos Batteriespeicher Schwerin der WEMAG vom 29 April 2013
  41. ^ Europas erstes kommerzielles Batteriekraftwerk in Schwerin eröffnet Archived 2016-03-06 at the Wayback Machine, WEMAGBlog-Eintrag vom 16. September 2014
  42. ^ bosch-presse.de: Archived 2016-03-21 at the Wayback Machine Megawatt-Projekt nahe der Nordsee: Stromspeicher Braderup in Betrieb – Hybridbatterie für flexibles Windstrom-Management
  43. ^ Recharge invests in hybrid renewable energy storage project on Graciosa. sunwindenergy.com. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  44. ^ Erongo News (18 December 2021). "BESS to reduce major renewable energy expansion challenges". Erongo Namibia (© Copyright 2022 Namibia Media Holdings). Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  45. ^ Andy Colthorpe (24 December 2021). "€20m grant funding for Namibia's first grid-scale BESS from Germany's national development bank". Energy Storage News. London, United Kingdom. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  46. ^ Mitsubishi Installs 50 MW Energy Storage System to Japanese Power Company In: globalspec.com. 11 March 2016, retrieved, 28 January 2017.
  47. ^ World’s largest sodium–sulphur ESS deployed in Japan In: bestmag.co.uk. 3 November 2016, retrieved 28 January 2017.
  48. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (28 January 2019). "UAE integrates 648MWh of sodium sulfur batteries in one swoop". Energy Storage News.
  49. ^ solarserver.de: BYD bringt weltgrößten Batteriespeicher ans Netz
  50. ^ "Duke Energy Notrees Wind Storage Demonstration Project Archived 2014-10-26 at the Wayback Machine" United States Department of Energy
  51. ^ Lie, Øyvind. "Her er verdens kraftigste batterier" Teknisk Ukeblad, 12 October 2014. Accessed: 13 October 2014.
  52. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (14 Dec 2017). "'Minimal downtime': Younicos swaps out lead-acid for lithium at Texas' Notrees wind farm". Energy Storage News. Archived from the original on 7 March 2021.
  53. ^ solarserver.de: Archived February 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Energiespeicher für Photovoltaik- und Hybrid-Kraftwerke: BELECTRIC baut Batteriespeicher-System mit 2 MWh in Brandenburg
  54. ^ Lucien F. Trueb; Paul Rüetschi (1998), Batterien und Akkumulatoren (in German), Springer, pp. 85 bis 89, ISBN 3-540-62997-1
  55. ^ "Battery System". www.gvea.com. GVEA - Golden Valley Electric Association. Archived from the original on 2019-10-11.
  56. ^ "Größter Batteriespeicher Europas in Betrieb genommen | windmesse.de". w3.windmesse.de.
  57. ^ [1] Fünf Millionen Euro Förderung für Batteriespeicher in Feldheim, 17 May 2015
  58. ^ [2] In Feldheim entsteht Deutschlands größter Batteriespeicher, 7 May 2014
  59. ^ "Größter Batteriespeicher Sachsens in Dresden gestartet". Archived from the original on 2015-07-12. Retrieved 2016-02-06. Größter Batteriespeicher Sachsens in Dresden gestartet, 17 März 2015
  60. ^ "Google and NV Energy propose major solar-plus-storage project in Nevada". PV Tech.
  61. ^ "Enhanced Frequency Response Market Information Report - Published 26 August 2016" (PDF).
  62. ^ a b c "Minety Battery Storage Project". NS Energy. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  63. ^ "About". Penso Power. 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  64. ^ "China Huaneng initiates the construction of the largest battery energy storage project in Europe". www.chng.com.cn. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  65. ^ "Shell to buy power from Europe's biggest battery". RenewEconomy. 2020-02-19. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  66. ^ "Biggest storage battery in Europe built near Wiltshire village". BBC News. 15 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  67. ^ Grundy, Alice (19 March 2020). "A 50MW expansion to 100MW Minety battery storage project planned". Solar Power Portal. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  68. ^ "Cottingham: Europe's biggest battery storage system switched on". BBC News. 21 November 2022. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  69. ^ Lee, Andrew (21 November 2022). "Tesla builds 'Europe's largest battery' near Dogger Bank offshore wind power landfall". Recharge. NHST Media. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  70. ^ Steag baut Riesenbatterie in Walsum. In: Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 6 November 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
  71. ^ STEAG investiert in Versorgungsstabilität: Neuanschaffung von sechs Großbatteriesystemen mit zusammen 90 MW Archived 2015-11-07 at the Wayback Machine. Internetseite von Steag. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  72. ^ QINOUS liefert Batteriespeicher mit 800 kW an eine Aborigine-Gemeinde in Australien Archived March 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. solarserver.de. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  73. ^ "China builds the world's largest lithium-free battery".
  74. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (21 July 2022). "First phase of 800MWh world biggest flow battery commissioned in China". Energy Storage News. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
  75. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (20 August 2021). "Expansion complete at world's biggest battery storage system in California". Energy Storage News. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021.
  76. ^ "World's biggest battery storage system comes back online after months of shutdown". Energy Storage News. 12 July 2022. Archived from the original on 14 July 2022.
  77. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (18 October 2022). "Crimson Energy Storage 350MW/1,400MWh battery storage plant comes online in California". Energy Storage News. Archived from the original on 18 October 2022.
  78. ^ Murray, Cameron (17 August 2022). "230MW BESS comes online at Bureau of Land Management site in California". Energy Storage News.
  79. ^ "FPL Will Build World's Largest Battery Storage System". POWER Magazine. 3 April 2019.
  80. ^ Spector, Julian (3 September 2019). "The Biggest Batteries Coming Soon to a Grid Near You". www.greentechmedia.com.
  81. ^ "World's biggest solar-charged battery storage system unveiled in Florida". Energy Storage News. 15 December 2021.
  82. ^ Erickson, Amber (Jan 28, 2015). "Florida Power and Light announces plan for Manatee County Solar Center". Archived from the original on 2017-09-14.
  83. ^ "US installs 5GWh of battery storage in H1 2022 but overall clean power deployments fall". Energy Storage News. 2022-07-27. Retrieved 2022-08-18.
  84. ^ Sylvia, Tim (29 July 2020). "PG&E, Tesla begin construction on one of the world's largest batteries". PV Magazine.
  85. ^ "PG&E commissions 182.5MW/730MWh Tesla BESS at Moss Landing". Energy Storage News. 19 April 2022. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022.
  86. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (16 March 2022). "Goldman Sachs brings online California solar-plus-storage project with 561MWh of batteries". Energy Storage News. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022.
  87. ^ Murray, Cameron (1 March 2022). "Terra-Gen brings 560MWh California battery project online". Energy Storage News.
  88. ^ Murray, Cameron (8 September 2022). "AES brings second portion of 908MWh BESS complex in California online". Energy Storage News.
  89. ^ "The Victorian Big Battery Q&A". The Victorian Big Battery Q&A. Victorian Government. 5 November 2020. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  90. ^ Parkinson, Giles (7 December 2021). "Australia's biggest battery officially opened, 12 months after contract awarded". RenewEconomy. Archived from the original on 8 December 2021.
  91. ^ "New York City trades gas plant for the world's largest battery". PV Magazine. 18 October 2019.
  92. ^ "Lacking contract, LS Power delays major battery storage station in NY". www.spglobal.com. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  93. ^ Lempriere, Molly (30 November 2020). "UK's largest battery storage project at 640MWh gets go ahead from government". Energy Storage News. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  94. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (19 October 2020). "AES begins work on 560MWh 'largest battery system in Latin America' for solar and wind in Chile". Energy Storage News.
  95. ^ Directors, Hydro Review Content (2022-08-12). "Report lists Chile's top five generators by capacity, projects under construction". Hydro Review. Retrieved 2022-08-18.
  96. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (26 August 2021). "Progress report: Some more of US' biggest battery projects taking shape". Energy Storage News. Archived from the original on 26 August 2021.
  97. ^ "World's biggest battery with 1,200MW capacity set to be built in NSW Hunter Valley". The Guardian. 5 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  98. ^ "World's first GW-scale battery project unveiled in Australia in snub to gas-fixated government". Recharge. 5 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  99. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (12 January 2021). "Coal power plant site in Australia could host 700MW / 2,800MWh battery energy storage project". Energy Storage News. Energy Storage News. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  100. ^ "'Super Battery' first to benefit from New South Wales government's A$1.2 billion spending pledge". Energy Storage News. 10 June 2022.
  101. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (18 November 2022). "Powin begins work on 1.9GWh Australian 'Super Battery' for BlackRock-owned developer". Energy Storage News.
  102. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (18 January 2021). "'Great Western Battery' 1,000MWh project proposed to aid reliability in Australia's post-coal age". Energy Storage News. Energy Storage News. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  103. ^ Parkinson, Giles (10 March 2021). "Australia's big fossil fuel generators are being replaced by big batteries". Renew Economy. Renew Economy. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  104. ^ Grundy, Alice (29 September 2021). "Morocco-UK Power Project: Solar, wind and 5GW of battery energy storage". Energy Storage News. Energy Storage News. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  105. ^ USA: Speichermarkt wächst um 243 Prozent im Jahr 2015. pv-magazine.de. retrieved 11 March 2016.
  106. ^ Colthorpe, Andy (4 November 2021). "NREL: Cost of solar, energy storage in US fell across all segments from 2020 to 2021". PV Tech. Archived from the original on 12 November 2021.
  107. ^ "U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System and Energy Storage Cost Benchmarks: Q1 2021" (PDF). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. U.S. Department of Energy. November 2021. p. 36. NREL/TP-7A40-80694. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  108. ^ McCorkindale, Mollie (19 May 2021). "Top ten UK battery storage projects forecast for 2021 completion". Solar Power Portal. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  109. ^ "Battery Storage in the United States: An Update on Market Trends". U.S. Energy Information Administration. July 15, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  110. ^ "Wind Industry Closes Record 2020 With Strongest Quarter Ever". American Clean Power Association. February 4, 2021. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  111. ^ "U.S. surpasses 200 gigawatts of total clean power capacity, but the pace of deployment has slowed according to ACP 4Q report". American Clean Power Association. February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
  112. ^ Yuki (2021-07-05). ""First-of-its-Kind" Energy Storage Tech Fest -China Clean Energy Syndicate". Energy Iceberg. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  113. ^ Energy Storage Industry White Paper 2021. China Energy Storage Alliance. 2021.
  114. ^ "Electric vehicles, second life batteries, and their effect on the power sector | McKinsey". www.mckinsey.com. Retrieved 2021-12-15.