List of Jewish prayers and blessings
Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. Most prayers and blessings can be found in the Siddur, or prayer book. This article addresses Jewish liturgical blessings, which generally begin with the formula:
Transliteration: Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha`olam...
Translation: "Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe..."
NOTE: ' is used in transliterations to refer to the sh'vah, which is similar/equivalent to ə; a mid-word aleph, a glottal stop; and a mid-word ayin, a voiced pharyngeal fricative ʕ similar/equivalent to Arabic ع. Whenever ` is used, it refers to ayin whether word-initial, medial, or final. 'H/h' are used to represent both he, an English h sound as in "hat"; and ḥes, a voiceless pharyngeal fricative ħ equivalent to Arabic ح. Whenever 'ḥ' is used, it refers to ḥet. Resh is represented by an 'r,' though it's equivalent to Spanish 'r,' Spanish 'rr,' or French 'r,' depending on one's dialect. In all other regards, transliterations are according to the Sephardi tradition, with modern Hebrew pronunciation.
- 1 Prayer
- 2 Blessings and liturgical poetry
- 3 Everyday prayers and blessings
- 3.1 Upon waking up
- 3.2 Morning
- 3.3 For putting on tzitzit
- 3.4 For putting on tefillin
- 3.5 Blessings during a meal
- 3.5.1 N'tilat Yadayim (Ritual washing of hands)
- 3.5.2 Blessing over the bread
- 3.5.3 After the meal
- 3.5.4 Blessings over food
- 4 Holiday prayers and blessings
- 5 Blessings on special occasions
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
|Amidah||עמידה||The "standing [prayer]", also known as the Shemoneh Esreh ("The Eighteen"), consisting of 19 strophes on weekdays and seven on Sabbath days. It is the essential component of Jewish services, and is the only service that the Talmud calls prayer. It is said three times a day (four times on Sabbaths and holidays, and five times on Yom Kippur). Blessings and liturgical poetry —like piyyutim, psalms, citations from Tanach— frame this service, an analogy being the ascent to the Jerusalem temple, the actual service there, and the following descent to Jerusalem by a different path.|
Blessings and liturgical poetryEdit
|Mizmor Shir||מזמור שיר||Psalm 30. Recited at the beginning of Pesukei Dezimra.|
|Baruch Sheamar||ברוך שאמר||The first blessing of Pesukei Dezimra|
|Songs of thanksgiving||A series of paragraphs in Pesukei Dezimra. Includes Psalm 100|
|Yehi kevod||יהי כבוד||A series of verses recited during Pesukei Dezimra|
|Ashrei||אשרי||Recited three times daily: during Pesukei Dezimra, following Uva Letzion, and at the beginning of Mincha (Ne'ila on Yom Kippur)|
|Hallel (pesukei dezimra)||הלל||Includes Ashrei and Psalms 146, 147, 148, 149, and 150|
|Baruch Hashem L'Olam (Shacharit)||ברוך ה לעולם||Recited as a blessing after concluding Hallel|
|Vayivarech David||ויברך דוד||From Chronicles Book I, Chapter 29, verses 10–13|
|Ata Hu Hashem L'Vadecha||אתה-הוא יהוה לבדך||From Book of Nehemiah, Chapter 9, verses 6–11|
|Az Yashir||אז ישיר||From Book of Exodus 15:1–18|
|Yishtabach||ישתבח||Concluding blessing of Pesukei Dezimra|
|Yotzer ohr||יוצר אור||The first blessing recited during Shacharit|
|Maariv Aravim||מעריב ערבים||The first blessing recited during Maariv|
|Ahava Rabbah||אהבה רבה||The second blessing recited during Shacharit|
|Ahavat Olam||אהבת עולם||The second blessing recited during Maariv|
|Shema Yisrael||שמע ישראל||A centerpiece of Jewish prayer services which affirms belief and trust in the One God, the Shema is composed of three sections taken from the Torah.|
|Kaddish||קדיש||An Aramaic prayer which focuses on the idea of magnification and sanctification of God's name. This prayer is normally recited at the conclusion of a period of study or a section of a prayer service. Because mourners are required to say one version of the Kaddish (the Mourner's Kaddish), it is sometimes viewed as a prayer for the dead, but it does not actually mention death at all.|
|Birkat Kohanim||ברכת כהנים||The "Priestly Blessing," recited by the Kohanim on Jewish holidays (every day in Israel).|
|Ein Keloheinu||אין כאלהינו||A lyrical prayer recited at the end of services on Shabbat and holidays, praising God's uniqueness.|
|Aleinu||עלינו||The Aleinu praises God for allowing the Jewish people to serve him, and expresses their hope that the whole world will recognize God and abandon idolatry.|
|An'im Zemirot||אנעים זמירות||More formally known as "The Song of Glory," this song is sung at the end of morning prayers on Shabbat.|
|Hallel||הלל||Psalms 113–118, recited as a prayer of praise and thanksgiving on Jewish holidays. Hallel is said in one of two forms: Full Hallel and Partial Hallel.|
|Kol Nidre||כל‑נדרי||A prayer recited in the synagogue at the beginning of the evening service on Yom Kippur (יום כיפור), the Day of Atonement. It is a declaration of absolution from vows taken, to free the congregants from guilt due to unfulfilled vows during the previous (and coming) year.|
|Shehecheyanu||שהחיינו||The blessing for special (once a year) occasions, recited on holidays and other special occasions.|
|Birkat HaMazon||ברכת המזון||The blessing after meals, thanking God for the food and His support in general.|
|Tefilat HaDerech||תפלת הדרך||The traveler's prayer for a safe journey.|
|Birkat HaBayit||ברכת הבית||A blessing for the home often found inside on wall plaques or hamsas.
|Ma Tovu||מה טובו||A prayer of reverence for the synagogue, recited in the morning upon entering.|
Everyday prayers and blessingsEdit
Upon waking upEdit
Modeh Ani is a short prayer recited first thing after waking in the morning.
|אֱ-לֹהַי, נְשָׁמָה שֶׁנָּתַתָּ בִּי טְהוֹרָה הִיא. אַתָּה בְרָאתָהּ, אַתָּה יְצַרְתָּהּ, אַתָּה נְפַחְתָּהּ בִּי, וְאַתָּה מְשַׁמְּרָהּ בְּקִרְבִּי, וְאַתָּה עָתִיד לִטְּלָהּ מִמֶּנִּי, וּלְהַחֲזִירָהּ בִּי לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא. כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַנְּשָׁמָה בְּקִרְבִּי מוֹדֶה אֲנִי לְפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱ-לֹהַי וֵא-לֹהֵי אֲבוֹתַי. רִבּוֹן כָּל הַמַּעֲשִׂים אֲדוֹן כָּל הַנְּשָׁמוֹת. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', הַמַּחֲזִיר נְשָׁמוֹת לִפְגָרִים מֵתִים:||Elohai neshama shenatata bi t'horah hi. Ata b'ratah, ata y'tzartah, ata n'fachtah bi [v'ata m’shamrah b'kirbi v'ata atid litelah mimeni ulehachazirah bi leatid lavo. Kol z'man shehaneshaman b'kirbi modeh/ah ani lefaneicha, Adonai Elohai v'lohei avotai, Ribon kol hamasim, Adon kol haneshamot. Baruch ata Adonai, hamachazir neshamot lifgarim metim]||My God, the soul You have given me is pure. You created it, You formed it, and You breathed it into me. and You guard it while it is within me, and one day You will take it from me, and restore it to me in the time to come. As long as the soul is within me, I will thank You, HaShem my God and God of my ancestors, Master of all works, Lord of all souls. Blessed are You, LORD, who restores souls to lifeless bodies.|
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ, מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם. פּוֹקֵחַ עִוְרִים.||Baruch ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam po'ke'ah ivrim.||Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the universe, who restores the eyes of the blind.|
For putting on tzitzitEdit
The tzitzit are first inspected to make sure they are properly intact before wearing the tallit katan. While holding the tallit katan, in readiness to put it on, the following blessing is recited:
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ, מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם. אֲשֶר קִדְּשָנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וִצִוָּנוּ לְהִתְעַטֵף בַּצִיצִת.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha`olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav, v'tzivanu l’hitateif batzitzit.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments, and commanded us regarding the commandment of fringes.|
After donning the tallit katan, many kiss the tzitzit; some additionally say the following:
|יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה׳ אֱ-לֹהי וֵא-לֹהֵי אֲבוֹתַי, שֶׁתְּהֵא חֲשׁוּבָה מִצְוַת צִיצִית לְפָנֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ קִיַּמְתִּיהָ בְּכָל פְּרָטֶיהָ וְדִקְדּוּקֶיהָ וְכַוָּנוֹתֶיהָ, וְתַרְיַ"ג מִצְוֹת הַתְּלוּיִם בָּהּ, אָמֵן סֶלָה.||Y'hi ratzon mil'fanekha, Adonai Elohai velohei avotai, she't'hei hashuva mitzvat tzitzit l'fanekha, k'ilu kiyamtiha b'khol p'rateha v'dikdukeha v'khavanoteha, v'taryag mitzvot ha't'luyim bah. Amen, Selah.||May there be the desire before You, LORD my God and the God of my forefathers, that the commandment of fringes should be considered before You as if I had fulfilled it in all its aspects, its details and its intentions, as well as the 613 commandments that are dependent on it. Amen, Selah.|
For putting on a tallit gadol (prayer shawl)Edit
Psalms 104:1–2 is traditionally read upon inspecting the tzitzit:
|בָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת ה', ה' אֱ-לֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ: עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַּׂלְמָה נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה||Barkhi nafshi et Adonai. Adonai Elohai, gadalta m'od; hod v'hadar lavashta – O'te or ka'salma, no'te shamayim ka'y'ri'a||Bless, (O) my soul, the LORD. LORD my God, You are very great; glory and majesty have You worn – Who dons light as a garment, Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain.|
The blessing is recited before putting on the tallit:
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לְהִתְעַטֵּף בַּצִיצִית||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu l'hit'atef ba'tzitzit||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to wrap ourselves with fringes.|
After wrapping the tallit around the body, Psalms 36:8–11 is traditionally recited:
|מַה יָּקָר חַסְדְּךָ אֱ-לֹהִים. וּבְנֵי אָדָם בְּצֵל כְּנָפֶיךָ יֶחֱסָיוּן: יִרְוְיֻן מִדֶּשֶׁן בֵּיתֶךָ וְנַחַל עֲדָנֶיךָ תַשְׁקֵם: כִּי עִמְּךָ מְקוֹר חַיִּים. בְּאוֹרְךָ נִרְאֶה אוֹר: מְשׁוֹךְ חַסְדְּךָ לְיֹדְעֶיךָ וְצִדְקָתְךָ לְיִשְׁרֵי לֵב.||Ma yakar hasd'kha Elohim, uvnei adam b'tzel k'nafekha yehesayun. Yirv'yun mideshen beitekha, v'nahal adanekha tashkem. Ki im'kha m'kor hayim, b'or'kha nir'e or. M'shokh hasd'kha l'yod'ekha, v'tzidkat'kha l'yish'rei lev||How precious is your kindness, [O] God! People take refuge in the shadow of Your wings. They are sated from the abundance of Your house, and from the stream of Your delights You give them to drink. For with You is the source of life; by Your light shall we see light. Extend Your kindness to those who know You, and Your righteousness to the upright of heart.|
For putting on tefillinEdit
Before the strap of the arm-tefillin is fastened, the following blessing is said:
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha`olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu l'hani'aḥ t'filin.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to put on tefillin.|
Sephardic and Hasidic authorities are of the opinion that a blessing on laying the head-tefillin is not necessary and the one blessing on laying the arm-tefillin is sufficient. Ashkenazim, however, do recite a second blessing on the head-tefillin, before tightening it around the head:
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל מִצְוַת תְּפִלִּין.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu al mitzvat t'filin||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us regarding the commandment of tefillin.|
|Because of the doubt as to the necessity of this blessing, it is followed by a statement of praise, so as not to have uttered God's name in vain in case the blessing is unnecessary:|
|בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד.||Barukh shem k'vod malkhuto l'olam va'ed||Blessed is the Name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever.|
|וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי לְעוֹלָם: וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי בְּצֶדֶק וּבְמִשְׁפָּט וּבְחֶסֶד וּבְרַחֲמִים: וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי בֶּאֱמוּנָה. וְיָדַעְתְּ אֶת ה'.||V'erastikh li l'olam, v'erastikh li b'tzedek u'v'mishpat u'v'hesed u'v'rachamim. V'erastikh li b'emuna v'yadat et Adonai||And I will betroth you to Myself for ever; I will betroth you to Myself in righteousness, and in justice, and in lovingkindness, and in compassion. And I will betroth you to Myself in faithfulness; and you shall know the LORD.|
Blessings during a mealEdit
N'tilat Yadayim (Ritual washing of hands)Edit
The hands are ritually washed before partaking of certain staples of life.
In the Ashkenazic tradition and some Sephardic and other communities, it is done before eating bread. In some Sephardic rites and in the German community originating in Frankfurt it is done before drinking wine and or eating bread, alone or with the wine (such as would be done before a Sabbath or festive meal) at which time this blessing is said:
After washing but before drying the hands, the following blessing below is said.
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בּמִצְוֹתָיו, וצִוָּנוּ עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם.||Barukh ata Adonai Elohenu, melekh ha`olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu `al netilat yadayim.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the taking (drying) of hands.|
Blessing over the breadEdit
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, hamotzi lehem min ha'aretz.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who brings forth bread from the earth.|
After the mealEdit
Blessings over foodEdit
Additionally, appropriate blessings are said on food when not having a full (i.e. bread-based) meal.
There are five halakhic "food groups":
Before eating grain products – M'zonotEdit
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, Melekh ha'olam, bo're minei m'zonot.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who creates varieties of nourishment.|
Before drinking wine – HaGefenEdit
This blessing is made for wine made from grapes, but not any other fermented drink. Wine made from other fruits, and other alcohols, require the Shehakol blessing (see below). Also, hands might be ritually washed first depending on the minhag of the person saying the blessing on the grape wine (see above).
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, Melekh ha'olam, bo're p'ri hagefen.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who creates the fruit of the vine.|
Before eating fruit – HaEtzEdit
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, Melekh ha'olam, bo're p'ri ha'etz.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who creates the fruit of the tree.|
Before eating non-fruit produce – HaAdamaEdit
Before eating produce that grew directly from the earth:
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, Melekh ha`olam, bo're p'ri ha'adama.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who creates the fruit of the ground.|
Before eating other foods – SheHakolEdit
Before eating or drinking any foods not in the first four categories:
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, Melekh ha'olam, shehakol nih'ye bidvaro.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, through Whose word everything comes into being.|
Holiday prayers and blessingsEdit
Shabbat candle lightingEdit
A blessing is recited before lighting Shabbat candles.
Havdalah is recited Saturday night, usually about an hour after sunset, measured as the time when three stars appear in the sky, at which time Shabbat is over. It is a ceremony consisting of four blessings.
|On wine||בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגֶּפֶן.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, Melekh ha'olam, bo're p'ri hagefen.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who creates the fruit of the vine.|
|On spices||בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי בְשָׂמִים.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, bo're minei b'samim.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who creates varieties of spices.|
|The spices are then passed around and smelled by those present.|
|On the candle||בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם. בּוֹרֵא מְאוֹרֵי הָאֵשׁ.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, bo're m'orei ha'esh.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who creates the lights of the fire.|
|The candle is held up in the air and those present look at the reflection of the light on their fingernails.|
|On separation||בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְחוֹל, בֵּין אוֹר לְחשֶׁךְ, בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל לָעַמִּים, בֵּין יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לְשֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה: בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', הַמַבְדִּיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְחוֹל:||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, ha'mavdil bein kodesh l'hol, bein or l'hoshekh, bein yisra'el la'amim, bein yom ha'sh'vi'i l'sheshet y'mei ha'ma'a'se. Barukh ata Adonai, ha'mavdil bein kodesh l'hol.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who distinguishes between the sacred and the secular, between light and dark, between Israel and the nations, between the seventh day and the six days of labor. Blessed are You, LORD, Who distinguishes between the sacred and the secular.|
|The person who recited the blessings now drinks the wine.|
Two blessings are recited as the Hanukkah candles are lit. On the first night, the Sheheheyanu blessing is said as well.
|For the candles||בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו, וְצִוָּנוּ לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל חֲנֻכָּה.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu l'hadlik ner shel Hanukkah.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to kindle the Hanukkah light[s].|
|For the Hanukkah miracle||בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁעָשָׂה נִסִּים לַאֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, she'asa nisim la'avoteinu ba'yamim ha'heim ba'z'man ha'ze.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who performed miracles for our ancestors in those days at this time...|
|(First night only)||בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הַעוֹלָם, שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ וְקִיְּמָנוּ וְהִגִּיעָנוּ לַזְּמַן הַזֶּה׃||Baruch atah Adonai Elohenu, melekh ha'olam, shehecheyanu vekiymanu vehigi'anu lazman hazeh.||Blessed are You, Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who has granted us life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this occasion.|
- Main article: Yom Tov
On Yom Tov (when it falls on a weekday), it is permissible to transfer a flame (but not to create a new flame).
The festival candles should preferably be lit before sunset on erev yom tov (the afternoon before the holiday), but if they were not lit before sunset, they may (and should) be lit after sunset from a pre-existing flame.
Over apples and honey on Rosh HashanahEdit
On Rosh Hashanah eve, at the start of the festive meal, it is customary to dip some cut raw apples into some honey as symbolic of asking God to grant a sweet new year.
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, bo're p'ri ha'etz.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who creates the fruit of the tree.|
A bite of apple dipped in honey is eaten, which is followed by:
|יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְפָנֶיךָ, ה׳ אֱ‑לֹהֵינוּ וא‑לֹהַי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ, שֶׁתְּחַדֵשׁ עָלֵינוּ שָׁנָה טוֹבָה וּמְתוּקָה||Y'hi ratzon mil'fanekha, Adonai Eloheinu velohei avoteinu, shet'hadesh aleinu shana tova um'tuka.||May it be Your will, LORD our God and God of our ancestors, that you renew for us a good and sweet year.|
Eating in the sukkahEdit
Blessings on special occasionsEdit
The following blessing is said when attaching a mezuzah to the doorpost:
|ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו, מלך העולם, אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לקבוע מזוזה.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu likvo'a m'zuza.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to affix the mezuzah.|
Sheheḥeyanu ("Who has kept us alive")Edit
This blessing is said whenever something pleasant that has not happened for a while is encountered. This includes all holidays except Shabbat. It is said on the first night of Hanukkah, but not for the other nights of that holiday. The blessing is also recited upon such occasions as affixing a mezuzah (particularly on a new home), buying new dress clothes, or eating a rare fruit.
On immersion in a MikvahEdit
This blessing is made on immersion in a mikvah (ritual bath), e.g. by a woman following menstruation.
|בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו, וְצִוָּנוּ עַל הַטְּבִילָה.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu al ha't'vila.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning immersion.|
When immersing utensils in a mikvah, the final words are modified to "al tevliat keilim," or "concerning immersion of utensils."
Blessing for surviving illness or dangerEdit
The Birkhat HaGomel blessing is said after surviving illness, childbirth, or danger (including a hazardous journey or captivity).
|Blessing:||בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, הַגּוֹמֵל לַחַיָּבִים טוֹבוֹת שֶׁגְּמָלַנִי כָּל טוֹב.||Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, hagomel lahayavim tovot, sheg'molani kol tov.||Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the Universe, Who bestows good things upon the unworthy, and has bestowed upon me every goodness.|
|Congregational response to a man:||מִי שֶׁגְּמָלְךָ טוֹב, הוּא יִגְמָלְךָ כָּל טוֹב. סֶלָה.||Amen. Mi sheg'molkha tov, hu yigmolkha kol tov. Selah.||Amen. He Who has bestowed upon you goodness, may He bestow upon you every goodness. Selah.|
|Congregational response to a woman:||מִי שֶׁגְּמָלֵךְ טוֹב, הוּא יִגְמָלֵךְ כָּל טוֹב. סֶלָה.||Amen. Mi sheg'molayikh tov, hu yigmolayikh kol tov. Selah.||Amen. He Who has bestowed upon you goodness, may He bestow upon you every goodness. Selah.|
Mizrahi Jews recite the following Biblical verse before the blessing:
|אוֹדֶה ה' בְּכָל לֵבָב בְּסוֹד יְשָׁרִים וְעֵדָה.||O'de Adonai b'khol levav b'sod y'sharim v'eda.||I shall give thanks to the LORD wholeheartedly in the assembly of the upright and the congregation.|
Among Mizrahi Jews, the Congregational Response at the end begins as follows:
|הָאֵל שֶׁגְּמָלֵךְ כָּל טוֹב...||Ha'el sheg'malkha kol tov,||God who has bestowed upon you every goodness, ....|
This prayer has its origins in the Talmud:
- Rav Judah said, in the name of Rav, There are four person who have to offer thanksgiving: (1) One who has crossed the sea, (2) one who has crossed the wilderness, (3) one who has recovered from illness, and (4) one who has been freed from captivity.
This was deduced from Psalm 107, where these four situations are mentioned. In the days of the Temple, such a person would bring a thanksgiving sacrifice, but as this is no longer possible, such a person stands and recites the blessing.
The word גמל (gomel) means a recompense, a reward, and frequently a generous benefit. Joseph H. Hertz, in his commentary to the prayerbook says: "The Benediction is not limited to the above-mentioned four classes [listed in the Talmud quotation], but is recited after any signal escape from danger. This Benediction is followed with deepfelt sympathy by the fellow-worshippers." Hertz mentions an instance in Britain in 1940 when was recited by an entire congregation because they were the survivors of a Blitz bombing of the previous night.
Most halakhic authorities hold that the HaGomel blessing must be said publicly, in front of a minyan of 10. It is customary for men to say it after being called to the Torah. All Conservative and many Orthodox authorities hold that women are also obligated to say the Birkhat HaGomel blessing. The blessing is not time‑dependent (preferably it should be recited as soon after the deliverance from danger as the opportunity presents itself), and it substitutes in part for the toda (Thanksgiving) offering, one of the classes of korbanot (sacrifices) which women were obligated to offer (e.g. after childbirth) in the days of the Temple in Jerusalem. Accordingly, these authorities say that women are eligible to be counted in the minyan of 10 equally with men for the special purpose of the mitzvah of saying the HaGomel blessing and its congregational response publicly.
- The "l" in t'filin is geminated.
- Psalms 111:1
- Orot Sephardic Weekday Siddur (1994, Lakewood, NJ) page 229; Koren Mizrahi Siddur (1988, Jerusalem) page 64; Nulman, Macy, Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) page 100.
- Berakhot 54b
- Nulman, Macy, Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ, Jason Aronson) page 100;Orot Sephardic Weekday Siddur (1994, Lakewood, NJ) page 229 adds the rabbinic specifications that the illness must have kept the person bedridden at least three days, and that the journey on land must have been hazardous or at least lasted 72 minutes outside the city.
- e.g. Psalms 13:6, 103:2, 103:10, 116:7
- Abrahams, Israel, A Companion to the Authorised Daily Prayerbook (2nd ed. 1922, London, Eyre & Spottiswoode) page LXXIX, (revised reprint 1966, NY, Hermon Press) page 79; Hertz, Joseph H., The Authorized Daily Prayer Book with commentary, introduction and notes (rev. American ed, 1948, NY, Bloch Publ'g) pages 487–488 (but the date of the Blitz attack may be in error).
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