List of Nazi doctors

This is a list of notable Nazi medical doctors (physicians).

When the Nazi government came to power it purged Germany of its 6,000 to 7,000 Jewish doctors.[1] Reportedly more than 7% of all German physicians became members of the Nazi party during World War II, a far higher percentage than the general population.[2] In 1942 more than 38,000 German doctors, half the total number of doctors, had joined the Nazi party.[3][4] While most of these doctors were physicians, some were psychiatrists, and some held doctorates (PhD.'s) in biology, anthropology, or similarly related fields.

Psychiatrists/Doctors who were working for the state, and not for their patient, using a Mendelian type of logic chart, saw extermination of their patients as the correct solution to the problem of mental illness and the genetically defective.[5][6][7][8]

"The participation in the ‘betrayal of Hippocrates’ had a broad basis within the German medical profession. Without the doctors' active help, the Holocaust could not have happened." wrote E Ernst in the International Journal of Epidemiology.[9]

Psychiatrist Ernst Rüdin was the founder of the psychiatric genetics field and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement.[10]

Killing and experimentation[11] became medical procedures as they were performed by licensed doctors. A doctor was present at all the mass killings for legal reasons.[12] The excuse that there wasn't any international law to differentiate between legal and illegal human experimentation, was used in the Doctors' trial.[13] Due to the lack of international laws to govern doctors, the Nuremberg Code (1947) was created.

After the war the German Medical Association blamed Nazi atrocities on a small group of 350 criminal doctors.[14][15][16]

Doctors such as Werner Heyde[17] and Robert Ley,[18] changed their name after the war to avoid responsibility. Dr Walter Schreiber first used by the Soviets was later taken into Operation Paperclip in 1951.

Alphabetical List of the Nazi physicians.

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See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Germany looks for way out of war". The Southeast Missourian. 17 September 1938.
  2. ^ Colaianni, Alessandra (2012). "A long shadow: Nazi doctors, moral vulnerability and contemporary medical culture". Journal of Medical Ethics. 38 (7): 435–438. doi:10.1136/medethics-2011-100372. PMID 22556311.
  3. ^ The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code : Human Rights in Human Experimentation. Oxford University Press. May 7, 1992. p. 19. ISBN 9780199772261.
  4. ^ Leary, Warren E. (1992-11-10). "Exhibition Examines Scientists' Complicity in Nazi-Era Atrocities". The New York Times.
  5. ^ Strous, Rael D. (2007). "Psychiatry during the Nazi era: Ethical lessons for the modern professional". Annals of General Psychiatry. 6: 8. doi:10.1186/1744-859X-6-8. PMC 1828151. PMID 17326822.
  6. ^ "Exhibit Depicts Nazi Science" authors Akua F. Abu and Zhanrui Kuang. April 15, 2011]. "Exhibit Depicts Nazi Science".
  7. ^ "...carried out only by physicians." Book "Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust" authors Sheldon Rubenfeld, Susan Benedict. Year 2014. Page 10.
  8. ^ Torrey, E. F.; Yolken, R. H. (2009). "Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 36 (1): 26–32. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp097. PMC 2800142. PMID 19759092.
  9. ^ Ernst, E. (2001). "Commentary: The Third Reich—German physicians between resistance and participation". International Journal of Epidemiology. 30 (1): 37–42. doi:10.1093/ije/30.1.37. PMID 11171848.
  10. ^ Joseph, J.; Wetzel, N. A. (2013). "Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind". Journal of the History of Biology. 46 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1007/s10739-012-9344-6. PMID 23180223.
  11. ^ "Nazi Sterilization Experiments" Author Genevieve Payzer. 2017
  12. ^ "History Vs. Apologetics: The Holocaust, the Third Reich, and the Catholic Church" Author David Cymet. Page 262. Told by Dr Hans Wilhelm Münch in 1981.
  13. ^ "As Other Editors See it : The Nazi Doctors" Schenectady Gazette. November 27, 1946
  14. ^ Kolb, Stephan; Weindling, Paul; Roelcke, Volker; Seithe, Horst (2012). "Apologising for Nazi medicine: A constructive starting point". The Lancet. 380 (9843): 722–723. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61396-8. PMC 4365922. PMID 22928190.
  15. ^ Strous, Rael D. (2006). "Nazi Euthanasia of the Mentally Ill at Hadamar". American Journal of Psychiatry. 163 (1): 27. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.27. PMID 16390885.
  16. ^ Müller-Hill, Benno (1988-04-28). Murderous science. ISBN 9780192615558.
  17. ^ Schneider, Frank (2011). "Psychiatry under National Socialism: Remembrance and Responsibility". European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 261: 111–118. doi:10.1007/s00406-011-0243-1. PMID 21959914.
  18. ^ "Robert Ley is in hands of yankees" Lawrence Daily Journal World. May 17, 1945
  19. ^ Roelcke, Volker; Lepicard, Etienne; Topp, Sascha (2014). Silence, Scapegoats, Self-reflection: The Shadow of Nazi Medical Crimes on Medicine and Bioethics. p. 109. ISBN 9783847103653.
  20. ^ "Vienna buries last remains of victims of Nazi medical mistreatment" newspaper national post. may 9, 2012.
  21. ^ "The Murder of Unproductive Persons"
  22. ^ [The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution By Henry Friedlander pg 92]
  23. ^ The Dachau Trials:Mauthausen-Gusen Cases
  24. ^ "Mass killing under the guise of ECT: the darkest chapter in the history of biological psychiatry." Authors Gazdag, Ungvari, Czech. PMID:28829187 DOI:10.1177/0957154X17724037
  25. ^ "Abusive Medical Practices on “Euthanasia” Victims in Austria during and after World War II" Author Herwig Czech. Page 112. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-05702-6_9
  26. ^ "Nazi War Crimes Trials:Ravensbrück Trial"
  27. ^ Nazi War Crimes Trials
  28. ^ p.17, "The Eternal Nazi" by Nicholas Kulish and Souad Mekhennet, 2014