Great crested grebe

The great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus) is a member of the grebe family of water birds noted for its elaborate mating display.

Great crested grebe
Great Crested Grebe 1 - Penrith.jpg
Call of a Great Crested Grebe recorded in Surrey
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Podicipediformes
Family: Podicipedidae
Genus: Podiceps
Species:
P. cristatus
Binomial name
Podiceps cristatus
PodicepsCristatusIUCN2019-2.png
Range of P. cristatus
  Breeding
  Resident
  Non-breeding
Synonyms

Colymbus cristatus Linnaeus, 1758

Podiceps cristatus

TaxonomyEdit

The great crested grebe was formally described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae under the binomial name Colymbus cristatus.[2] The great crested grebe is now the type species of the genus Podiceps that was erected by the English naturalist John Latham in 1787.[3][4][5] The type locality is Sweden.[6] The scientific name comes from Latin: the genus name Podiceps is from podicis, "vent" and pes, "foot", and is a reference to the placement of a grebe's legs towards the rear of its body; the species name, cristatus, means "crested".[7]

Three subspecies are recognised:[4]

  • P. c. cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Eurasia
  • P. c. infuscatus Salvadori, 1884 – Africa
  • P. c. australis Gould, 1844 – Australia, Tasmania, South Island of New Zealand

DescriptionEdit

The great crested grebe is the largest member of the grebe family found in the Old World, with some larger species residing in the Americas. They measure 46–51 cm (18–20 in) long with a 59–73 cm (23–29 in) wingspan and weigh 0.9 to 1.5 kg (2.0 to 3.3 lb).[8][9] It is an excellent swimmer and diver, and pursues its fish prey underwater. The adults are unmistakable in summer with head and neck decorations. In winter, this is whiter than most grebes, with white above the eye, and a pink bill.

The young are distinctive because their heads are striped black and white. They lose these markings when they become adults.

DistributionEdit

 
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden, Germany

The great crested grebe breeds in vegetated areas of freshwater lakes. The subspecies P. c. cristatus is found across Europe and east across the Palearctic. It is resident in the milder west of its range, but migrates from the colder regions. It winters on freshwater lakes and reservoirs or the coast. The African subspecies P. c. infuscatus and the Australasian subspecies P. c. australis are mainly sedentary.

BehaviourEdit

BreedingEdit

The great crested grebe has an elaborate mating display. Like all grebes, it nests on the water's edge. The nest is built by both sexes. The clutch averages four chalky white eggs which average 54 mm × 37 mm (2.1 in × 1.5 in) in size and weigh 42 g (1.5 oz). Incubation is by both parents and begins as soon as the first egg is laid. The eggs hatch asynchronously after 27 to 29 days. The precocial young are cared for and fed by both parents.[10]

Young grebes are capable of swimming and diving almost at hatching. The adults teach these skills to their young by carrying them on their back and diving, leaving the chicks to float on the surface; they then re-emerge a few feet away so that the chicks may swim back onto them.

FeedingEdit

The great crested grebe feeds mainly on fish, but also small crustaceans, insects small frogs and newts.[11]

Relationship to humansEdit

 
A head of great crested grebe in the coat of arms of Kauvatsa

This species was hunted almost to extinction in the United Kingdom in the 19th century for its head plumes, which were used to decorate ladies' hats and garments. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds was set up to help protect this species, which is again a common sight.[12]

The great crested grebe and its behaviour was the subject of one of the landmark publications in avian ethology: Julian Huxley's 1914 paper on The Courtship‐habits of the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus).[13][14]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Podiceps cristatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Volume 1 (in Latin) (10th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 135.
  3. ^ Latham, John (1787). Supplement to the General Synopsis of Birds. London: Printed for Leigh & Sotheby. p. 294.
  4. ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2021). "Grebes, flamingos". IOC World Bird List Version 11.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  5. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 148.
  6. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 1 (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 151.
  7. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 122, 341. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  8. ^ "Great crested grebe videos, photos and facts – Podiceps cristatus". ARKive. Archived from the original on 2012-08-23. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  9. ^ Burnie, D.; Wilson, D.E., eds. (2005). Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult. ISBN 0789477645.
  10. ^ Cramp 1977, pp. 87–88.
  11. ^ Cramp 1977, p. 82.
  12. ^ Cocker, Mark; Mabey, Richard (2005). Birds Britannica. London: Chatto and Windus. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-7011-6907-7.
  13. ^ Burkhardt Jr, R.W. (1992). Huxley and the rise of ethology. Julian Huxley. Biologist and statesman of science. Houston, Texas: Rice University Press. pp. 127–149.
  14. ^ Huxley, J.S. (1914). "The courtship‐habits of the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus); with an addition to the theory of sexual selection". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 84 (3): 491–562. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1914.tb07052.x.

SourcesEdit

Cramp, Stanley, ed. (1977). "Podiceps cristatus Great Crested Grebe". Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. I: Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 78–89. ISBN 978-0-19-857358-6.

External linksEdit