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List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Contents

Foreign-exchange reservesEdit

Rank Country or region Foreign-exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1   China 3,139,949 December 2017 [1][2]
2   Japan 1,264,283 December 2017[1][3]
3    Switzerland 795,100 September 2017[1][4]
4   Saudi Arabia 485,200 September 2017[1]
5   Taiwan[5] 450,469 November 2017[6][1][7][8]
6   Russia 437,900 12 January 2018[9][1][10][11]
7   Hong Kong 419,300 September 2017[1][12]
8   India 413,825 12 January 2018[1][13]
9   South Korea 384,700 September 2017[1]
10   Brazil 381,200 September 2017[14][15]
11   Singapore 275,410 September 2017[16]
12   Thailand 239,307.39 December 2017 [17]
13   Germany 200,199 September 2017[18]
14   Mexico 174,889 September 2017[19][20]
15   United Kingdom 154,315 September 2017[21]
16   France 153,891 March 2016[22]
17   Czech Republic 148,020 December 2017[7][23]
18   Italy 143,183 March 2016[24]
19   Iran 135,500 31 December 2016[7]
20   Indonesia 128,890 8 September 2017 [25][26]
21   Turkey 123,440 November 2016[27][28]
22   United States 123,377 08 September 2017[29][30][31]
23   Algeria 121,900 October 2016[7][32]
24   Poland 113,377 November 2017[33]
25   Israel 113,010 December 2017[34]
26   Malaysia 101,500 15 November 2017[35][36]
27   United Arab Emirates 93,930 31 December 2015[7]
28   Canada 83,130 November 2016[37][38]
29   Philippines 81,467 December 2017[39][40]
-   Europe (ECB) 75,150 February 2016[41]
30   Libya 70,990 31 December 2015[7]
31   Denmark 64,016 March 2016[42]
32   Peru 61,459 18 November 2016[43][44][45]
33   Sweden 59,558 February 2016[46]
34   Spain 54,155 March 2016[47]
35   Iraq 54,060 31 December 2015[7]
36   Argentina 51,950 March 2017[48]
37   Australia 49,265 March 2016[49]
38   Lebanon 48,600 31 December 2015[7]
39   Colombia 46,798 April 2016[7][50]
40   South Africa 46,770 March 2016[51]
41   Norway 42,965 October 2016[52][53]
37   Vietnam 51,500 31 December 2017[54]
43   Netherlands 40,393 April 2016[55]
44   Romania 40,148 April 2016[56]
45   Chile 39,553 March 2016[57]
46   Egypt 36,036 July 2017[58]
47   Bangladesh 33,596 Aug 2017[59]
48   Hungary 31,367 March 2016[60]
49   Kazakhstan 30,500 1 November 2016[7][61][62][63]
50   Nigeria 30,329 2 June 2017[64]
51   Kuwait 28,370 31 December 2015[7]
52   Belgium 24,861 March 2016[65]
53   Austria 24,758 March 2016[66]
54   Bulgaria 24,318 March 2016[7][67]
55   Angola 24,080 31 December 2015[7]
56   Qatar 24,030 July 2017[7]
57   Morocco 23,927 February 2016[7][68][69]
58   Portugal 21,328 March 2016[71]
60   Macau, China 19,330 October 2016[72]
61   Oman 17,540 31 December 2015[7]
62   Ukraine 17,175 1 May 2017[73]
63   New Zealand 16,770 March 2016[7][74]
64   Jordan 15,360 August 2017[75]
65   Uzbekistan 15,000 31 December 2015[7]
66   Uruguay 14,377 February 2016[76]
67   Croatia 14,307 February 2016[7][77]
68   Pakistan 13,875 September 2017[78]
68   Turkmenistan 13,620 31 December 2015[7]
69   Bolivia 12,818 January 2016[79]
70   Cuba 12,100 31 December 2015[7]
71   Serbia 11,350 31 December 2015[7]
72   Finland 10,413 March 2016[80]
73   Trinidad and Tobago 9,880 11 November 2016[7][81]
74   Venezuela 9,600 1 November 2017[82]
75   Myanmar 8,463 31 December 2015[7]
76   North Korea 8,000 November 2013[83]
77     Nepal 7,945 31 December 2015[7][84]
78   Costa Rica 7,784 February 2016[85]
79   Guatemala 7,658 March 2016[86]
80   Kenya 7,548 31 December 2015[7]
81   Botswana 7,546 31 December 2015[7]
82   Greece 7,535 March 2016[87]
83   Cambodia 7,376 31 December 2015[7]
84   Tunisia 6,714 February 2016[88]
85   Dominican Republic 6,459 March 2017[89]
86   Afghanistan 6,232 31 December 2015[7][84]
87   Sri Lanka 6,225 March 2016[90]
88   Iceland 6,186 April 2016[91]
89   Paraguay 5,939 31 December 2015[7]
90   Ghana 5,885 31 December 2015[7]
91   Belarus 4,817 1 November 2016[92][93]
92   Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,791 31 December 2015[7]
93   Ivory Coast 4,716 31 December 2015[7]
94   Bahrain 4,657 31 December 2015[7]
95   Mauritius 4,498 March 2016[94]
96   Tanzania 4,073 31 December 2015[7]
97   Azerbaijan 4,072 30 June 2017[7][95]
98   Honduras 3,755 March 2016[96]
99   Latvia 3,520 March 2016[68][97]
100   Panama 3,378 31 December 2015[7]
101   Brunei 3,366 2015[84]
102   Ireland 3,347 March 2016[68][98]
103   Albania 3,188 March 2016[7][68][99]
104   El Salvador 3,172 March 2016[100]
105   Ethiopia 3,113 31 December 2015[7]
106   Zambia 2,968 31 December 2015[7]
107   Uganda 2,909 31 December 2015[7]
108   Slovakia 2,879 January 2016[7][101]
109   Georgia 2,760 October 2016[68][102][103]
110   Jamaica 2,740 February 2016[7][68][104]
111   Cameroon 2,714 31 December 2015[7]
112   Mozambique 2,582 31 December 2015[7]
113   Nicaragua 2,520 April 2016[7][68][105]
114   Ecuador 2,496 31 December 2015[7]
115   Macedonia 2,480 February 2016[7][68][106]
116   Republic of the Congo 2,244 31 December 2015[7]
117   Moldova 2,098 25 November 2016[107][108][109]
116   Armenia 2,036 10 April 2017[110][111]
119   Senegal 2,012 31 December 2015[7]
120   Yemen 1,978 31 December 2015[7]
121   Kyrgyzstan 1,944 October 2016[7][68][112][113]
122   Haiti 1,919 31 December 2015[7]
123   Gabon 1,878 31 December 2015[7]
124   Curaçao 1,791 2015[84]
125   Papua New Guinea 1,738 31 December 2015[7]
126   Namibia 1,690 31 December 2015[7]
127   Lithuania 1,227 April 2016[68][114]
128   Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,216 31 December 2015[7]
129   Equatorial Guinea 1,205 31 December 2015[7]
130   Bhutan 1,103 2015[84]
131   Luxembourg 1,077 March 2016[7][68][115]
132   Laos 1,058 31 December 2015[7][84]
133-134   Niger 1,039 2015[84]
134-134   Mongolia 1,039 October 2016[116]
135   Rwanda 1,030 31 December 2015[7]
136   Mauritania 969 2012[84]
137   Fiji 919 31 December 2015[7]
138   Lesotho 904 31 December 2015[7]
139   Bahamas 896 31 December 2015[7][84]
140   Kosovo 890 30 September 2015[7][84][117]
141   Cyprus 889 March 2016[7][68][118]
142   Slovenia 870 April 2016[68][119]
143   Madagascar 832 31 December 2015[7]
144   Aruba 816 2015[84]
145   Syria 773 31 December 2015[7]
146   Montenegro 734 2015[7][84]
147   Benin 732 31 December 2015[7][84]
148   Malawi 693 31 December 2015[7][84]
149   Malta 671 March 2016[7][68][120]
150   Barbados 658 31 December 2015[7]
151   Mali 624 2015[84]
152   Sierra Leone 621 2015[84]
153   Guyana 601 31 December 2015[7]
154   Maldives 576 2015[7][84]
155   Togo 574 31 December 2015[7][84]
156   Seychelles 555 March 2016[7][68][121]
157   Swaziland 548 31 December 2015[7][84]
158   Liberia 523 2015[84]
159   Solomon Islands 520 2015[84]
160   Cape Verde 495 31 December 2015[7][84]
161-162   Estonia 494 March 2016[7][68][122]
161-162   Tajikistan 494 31 December 2015[7]
163   Palestine 464 March 2016[68][123]
164   Timor-Leste 438 2015[84]
165   Belize 437 31 December 2015[7][84]
166   San Marino 392 2014[84]
167   Chad 383 31 December 2015[7]
168   Djibouti 365 2015[84]
169   Antigua and Barbuda 356 2015[84]
170   Zimbabwe 339 31 December 2015[7][84]
171   Burkina Faso 333 31 December 2016[7]
172   Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[84]
173   Suriname 330 31 December 2015[7][84]
174   Saint Lucia 318 2015[84]
175   Saint Kitts and Nevis 288 2015[84]
176   Vanuatu 251 31 December 2016[7][84]
177   Guinea 244 31 December 2016[7][84]
178   South Sudan 230 2015[84]
179   Central African Republic 214 2015[84]
180   Eritrea 213 31 December 2016[7]
181   Comoros 201 2015[84]
182   Grenada 198 2015[84]
183   Tonga 181 31 December 2016[7][84]
184   Sudan 167 31 December 2016[7][84]
185   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 165 31 December 2016[7][84]
186   Samoa 139 31 December 2015[7][84]
187   Federated States of Micronesia 135 2015[84]
188-189   Burundi 100 31 December 2016[7]
189-189   Dominica 100 31 December 2016[7]
190   Gambia 92 31 December 2016[7]
191   São Tomé and Príncipe 68 31 December 2016[7]
192   Montserrat 51 31 December 2015[7]
193   Somalia 30 2014[7]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  3. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

Currency composition of foreign-exchange reservesEdit

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[124]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves
(US Dollars, Billions)[124]
No. Currency Q4 2015 Q1 2016 Q2 2016 Q3 2016 Q4 2016
1  USD 4,374.07 4,604.17 4,792.23 4,939.78 5,052.94
2  EUR 1,345.06 1,449.19 1,493.88 1,577.68 1,559.26
3  GBP 331.38 343.3 348.84 350.75 349.33
4  JPY 274.77 280.74 325.99 346.77 332.77
5  CAD 127.65 136.29 143.52 155.8 160.83
6  AUD 131 133.67 136.97 150.22 146.12
7  RMB N/A N/A N/A N/A 84.51
8  CHF 19.77 14.81 14.28 14.82 13.73
Other currencies 213.32 231.76 245.95 265.15 201.15
Unallocated Reserves 4,104.39 3,815.22 3,536.29 3,258.41 2,892.77
Total 10,921.40 11,009.16 11,037.96 11,059.38 10,793.40

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Official Foreign Reserves(October 2017) Bank of Korea
  2. ^ "Homepage >> Data and Statistics >> Forex Reserves >> Foreign Exchange Reserves". State Administration of Foreign Exchange, China. 
  3. ^ "HOME > International Policy > Statistics > International Reserves/Foreign Currency Liquidity". Ministry of Finance Japan. 
  4. ^ Swiss National Bank
  5. ^ Formally known as the Republic of China
  6. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  8. ^ SDDS (Special Data Dissemination Standard). Access to the Republic of China's statistics
  9. ^ "International Reserves of the Russian Federation (End of period) | Банк России". www.cbr.ru. Retrieved 2018-01-19. 
  10. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  11. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  12. ^ "Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Hong Kong's Latest Foreign Currency Reserve Assets Figures Released". www.hkma.gov.hk. Retrieved 2017-08-12. 
  13. ^ Weekly Statistical Supplement, Reserve Bank of India
  14. ^ Banco Central do Brasil
  15. ^ IMF - Brazil
  16. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  17. ^ "Reserve Money and International Reserve Report : November 24, 2017 Report" (PDF). Bank of Thailand. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  18. ^ Official reserve assets, other foreign currency assets and related short-term liabilities Deutsche Bundesbank
  19. ^ Banco de México. Data Template on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  20. ^ IMF - Mexico
  21. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  22. ^ IMF - France
  23. ^ Czech Nat. Bank Reserves
  24. ^ IMF - Italy Archived 14 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Bank Indonesia
  26. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  27. ^ IMF - Turkey
  28. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/central-bank-gross-fx-reserves-at-20-month-high--.aspx?pageID=238&nID=106258&NewsCatID=345
  29. ^ https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/data-chart-center/IR-Position/Pages/09082017.aspx
  30. ^ U.S. International Reserve Position
  31. ^ IMF - United States
  32. ^ Algerian foreign reserves drop to $121.9 bln
  33. ^ IMF - Poland
  34. ^ Foreign Exchange Reserves in the Bank of Israel, December 2017
  35. ^ bnmstatement Central Bank of Malaysia. International Reserves
  36. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  37. ^ [1]
  38. ^ IMF - Canada
  39. ^ [2]
  40. ^ [3]
  41. ^ IMF - European Central Bank
  42. ^ IMF - Denmark
  43. ^ CENTRAL RESERVE BANK OF PERU. RESERVE MANAGEMENT STATISTICS
  44. ^ CENTRAL RESERVE BANK OF PERU. RESERVES MANAGEMENT REPORTS
  45. ^ IMF- Peru
  46. ^ IMF - Sweden
  47. ^ IMF - Spain
  48. ^ IMF - Argentina
  49. ^ IMF - Australia
  50. ^ IMF - Colombia
  51. ^ IMF - South Africa
  52. ^ Statistick Norway. International reserves and foreign liquidity
  53. ^ IMF - Norway
  54. ^ [4]
  55. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  56. ^ IMF - Romania
  57. ^ IMF - Chile
  58. ^ [5]
  59. ^ Bangladesh Bank (Central Bank of Bangladesh)
  60. ^ IMF - Hungary
  61. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  62. ^ National Bank of Kazakhstan
  63. ^ International Reserves and Assets of the National Oil Fund of Republic of Kazakhstan
  64. ^ Gross reserves value from 30 day moving Average page on Central Bank of Nigeria's Website
  65. ^ IMF - Belgium
  66. ^ IMF - Austria
  67. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  69. ^ IMF - Morocco
  70. ^ [6]
  71. ^ IMF - Portugal
  72. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  73. ^ Резервы НБУ выросли до $17,175 млрд
  74. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  75. ^ Khaberni News Agency
  76. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  77. ^ IMF - Croatia
  78. ^ [7]
  79. ^ IMF - Bolivia
  80. ^ IMF - Finland
  81. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago Archived 29 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  82. ^ http://money.cnn.com/2017/11/14/news/economy/venezuela-debt-default-sp/index.html
  83. ^ Северная Корея распродает золотой запас
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  85. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  86. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  87. ^ IMF - Greece
  88. ^ IMF - Tunisia
  89. ^ Central Bank of the Dominican Republic
  90. ^ IMF - Sri Lanka
  91. ^ IMF - Iceland
  92. ^ IMF - Belarus
  93. ^ International reserve assets of the Republic of Belarus
  94. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  95. ^ http://en.cbar.az/infoblocks/money_reserve_usd
  96. ^ IMF - Honduras
  97. ^ IMF - Latvia
  98. ^ IMF - Ireland
  99. ^ IMF - Albania
  100. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  101. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  102. ^ IMF - Georgia
  103. ^ National Bank Of Georgia. Statistical Data. Official Reserve Assets
  104. ^ IMF - Jamaica
  105. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  106. ^ IMF - Macedonia
  107. ^ IMF - Moldova
  108. ^ Информация об изменении официальных резервных активов
  109. ^ BNM. Официальные резервные активы и другие активы в иностранной валюте
  110. ^ Cite error: The named reference Vesti Finance was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  111. ^ [8]
  112. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  113. ^ Кыргыз Республикасынын Улуттук банкы. Gross international reserves
  114. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  115. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  116. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  117. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo. Monthly Statistics Bulletin. December 2015, No. 127
  118. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  119. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  120. ^ IMF - Malta
  121. ^ IMF - Seychelles
  122. ^ IMF - Estonia
  123. ^ IMF - Palestine
  124. ^ a b "IMF Releases Data on the Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves Including Holdings in Renminbi". International Monetary Fund. March 31, 2017. 

External linksEdit