Open main menu

Wikipedia β

List of Nazi concentration camps

The main gate into Auschwitz II (Birkenau) concentration camp, where an estimated 1.1 million people were killed.[1]

This article presents a partial list of the most prominent Nazi German concentration camps set up across Europe during the course of World War II and the ensuing Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Germany,[2] while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Germans established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries."[3] The concentration camps are not to be confused with the extermination camps which were designed and built exclusively to kill prisoners on a massive scale immediately upon arrival.[4] The extermination camps of Operation Reinhard such as Belzec, Sobibór and Treblinka served as "death factories" in which German SS and police murdered nearly 2,700,000 Jews either by asphyxiation with poison gas or by shooting.[4] Meanwhile, the concentration camps listed herein served primarily as detention and slave labor exploitation centers. Most of them were destroyed by the Germans in an attempt to hide the evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity; nevertheless tens of thousands of prisoners sent on death marches were liberated by the Allies afterward.[5]

The concentration camps held large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of systemic mistreatment, starvation, forced labour and murder. In 1933-1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of 'asocial' or socially 'deviant' behavior by the Germans.[6] They have not been utilized to sustain the German war effort, unlike the prisoners of 42,500 camps and ghettos in which an estimated 15 to 20 million people were imprisoned and often pressed into slavery during the subsequent years,[7] according to research by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum conducted more recently.[7] Though the term 'concentration camp' is often used as a general term for all German camps, there were in fact several types of concentration camps in the German camp system during World War II. Holocaust scholars make a clear distinction between death camps and concentration camps which served a number of war related purposes including prison facilities, labor camps, prisoner of war camps, and transit camps among others.[8]

The system of about 20,000 camps in Germany and German-Occupied Europe played a pivotal role in sustaining the German reign of terror economically.[6] Some of the data presented in this table originates from the monograph titled The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz among similar others.[9]

Contents

Selected examplesEdit

Statistical and numerical data presented in the table below originates from a wide variety of publications and therefore does not constitute a representative sample of the total. The Ghettos in German-occupied Europe are generally not included in this list. Relevant information can be found at the separate List of Nazi-era ghettos.

  Other camps (incl. transit, collection points)
# Camp name Country (today) Camp type Dates of use Est. prisoners Est. deaths Sub-camps Webpage
1 Alderney Channel Islands Labour camps Jan 1942 – Jun 1944 6,000 700 Lager Borkum, Lager Helgoland, Lager Norderney, Lager Sylt [1]
2 Amersfoort Netherlands Transit camp and prison Aug 1941 – Apr 1945 35,000 1,000 [2]
3 Arbeitsdorf Germany Labour camp 8 Apr 1942 – 11 Oct 1942 600 min. none
4 Auschwitz-Birkenau Poland Extermination and labour camp Apr 1940 – Jan 1945 135,000 min.[10] in August 1944 1,100,000 min.[11] out of 6,000,000 rec. arrivals [12] list of 48 sub-camps with description at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum [13] [10] [11] [13] [12]
5 Banjica Serbia Concentration camp Jun 1941 – Sep 1944 23,637 3,849[14]
6 Bardufoss Norway Concentration camp Mar 1944 – ???? 800 250 [15]
7 Bełżec Poland Extermination camp Oct 1941 – Jun 1943 434,508 min. [3]
8 Bergen-Belsen Germany Concentration camp Apr 1943 – Apr 1945 120,000 52,000 2 [4]
9 Berlin-Marzahn Germany Early a "rest place" then labour camp for Roma July 1936 – ???? none [5]
10 Bernburg Germany Collection point Apr 1942 – Apr 1945 14,385 2
11 Bogdanovka Ukraine Concentration camp 1941 54,000 40,000
12 Bolzano Italy Transit Jul 1944 – Apr 1945 11,116
13 Bor Serbia Labour camp July 1943 – September 1944 6,000 1,800–2,800 [6]
14 Bredtvet Norway Concentration camp Fall, 1941 – May, 1944 1,000 min. none
14 Breendonk Belgium Prison and labour camp 20 Sep 1940 – Sep 1944 3532 min. 391 min. none [7]
15 Breitenau Germany "Early wild camp", then labour camp Jun 1933 – Mar 1934,
1940–1945
470 – 8500 [8]
16 Buchenwald Germany Concentration camp Jul 1937 – Apr 1945 266,000 56,545 list [9]
17 Chełmno
(Kulmhof)
Poland Extermination camp Dec 1941 – Apr 1943,
Apr 1944 – Jan 1945
152,000 min. [10]
18 Crveni krst Serbia Concentration camp 1941–1944 30,000 10,000
19 Dachau Germany Concentration camp Mar 1933 – Apr 1945 200,000 31,591 list [11]
20 Drancy France Internment camp, transit 20 Aug 1941 – 17 Aug 1944 70,000 Three of five Paris annexes: Austerlitz, Lévitan and Bassano camps [12]
21 Falstad Norway Prison camp Dec 1941 – May 1945 200 min. none [13]
22 Flossenbürg Germany Concentration camp May 1938 – Apr 1945 96,000 30,000 list of subcamps [14]
23 Fort de Romainville France Prison and transit camp 1940 – Aug 1944 8,100 min. 200 min. none [15]
24 Fort VII (Posen) Poland Concentration, detention, transit Oct 1939 – Apr 1944 18,000 min. 4,500 min. [16]
25 Fossoli Italy Prison and transit camp 5 Dec 1943 – Nov 1944 2,800
26 Grini Norway Prison camp 2 May 1941 – May 1945 19,788 8 Fannrem
Bardufoss
Kvænangen
27 Gross-Rosen Poland Labour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp Aug 1940 – Feb 1945 125,000 40,000 list [17]
28 Herzogenbusch
(Vught)
Netherlands Concentration camp 1943 – Summer 1944 31,000 750 list [18]
29 Hinzert Germany Collection point and subcamp Jul 1940 – Mar 1945 14,000 302 min. [19]
30 Jägala Estonia Labour camp Aug 1942 – Aug 1943 200 3,000 none [20]
31 Janowska
(Lwów)
Ukraine Ghetto; transit, labour, & extermination camp Sep 1941 – Nov 1943 40,000 min. none [21]
(see "A-Z")
32 Kaiserwald
(Mežaparks)
Latvia Concentration camp 1942 – 6 Aug 1944 20,000? 16,
incl. Eleja-Meitenes
[22]
33 Kaufering/Landsberg Germany Concentration camp Jun 1943 – Apr 1945 30,000 14,500 min. [23]
34 Kauen
(Kaunas)
Lithuania Ghetto and internment camp June 22, 1941 - August 1, 1944 Prawienischken [24]
35 Kemna Germany Early concentration camp Jun 1933 – Jan 1944 4,500 none [25]
36 Kistarcsa Hungary Concentration camp 1944 – 1945 1,800 [26]
37 Klooga Estonia Labour camp Summer 1943 – 28 Sep 1944 1,800
38 Koldichevo Belarus Labour camp Summer 1942 – Jun 1944 22,000
39 Le Vernet France Internment camp 1939–1944
40 Majdanek
(KZ Lublin)
Poland Extermination and concentration camp Jul 1941 – Jul 1944 78,000 [27]
41 Malchow Germany Concentration and Transit camp Winter 1943 – 8 May 1945 5,000
42 Maly Trostenets Belarus Extermination camp Jul 1941 – Jun 1944 60,000-65,000 [16][17]
43 Mauthausen-Gusen Austria Concentration camp Aug 1938 – May 1945 195,000 55,000–60,000 list [28]
44 Mechelen Belgium Transit camp July 1942 – Sep 1944 25267 min.[18] 300 min.[19] none [29]
45 Mittelbau-Dora Germany Concentration camp Sep 1943 – Apr 1945 60,000 20,000 min. list [30]
46 Natzweiler-Struthof (Struthof) France Concentration camp; Nacht und Nebel camp; extermination camp May 1941 – Sep 1944 52,000 22,000 list [20]
47 Neuengamme Germany Concentration camp 13 Dec 1938 – 4 May 1945 106,000 42,900+ list [31]
48 Niederhagen Germany Concentration and labour camp Sep 1941 – early 1943 3,900 1,285 none [32]
49 Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp (de) Germany Concentration camp Nov 1933 – 1935 0 Former infantry base Gleißelstetten (Fortress of Ulm) [33]
50 Oranienburg Germany Early concentration camp Mar 1933 – Jul 1934 3,000 16 min.
51 Osthofen Germany Collective point Mar 1933 – Jul 1934
52 Płaszów Poland Labour camp Dec 1942 – Jan 1945 150,000 min. 9,000 min. list
53 Ravensbruck Germany Concentration camp for women May 1939 – Apr 1945 132,000 28,000 list [34][35]
54 Risiera di San Sabba
(Trieste)
Italy Police detainment camp Sep 1943 – 29 Apr 1945 25,000 5,000 [36]
55 Sachsenhausen Germany Concentration camp Jul 1936 – Apr 1945 200,000 min. 30,000 list [37]
56 Sajmište Serbia Extermination camp Oct 1941 – Jul 1944 50,000 20,000–23,000
57 Salaspils (Kirchholm) Latvia Concentration camp Oct 1941 – Summer 1944 2,000 [38]
58 Skrochowitz
(Skrochovice)
Czechia Transit (1939) and labour camp Sept 1939 - Dec 1939, 1940–1943 700 13 [39]
59 Sobibór Poland Extermination camp May 1942 – Oct 1943 170,165 [40]
60 Soldau Poland Labour; Transit camp Winter 1939/40 – Jan 1945 30,000 13,000
61 Stutthof Poland Concentration camp Sep 1939 – May 1945 110,000 65,000 list [41]
62 Theresienstadt
(Terezín)
Czechia Transit camp and Ghetto Nov 1941 – May 1945 140,000 33,000 min. [42]
63 Treblinka Poland Extermination camp Jul 1942 – Nov 1943 780,000 [43]
64 Vaivara Estonia Concentration and transit camp 15 Sep 1943 – 29 Feb 1944 20,000 950 22 [44] [45]
65 Warsaw Poland Concentration and extermination camp 1942–1944 400,000 max. 20,000–35,000
66 Westerbork Netherlands Transit camp May 1940 – Apr 1945 102,000

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "AUSCHWITZ". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2016. 
  2. ^ Bundesministerium der Justiz (2011), List of concentration camps and their outposts in alphabetical order. Internet Archive. (in German)
  3. ^ Concentration Camp Listing Sourced from Van Eck, Ludo Le livre des Camps. Belgium: Editions Kritak; and Gilbert, Martin Atlas of the Holocaust. New York: William Morrow 1993 ISBN 0-688-12364-3. In this on-line site are the names of 149 camps and 814 subcamps, organized by country.
  4. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia, Killing Centers: An Overview. Archived 2013-04-02 at the Wayback Machine. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  5. ^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (2015). "Liberation of German Camps". Source: Abzug, Bridgman, Chamberlin, Goodell. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia, Nazi Camps. Introduction. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  7. ^ a b Anat Helman (2015). "The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos by Geoffrey P. Megargee". Exploring the Universe of Camps and Ghettos. Jews and Their Foodways. Oxford University Press. pp. 251–252. ISBN 0190265426. 
  8. ^ Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen (2002), The difference between concentration camps and extermination camps. The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
  9. ^ Search Results: Mapping the SS Concentration Camp System. Alphabetical listing. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Further Reading. Bergen, Dawidowicz, Gilbert, Gutman, Hilberg, Yahil.
  10. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Construction and Expansion of KL Auschwitz ("Budowa i rozbudowa KL Auschwitz"). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  11. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Dead victims of KL Auschwitz per nationality and/or profile of deportees ("Liczba uśmierconych w KL Auschwitz ogółem wg Narodowości lub kategorii deportowanych"). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland, 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  12. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Victims of KL Auschwitz ("Liczba ofiar KL Auschwitz"). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland, 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  13. ^ a b List of Subcamps of KL Auschwitz (Podobozy KL Auschwitz). The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  14. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P., The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation: 1918–2005. Indiana University Press, 2006. (p. 131)
  15. ^ Store norske leksikon (2010-04-09). "Bardufoss fangeleir" (in Norwegian). 
  16. ^ Gerlach, Christian (2013). Kalkulierte Morde (in German) (Kindle ed.). Hamburger Edition. loc 25883. ISBN 978-3-86854-567-8. 
  17. ^ "Shoah Resource Center - Maly Trostinets" (PDF). Yad Vashems. 
  18. ^ Schram, Laurence (2006). "De cijfers van de deportatie uit Mechelen naar Auschwitz. Perspectieven en denkpistes". De Belgische tentoonstelling in Auschwitz. Het boek - L'exposition belge / Auschwitz. Le Livre (in Dutch). Het Joods Museum voor Deportatie en Verzet. ISBN 978-90-76109-03-9. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  19. ^ Mikhman, Dan; Gutman, Israel, eds. (2005). The encyclopedia of the righteous among the nations: rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. Belgium. Yad Vashem Publications. ISBN 978-9653083769. 
  20. ^ Roger Boulanger (2006), L'historique du camp de Natzweiler-Struthof via Internet Archive.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit