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The Hoxnian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage (Pleistocene from 2.588 ± .005 million to 11,700 years BP[1]) of the geological history of the British Isles. It precedes the Wolstonian Stage and follows the Anglian Stage. It is equivalent to Marine Isotope Stage 11.[2][3][4][5] Marine Isotope Stage 11 started 424,000 years ago and ended 374,000 years ago.[6][7] The Hoxnian divided into sub-stages Ho I to Ho IV.[8]

The Hoxnian stage has often been correlated to the Holstein Interglacial of northern Continental Europe and the Mindel-Riss Interglacial of the Alps. However, there is ambiguity regarding the correlation of these two interglacials to either MIS 11 or MIS 9, which is related to the MIS 12 / MIS 10 ambiguity described in more detail in the article 'Elster glaciation'.[9]

The Hoxnian stage has also been equated to the Yarmouthian (Yarmouth) Stage in North America. However, the Yarmouthian Stage, along with the Kansan, Nebraskan, and Aftonian stages, have been abandoned by North American Quaternary geologists and merged into the Pre-Illinoian Stage.[10][11] At this time, the Hoxnian and Holstein stages are correlated with a brief part of the Pre-Illinoian Stage lying between the Pre-Illinoian A and Pre-Illinoian B glaciations of North America.[5][11]

The Hoxnian Stage is named after Hoxne in the English county of Suffolk where some of the deposits it created were first found. Plant and vertebrate fossils indicate that it was a period of relatively warm climate. Clactonian and Acheulean flint tools and early human remains have been found dating to this stage.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Major Divisions". Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy. International Commission on Stratigraphy. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  2. ^ Stringer, Chris (2006). Homo Britannicus: The incredible story of human life in Britain. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-101813-3.
  3. ^ McMillan, A. A. (2005). "A provisional Quaternary and Neogene lithostratigraphic framework Great Britain" (PDF). Netherland Journal of Geosciences. 84 (2): 87–107.
  4. ^ Walker, M. (2005). Quaternary Dating Methods. Chichester UK: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-86927-5.
  5. ^ a b Gibbard, P. L.; Boreham, S.; Cohen, K. M. & Moscariello, A. (2007). "Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years v. 2007b" (jpg version 844 KB). Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy. Cambridge, England: Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
  6. ^ Lisiecki, L. E. (2005). Ages of MIS boundaries.LR04 Benthic Stack Boston University, Boston, MA
  7. ^ Lisiecki, L. E. & Raymo, M. E. (2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18
    records". Paleoceanography. 20: PA1003. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071.
  8. ^ Pettitt, Paul; White, Mark (2012). The British Palaeolithic: Human Societies at the Edge of the Pleistocene World. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-415-67455-3.
  9. ^ Böse et al. (2012), Quaternary Glaciations of Northern Europe, Quaternary Science Reviews 44, page 17-22.
  10. ^ Hallberg, G. R. (1986). "Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the Central Plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 11–15. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5...11H. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90169-1.
  11. ^ a b Richmond, G. M. & Fullerton, D. S. (1986). "Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 183–196. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5..183R. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90184-8.

Further readingEdit

  • Bowen, D.Q. (1978). Quaternary geology: a stratigraphic framework for multidisciplinary work. Oxford UK: Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-020409-3.
  • Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Rose, J., eds. (1991). Glacial deposits in Great Britain and Ireland. Rotterdam: Balkema. ISBN 978-90-6191-875-2.
  • Mangerud, J.; Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P. (2004). Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology 1: Part I Europe. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-51462-7.

External linksEdit