Quercus petraea

(Redirected from Sessile oak)

Quercus petraea, commonly known as the sessile oak,[3] Cornish oak,[4] Irish Oak or durmast oak,[5] is a species of oak tree native to most of Europe and into Anatolia and Iran. The sessile oak is the national tree of Ireland,[6] and an unofficial emblem in Wales[7] and Cornwall.[8][9]

Quercus petraea
A mature tree
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Subgenus: Quercus subg. Quercus
Section: Quercus sect. Quercus
Q. petraea
Binomial name
Quercus petraea

See text.

Distribution map
  • Quercus robur var. petraea Matt.
  • Quercus brevipedunculata Cariot & St.-Lag.
  • Quercus calcarea Troitsky
  • Quercus columbaria Vuk.
  • Quercus coriacea Bechst.
  • Quercus coronensis Schur
  • Quercus decipiens Behlen
  • Quercus dispar Raf.
  • Quercus durinus Raf.
  • Quercus erythroneura Vuk.
  • Quercus esculus L.
  • Quercus longipetiolata Schur
  • Quercus mas Thore
  • Quercus mespilifolia Wallr.
  • Quercus peraffinis Gand.
  • Quercus petiolata Schur
  • Quercus regalis Burnett ex Endl.
  • Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.
  • Quercus sessilis Ehrh. ex Schur
  • Quercus spathulifolia Vuk.
  • Quercus sphaerocarpa Vuk.
  • Quercus sublobata Kit.
  • Quercus huguetiana (Franco & G.López) Rivas Mart.
  • Quercus colchica Czeczott
  • Quercus dshorochensis K.Koch
  • Quercus hypochrysa Steven
  • Quercus iberica Steven ex M.Bieb.
  • Quercus kochiana O.Schwarz
  • Quercus kozlowskyi Woronow ex Grossh.
  • Quercus lamprophyllos K.Koch
  • Quercus polycarpa Schur
  • Quercus sorocarpa Woronow ex Maleev
  • Quercus szowitzii Wenz.
  • Quercus abietum Kotschy ex A.DC.
  • Quercus cedrorum Kotschy
  • Quercus ibicis Kotschy ex A.DC.
  • Quercus pinnatiloba K.Koch
  • Quercus subalpina Kotschy ex A.DC.
  • Quercus tergestina Wenz.
  • plus a long list of invalid names and another long list of names below the species level

Description edit

The sessile oak is a large deciduous tree up to 40 metres (130 feet) tall,[10] in the white oak section of the genus (Quercus sect. Quercus) and similar to the pedunculate oak (Q. robur), with which it overlaps extensively in range. The leaves are 7–14 centimetres (2+345+12 inches) long and 4–8 cm (1+12–3 in) broad, evenly lobed with five to six lobes on each side and a 1 cm-long (12 in) petiole. The male flowers are grouped into catkins, produced in the spring. The fruit is an acorn 2–3 cm (341+14 in) long and 1–2 cm (1234 in) broad, which matures in about six months.

Comparison with pedunculate oak edit

Significant botanical differences from pedunculate oak (Q. robur) include the stalked leaves, and the stalkless (sessile) acorns from which one of its common names is derived. (With the pedunculate oak, it is the acorns which are pedunculate, i.e. on stalks, while the leaves are not.) It occurs in upland areas of altitudes over 300 m (984 ft) with higher rainfall and shallow, acidic, sandy soils. Its specific epithet petraea means "of rocky places".[11] Q. robur, on the other hand, prefers deeper, richer soils at lower altitude. Fertile hybrids with Quercus robur named Quercus × rosacea are found wherever the two parent species occur and share or are intermediate in characters between the parents.

Charles Darwin, in Chapter II of On the Origin of Species, noted that the sessile and pedunculate oaks had been described as both distinct species and mere varieties depending on the authority consulted.

Taxonomy edit

Quercus petraea was first described by Heinrich Gottfried von Mattuschka in 1777 as a variety of Quercus robur, Quercus robur var. petraea. It was raised to a full species by Franz Kaspar Lieblein in 1784.[12]

Subspecies edit

As of March 2023, Plants of the World Online accepted five subspecies:[12]

  • Quercus petraea subsp. austrotyrrhenica Brullo, Guarino & Siracusa
  • Quercus petraea subsp. huguetiana Franco & G.López
  • Quercus petraea subsp. petraea
  • Quercus petraea subsp. pinnatiloba (K.Koch) Menitsky
  • Quercus petraea subsp. polycarpa (Schur) Soó

Diseases and pests edit

Uses edit

Sessile oak is one of the most important species in Europe both economically and ecologically. Oak timber is traditionally used for building, ships and furniture. Today the best woods are used for quality cabinetmaking, veneers and barrel staves.[14] Rougher material is used for fence construction, roof beams and specialist building work. The wood also has antimicrobial properties.[15][16] It is also a good fuel wood. During autumns with good acorn crops (the mast years), animals are traditionally grazed under the trees to fatten them.[17]

Pontfadog Oak edit

The Pontfadog Oak, once considered to be the oldest oak tree in the UK, was a sessile oak. This grew near Chirk in North Wales. It was understood to be over 1,200 years old, an age that was due to regular pollarding for much of its life. The hollow trunk had a girth of 12.9 m (42 ft 5 in). It was lost in April 2013 when it blew down in high winds.[18]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Gorener, V.; Khela, S.; Barstow, M. (2017). "Quercus petraea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62539A3116237. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62539A3116237.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Quercus petraea". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 14 September 2016 – via The Plant List. Note that this website has been superseded by World Flora Online
  3. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  4. ^ "Sessile oak". ARKive.org. Archived from the original on 30 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  5. ^ "Quercus petraea". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  6. ^ Mitchell, Alan (1974). "Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe (Collins Field Guide)", HarperCollins Distribution Services, New York. ISBN 0002120356.
  7. ^ "Tree trail with worldwide flavour", BBC News, 23 July 2004
  8. ^ Minahan, James (2009). The complete guide to national symbols and emblems. Vol. 1. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0313344961.
  9. ^ West Briton, September 01, 2011, Will native trees thrive in the future? Archived June 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian (2015). Zang, RunGuo (ed.). "Regeneration patterns of European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in dependence of environment and neighborhood". PLOS ONE. 10 (8). e0134935. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1034935A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134935. PMC 4534096. PMID 26266803.
  11. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
  12. ^ a b "Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  13. ^ Bullock, J.A. 1992. Host Plants of British Beetles: A List of Recorded Associations – Amateur Entomologists' Society (AES) publication volume 11a: A supplement to A Coleopterist's Handbook.
  14. ^ Munir, Muhammad Tanveer; Pailhories, Hélène; Eveillard, Matthieu; Irle, Mark; Aviat, Florence; Federighi, Michel; Belloncle, Christophe (24 August 2020). "Experimental Parameters Influence the Observed Antimicrobial Response of Oak Wood (Quercus petraea)". Antibiotics. 9 (9): 535. doi:10.3390/antibiotics9090535. PMC 7558063. PMID 32847132.
  15. ^ Munir, Muhammad; Aviat, Florence; Lepelletier, Didier; Pape, Patrice Le; Dubreil, Laurence; Irle, Mark; Federighi, Michel; Belloncle, Christophe; Eveillard, Matthieu; Pailhoriès, Hélène (1 October 2020). "Wood materials for limiting the bacterial reservoir on surfaces in hospitals: would it be worthwhile to go further?". Future Microbiology. 15 (15): 1431–1437. doi:10.2217/fmb-2019-0339. PMID 33156723. S2CID 226276130.
  16. ^ Chen, Ju-Chi; Munir, Muhammad Tanveer; Aviat, Florence; Lepelletier, Didier; Le Pape, Patrice; Dubreil, Laurence; Irle, Mark; Federighi, Michel; Belloncle, Christophe; Eveillard, Matthieu; Pailhoriès, Hélène (13 November 2020). "Survival of Bacterial Strains on Wood (Quercus petraea) Compared to Polycarbonate, Aluminum and Stainless Steel". Antibiotics. 9 (11): 804. doi:10.3390/antibiotics9110804. PMC 7698295. PMID 33202723.
  17. ^ Ducousso, A. & Bordacs, S. (2004), Pedunculate and sessile oaks – Quercus robur/Quercus petraea: Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use (PDF), European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, p. 6, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2018
  18. ^ "Pontfadog Oak: 1,200-year-old tree toppled by winds". BBC News Online. 18 April 2013.

External links edit