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List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London

In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites.[1] As of August 2019, there are 37 sites designated in Greater London,[2] 30 of which have been designated for their biological interest and 7 for their geological interest. Two sites are Special Protection Areas, three are Special Areas of Conservation, one is a Ramsar wetland site, two are National Nature Reserves, nine are Local Nature Reserves, seven are Geological Conservation Review sites, one is a Nature Conservation Review site, one is on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens and one includes a Scheduled Monument. Three sites are managed by the London Wildlife Trust, two by the Essex Wildlife Trust, two by the Kent Wildlife Trust, one by the Herts and Middlesex Wildlife Trust, one by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and one by the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

Greater London is one of the largest urban areas in Europe, with an area of 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi).[3] Its boundaries were set in 1965 when Greater London, which covers the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, was created. Almost two-thirds of it is green space and wetlands.[4] Its population according to the 2011 census was 8.17 million.[5]

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KeyEdit

InterestEdit

  • B = a site of biological interest
  • G = a site of geological interest

AccessEdit

  • YES = free public access to all or most of the site
  • PP = free public access to part of the site
  • PL = public access at limited times
  • NO = no public access

Other classificationsEdit

SitesEdit

Site name Photograph B G Area[a] Public
access
Location[a] Other
classifications
Map[a] Citation[a] Description
Abbey Wood      Y 6.3 hectares (16 acres) YES Abbey Wood
51°29′13″N 0°07′46″E / 51.48706°N 0.12942°E / 51.48706; 0.12942 (Abbey Wood)
TQ481786
GCR[6] Map Citation The site exposes rocks dating to the late Palaeocene and early Eocene 50 to 60 million years ago. It has yielded one of only two Palaeocene birds found in Britain, the holotype of Marinavis longirostris, a large Procellariiform.[7][8]
Barn Elms Wetland Centre    Y   29.9 hectares (74 acres) YES Barnes
51°28′43″N 0°13′59″W / 51.4786°N 0.2331°W / 51.4786; -0.2331 (Barn Elms Wetland Centre)
TQ228770
WWT[9] Map Citation The site is a mosaic of wetland areas, with open water, marshland and reed beds. It has nationally important numbers of shovelers, and other birds include gadwalls, little grebes, grey herons, mute swans and little ringed plovers.[10]
Bentley Priory    Y   55.1 hectares (136 acres) YES Stanmore
51°37′19″N 0°19′48″W / 51.622°N 0.330°W / 51.622; -0.330 (Bentley Priory)
TQ156297
LNR[11] Map Citation The dominant grasses in the site are common bent, red fescue and Yorkshire fog. Uncommon wild flowers include greater burnet, great burnet and spotted orchid. There are many birds including buzzard, spotted flycatcher, and bullfinch[12]
Brent Reservoir    Y   68.6 hectares (170 acres) YES Hendon
51°34′16″N 0°14′42″W / 51.571°N 0.245°W / 51.571; -0.245 (Brent Reservoir)
TQ217873
LNR[13] Map Citation The reservoir is mainly significant for its nesting birds, especially great crested grebes. Other birds include coots, little grebes, tufted ducks and gadwalls. There are also areas of swamp and wet woodland.[14]
Bushy Park and Home Park    Y   541.0 hectares (1,337 acres) YES Teddington
51°24′04″N 0°20′06″W / 51.4010°N 0.3349°W / 51.4010; -0.3349 (Bushy Park and Home Park)
TQ159692
Map Citation The site has nationally important dead and decaying wood invertebrates, including the beetles Aeletes atomarius, Stenichnus godarti and Trichonyx sulcicollis. It also has ancient trees and acid grassland.[15]
Chingford Reservoirs    Y   316.3 hectares (782 acres) NO Chingford
51°38′23″N 0°01′13″W / 51.6398°N 0.0202°W / 51.6398; -0.0202 (Chingford Reservoirs)
TQ371953
Map Citation The reservoirs are major wintering grounds for wildfowl, including nationally important populations of shovelers and great crested grebes. There are also important numbers of goldeneye ducks, tufted ducks and goosanders. Over 85 species of wetland birds have been recorded.[16]
Crofton Woods    Y   76.6 hectares (189 acres) YES Crofton
51°22′44″N 0°03′47″E / 51.379°N 0.063°E / 51.379; 0.063 (Crofton Wood)
TQ437665
Map Citation This is a large area of ancient woodland on London Clay, which supports many species of trees, shrubs and herbs.[17] Trees in the ancient wood are mainly oak and hazel. It has high botanical diversity, including fourteen species of sedge, and a rich invertebrate fauna.[18]
Croham Hurst    Y   33.6 hectares (83 acres) YES South Croydon
51°21′03″N 0°04′38″W / 51.3509°N 0.0773°W / 51.3509; -0.0773 (Croham Hurst)
TQ338632
Map Citation This site, on a steep hill, has a diverse community on its lower slopes of plants dominated by oak and hazel on rich soils overlying chalk. Further up, the trees are mainly beech on Thanet Sands, and towards the top the main trees are oak and birch on the acidic Blackheath pebble beds.[19][20]
Denham Lock Wood    Y   6.3 hectares (16 acres) YES Denham
51°33′58″N 0°28′44″W / 51.566°N 0.479°W / 51.566; -0.479 (Denham Lock Wood)
TQ055863
LWT[21] Map Citation This is a poorly drained wet woodland and fen site which is skirted by the Frays River. The main trees are alder and crack willow in the wetter areas, and elsewhere oak and ash with a shrub layer of hazel. In winter there are wildfowl and in spring many flower species. Invertebrates include red cardinal beetles, banded demoiselles and the rare and protected Desmoulin's whorl snail.[22][23][24]
Downe Bank and High Elms    Y   86.8 hectares (214 acres) YES Downe
51°19′52″N 0°03′50″E / 51.331°N 0.064°E / 51.331; 0.064 (Downe Bank)
TQ438610
51°21′04″N 0°04′30″E / 51.351°N 0.075°E / 51.351; 0.075 (High Elms)
TQ446625
KWT,[25] LNR[26] Map Citation Downe Bank is a meadow and woodland area associated with Charles Darwin, who lived locally. High Elms is woodland which has locally uncommon species, such as green hellebore, bird's-nest orchid, spurgelaurel and yellow bird's-nest.[27]
Elmstead Pit    Y 0.05 hectares (0.12 acres) NO Elmstead
51°25′02″N 0°02′43″E / 51.4171°N 0.0453°E / 51.4171; 0.0453 (Elmstead Pit)
TQ42327066
GCR[28] Map Citation The pit exposes an important layer of the Oldhaven or Blackheath Beds laid down about 50 million years ago during the Eocene epoch. It has a rich and diverse selection of fossil fauna from a sub-tidal estuarine environment. Fossils include molluscs, sharks' teeth and fish scales.[29]
Epping Forest    Y   1,728.0 hectares (4,270 acres) YES Epping
51°40′N 0°03′E / 51.66°N 0.05°E / 51.66; 0.05 (Epping Forest)
TL475035
TQ405865
EWT,[30] NCR[30] SAC[31] Map Citation The forest has one of the few major examples of lowland wood pasture in England, with areas of pasture and wetland. According to Natural England it "supports a nationally outstanding assemblage of invertebrates, a major amphibian interest and an exceptional breeding bird community".[30]
Farthing Downs and Happy Valley    Y   120.5 hectares (298 acres) YES Coulsdon
51°17′56″N 0°07′55″W / 51.299°N 0.132°W / 51.299; -0.132 (Farthing Downs and Happy Valley)
TQ303572
SM[32] Map Citation This site has chalk and neutral grasslands and an area of ancient woodland. It has the largest British colony of the rare wildflower greater yellow-rattle, and nationally scarce herbs. Eight species of orchid have been recorded.[33]
Frays Farm Meadows    Y   28.2 hectares (70 acres) YES Denham
51°33′50″N 0°28′35″W / 51.5639°N 0.4765°W / 51.5639; -0.4765 (Frays Farm Meadows)
TQ057861
LWT,[34] LNR[35] Map Citation The meadows are one of the few remaining examples of unimproved wet alluvial grassland in Greater London. Linear features such as a river, an embankment, ditches and hedges, contribute to the rich diversity of plants and animals. Mammals on site include the nationally endangered water vole.[36][37]
Gilbert's Pit      Y 5.2 hectares (13 acres) YES Charlton
51°29′20″N 0°02′30″E / 51.4888°N 0.0418°E / 51.4888; 0.0418 (Gilbert's Pit)
TQ418786
GCR,[38] LNR[39] Map Citation This is an important Lower Tertiary site, displaying one of the most complete sequence of sediments in Greater London. The Paleocene Thanet and Woolwich Beds date to around 55 million years ago. Some of the beds yield many fossils of plants, sponges, molluscs, fish and reptiles.[40]
Hainault Forest    Y   136.0 hectares (336 acres) YES Hainault
51°37′25″N 0°07′56″E / 51.6236°N 0.1323°E / 51.6236; 0.1323 (Hainault Forest)
TQ477938
Map Citation This is mainly pedunculate oak and hornbeam on Claygate Beds, glacial gravels and boulder clay. There is a varied flora and fauna, including many bird species, including nightingales, wood warblers and spotted flycatchers.[41]
Hampstead Heath Woods    Y   16.6 hectares (41 acres) YES Hampstead
51°34′20″N 0°10′08″W / 51.5721°N 0.1689°W / 51.5721; -0.1689 (North Wood, Hampstead Heath)
TQ270875
51°34′03″N 0°10′03″W / 51.5676°N 0.1676°W / 51.5676; -0.1676 (Ken Wood, Hampstead Heath)
TQ271870
Map Citation The site has many old and over-mature trees, which provide an extensive dead wood habitat for invertebrates, including the nationally rare jewel beetle Agrilus pannonicus. The main trees are sessile oak and beech. The shrub layer is dominated by holly and rowan.[42]
Harefield Pit    Y 1.8 hectares (4.4 acres) YES Harefield
51°35′53″N 0°29′10″W / 51.598°N 0.486°W / 51.598; -0.486 (Harefield Pit)
TQ049898
GCR[43][44] Map Citation This is described by Natural England as an important Tertiary site in the London Basin, which displays a sequence through the Upper Chalk, Reading Beds and London Clay. It is the only known source of charophytes in the Reading Beds, and these have potential for correlation with other localities in Europe.[45]
Harrow Weald      Y 3.7 hectares (9.1 acres) YES Harrow Weald
51°37′24″N 0°20′41″W / 51.6233°N 0.3447°W / 51.6233; -0.3447 (Harrow Weald)
TQ147929
GCR[46] Map Citation It provides the most complete exposure of early Pleistocene gravel beds. They were formerly thought to have been of marine origin but recent research has cast doubt on this view. It is considered a key site for further studies.[47]
Hornchurch Cutting      Y 0.8 hectares (2.0 acres) YES Hornchurch
51°33′49″N 0°13′51″E / 51.5636°N 0.2308°E / 51.5636; 0.2308 (Hornchurch Cutting)
TQ547874
GCR[48] Map Citation This is at the southern edge of the Anglian ice sheet 450,000 years ago, the most extreme ice age during the Pleistocence ice ages of the last 2.58 million years. It is the type site for Hornchurch Till, boulder clay laid down by the ice sheet in the Ingrebourne Valley.[49]
Ingrebourne Marshes    Y   74.8 hectares (185 acres) YES Hornchurch
51°31′48″N 0°12′25″E / 51.530°N 0.207°E / 51.530; 0.207 (Ingrebourne Marshes)
TQ532835
EWT,[50] LNR[51] Map Citation The site is the largest area of freshwater marsh in Greater London. It is very diverse, with large areas of reed sweet-grass, common reed swamp, wet neutral grassland and tall fen. There are two nationally rare Red Data Book species, the hoverfly Anasimyia interpuncta and the scarce emerald damselfly Lestes dryas.[52]
Inner Thames Marshes    Y   479.3 hectares (1,184 acres) YES Purfleet
51°29′24″N 0°13′30″E / 51.490°N 0.225°E / 51.490; 0.225 (Inner Thames Marshes)
TQ531800
RSPB,[53] LNR[54] Map Citation The site has a wide variety of breeding and wintering birds, with internationally important numbers of wintering teal. The marshes also have rare plants and invertebrates, such as the pondweed Potamogeton pusillus and the emerald damselfly.[55]
Kempton Park Reservoirs    Y   25.6 hectares (63 acres) NO Kempton Park
51°25′34″N 0°23′42″W / 51.426°N 0.395°W / 51.426; -0.395 (Kempton Park Reservoirs)
TQ118707
LNR,[56] Ramsar,[57] SPA[58] Map Citation Waders that breed regularly on the site include northern lapwing, common redshank, ringed plover and little ringed plover. The first successful inland breeding in the British Isles of pied avocet was at this reservoir. Other birds recorded include smew, garganey, Temminck's stint, spotted crake and red-necked phalarope.[59]
Keston And Hayes Commons    Y   26.6 hectares (66 acres) YES Keston
51°21′30″N 0°02′05″E / 51.3584°N 0.0348°E / 51.3584; 0.0348 (Keston Common)
TQ417643
Map Citation This site has both acid dry and wet neutral grassland. Heather on dry infertile soil has unusual lichens. There are also areas of valley mire, a brook and ponds.[60]
Mid Colne Valley    Y   132.0 hectares (326 acres) YES Harefield
51°35′35″N 0°29′38″W / 51.593°N 0.494°W / 51.593; -0.494 (Mid Colne Valley)
TQ043896
HMWT[61] Map Citation The site is important for its breeding wetland birds and over-wintering water birds. Wintering birds which are present in nationally important numbers are great crested grebes, cormorants, shovelers and tufted ducks, and the number of gadwalls is internationally significant. The River Colne is important for bats, particularly Daubentons.[62]
Old Park Wood    Y   16.7 hectares (41 acres) YES Harefield
51°36′40″N 0°29′28″W / 51.611°N 0.491°W / 51.611; -0.491 (Old Park Wood)
TQ046913
HMWT[63] Map Citation The site is dissected by small valleys and has a variety of types of soil and plants. The trees are mainly oak, birch, hornbeam and ash. Golden saxifrage and marsh marigolds grow along small streams and there is a pond which is important for dragonflies and invertebrates.[64][65]
Oxleas Woodlands    Y   72.7 hectares (180 acres) YES Eltham
51°28′01″N 0°03′58″E / 51.467°N 0.066°E / 51.467; 0.066 (Oxleas Woodlands)
TQ442760
LNR[66] Map Citation The site is mature woodland on London Clay. Most of it is hazel with pedunculate or sessile oak, or birch and pedunculate oak. Insects include the beetles Oligota flavicormis and Scolytus intricatus, and the fly Dolichopus wahlbergi.[67]
Richmond Park    Y   856.0 hectares (2,115 acres) YES Richmond
51°26′N 0°16′W / 51.44°N 0.27°W / 51.44; -0.27 (Richmond Park)
TQ200730
NNR,[68] SAC,[69] RHPG[70] Map Citation The park is an important refuge for wildlife, including woodpeckers, squirrels, rabbits, snakes, frogs, toads, stag beetles and many other insects plus numerous ancient trees and varieties of fungi. It is particularly notable for its rare beetles.[71]
Riddlesdown    Y   32.0 hectares (79 acres) YES Kenley
51°19′25″N 0°05′33″W / 51.3236°N 0.0926°W / 51.3236; -0.0926 (Riddlesdown)
TQ330600
Map Citation This is the largest area of calcareous scrub in Greater London, with a herb-rich chalk grassland. There are two nationally rare herbs, early gentian (Gentianella anglica) and round-headed rampion. Invertebrate species include the scarce Roesel's bush-cricket.[72]
Ruislip Woods    Y   305.4 hectares (755 acres) YES Ruislip
51°35′35″N 0°25′52″W / 51.593°N 0.431°W / 51.593; -0.431 (Ruislip Woods)
TQ081892
NNR[68] Map Citation This site has some of the largest unbroken blocks of semi-natural woodland in Greater London, almost all on clay soils, and it also has areas of wetland and grassland. It has some rare plant and insect species, including the orchid broad-leaved helleborine and the herb common cow-wheat.[73]
Ruxley Gravel Pits    Y   18.7 hectares (46 acres) NO Orpington
51°24′36″N 0°07′01″E / 51.410°N 0.117°E / 51.410; 0.117 (Ruxley Gravel Pits)
TQ474700
KWT[74] Map Citation There are four water filled pits with areas of fen. Over 500 plants species have been recorded and 169 birds, out of which 53 are breeding species. There are also 23 butterfly species, 23 dragonfly and over 500 beetles. Water quality is high.[75]
Saltbox Hill    Y   22.2 hectares (55 acres) YES Biggin Hill
51°19′30″N 0°00′33″E / 51.3251°N 0.0093°E / 51.3251; 0.0093 (Saltbox Hill)
TQ402604
TQ408607
LWT[76] Map Citation Much of this site is chalk grassland which is rich in plants which are rare in Greater London, and it is one of only two sites in London which have the dark green fritillary butterfly. Ten species of orchid and over thirty of butterflies have been recorded. The site also has an area of woodland.[77][78]
Syon Park    Y   21.5 hectares (53 acres) PL Isleworth
51°28′34″N 0°18′29″W / 51.4761°N 0.3080°W / 51.4761; -0.3080 (Syon Park)
TQ176766
Map Citation This meadow site has reed-grasses on lower ground, with rye-grass and meadow-grass higher up. There are many small ditches, and it is used by many over-wintering birds and has a number of rare invertebrate species, including uncommon flies.[79]
Walthamstow Marshes    Y   36.7 hectares (91 acres) YES Walthamstow
51°34′14″N 0°03′00″W / 51.5706°N 0.0499°W / 51.5706; -0.0499 (Walthamstow Marshes)
TQ352875
Map Citation The site has areas of semi-natural wetland and some of drier grassland. There are a variety of marshland breeding birds, and butterflies such as the Essex skipper. Species such as the Roesel's bush-cricket are indicators of ancient marshland.[80]
Walthamstow Reservoirs    Y   178.3 hectares (441 acres) NO Walthamstow
51°35′08″N 0°03′05″W / 51.5855°N 0.0514°W / 51.5855; -0.0514 (Walthamstow Reservoirs)
TQ351892
SPA[81] Map Citation The Walthamstow Reservoirs support the most notable variety of breeding wetland birds among all of London's drinking water reservoirs. Great crested grebe, pochard, tufted duck, coot, yellow wagtail, sedge warbler and reed warbler are all regular breeding visitors.[82]
Wansunt Pit      Y 1.9 hectares (4.7 acres) PP Dartford
51°26′28″N 0°10′37″E / 51.44116°N 0.17701°E / 51.44116; 0.17701 (Wansunt Pit)
TQ514736
TQ515738
GCR[83] Map Citation The site exposes the Dartford Heath Gravel, and the relationship of this exposure to the Swanscombe sequence and the Thames Terraces is a controversial issue in Thames Pleistocene studies.[84] Stone tools have been found of Homo Heidelbergensis, dating from the Hoxnian Stage, an interglacial period between 424,000 and 374,000 years ago.[85]
Wimbledon Common    Y   346.5 hectares (856 acres) YES Wimbledon
51°26′02″N 0°14′10″W / 51.434°N 0.236°W / 51.434; -0.236 (Wimbledon Common)
TQ227720
SAC[86] Map Citation The common has an extensive area of wet acidic heathland, and other areas of dense semi-natural woodland on clay. There are many streams and plants uncommon in the London area. Other features are bog mosses and locally important breeding birds.[87]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Maps and citations for each site are taken from the Natural England database. The area and location of the site is shown on the citation.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Sites of Special Scientific Interest: Designation". Natural England. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. ^ "SSSIs in Greater London". Natural England. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  3. ^ Watson, Jo (25 July 2009). "Access to Nature Regional Targeting Plan - London" (PDF). Natural England. Archived from the original (pdf) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ "London". Natural England. Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  5. ^ "2011 Census first results: London boroughs' populations by age by sex" (PDF). Greater London Authority. July 2012. Archived from the original (pdf) on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  6. ^ "Geological Conservation Review – search results for Abbey Wood". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  7. ^ Natural England Citation, Abbey Wood
  8. ^ "Geological Conservation Review, Volume 16: Fossil Fishes of Great Britain, Chapter 14: British Cenozoic fossil fishes sites, Site: ABBEY WOOD (GCR ID: 2903), 1980–2007" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  9. ^ "London Wetland Centre". Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust. Archived from the original on 14 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  10. ^ "Barn Elms Wetland Centre citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  11. ^ "Bentley Priory". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 1 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  12. ^ "Harrow Heritage Trust, Bentley Priory Nature Reserve". Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  13. ^ "Brent Reservoir/Welsh Harp". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 1 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  14. ^ "Brent Reservoir citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  15. ^ "Bushy Park and Home Park citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  16. ^ "Chingford Reservoirs citation" (PDF). Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  17. ^ Natural England, Crofton Woods citation
  18. ^ "Crofton Wood". Greenspace Information for Greater London. 2006. Archived from the original on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  19. ^ "Croham Hurst citation" (PDF). Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  20. ^ "Croydon Online, Croham Hurst". Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  21. ^ "Denham Lock Wood". London Wildlife Trust. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  22. ^ "London Wildlife Trust, Denham Lock Wood". Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  23. ^ "Denham Lock Wood citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  24. ^ London Wildlife Trust noticeboard in Denham Lock Wood
  25. ^ "Downe Bank". Kent Wildlife Trust. Archived from the original on 3 January 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  26. ^ "High Elms". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 5 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  27. ^ "Downe Bank and High Elms citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  28. ^ "Elmstead Rock Pit, Chislehurst (Palaeogene)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  29. ^ "Elmstead Pit citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  30. ^ a b c "Epping Forest citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  31. ^ "Special Areas of Conservation: Epping Forest". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  32. ^ "Regular aggregate field system, associated trackway and Anglo-Saxon barrow field on Farthing Down, 490m east of Hooley Farm". Historic England. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  33. ^ "Farthing Downs and Happy Valley citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  34. ^ "Frays Farm Meadows SSSI". London Wildlife Trust. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  35. ^ "Frays Valley". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 4 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  36. ^ "Natural England, Cows MOOve in to rescue West London Meadow, Press release 22 May 2010". Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  37. ^ "Natural England Citation, Fray's Farm Meadows" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  38. ^ "Charlton Sand Pit (Gilbert's Pit) (Palaeogene)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  39. ^ "Maryon Wilson Park and Gilbert's Pit". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 6 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
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