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Orthodox-dressed men studying
A mincha minyan (of ten or more Jewish men) at a yeshiva

Mincha (Hebrew: מִנחַה, pronounced as /mɪnxə/; sometimes spelled Minchah or Minha) is the afternoon prayer service in Judaism.

EtymologyEdit

The name Mincha, meaning 'present', is derived from the meal offering that accompanied each sacrifice offered in the Temple (Beit HaMikdash) .

OriginEdit

The Hebrew noun minħah (מִנְחָה) is used 211 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible, with the first uses referring to vegetable and animal offerings brought by Cain and Abel to God.[1] Most other uses refer to a gift offering, made of grain, which could be offered at any time in the day.

Rabbis in the Talmud debate whether the daily prayers have their origin in the behavior of the Biblical Patriarchs, or in the Temple sacrifices.[2] According to the first opinion, the Mincha prayer was originated by Isaac, who went "went out to converse in the field", [3] (according to this view) with God. According to the second opinion, the Mincha prayer is based on the afternoon tamid (daily) offering which was offered in the Temple each afternoon.

Time frame for recitationEdit

Mincha is different from Shacharit and Maariv in that it is recited in the middle of the secular day. Unlike Shacharit, which is recited upon arising, and Maariv, which can be recited before going to sleep, Mincha is the afternoon prayer and as a result of this, many Mincha groups have formed in workplaces and other places where many Jews are present during the day.[4]

Mincha may be recited beginning half an hour after halachic noontime. This earliest time is referred to as mincha gedola (the "large mincha"). It is, however, preferably recited after mincha ketana (2.5 halachic hours before nightfall[5]).

Ideally, one should complete Mincha before sunset (shkiah), although many authorities permit reciting Mincha until nightfall. The Mishnah Berurah states that is preferable to recite mincha without a minyan before shkiah than to recite it with a minyan after shkia.[6]

PrayersEdit

Mincha on a weekday exclusive includes prayers found at Shacharit.

Prayers of Mincha include the following:

Sephardim and Italian Jews start the Mincha prayers with Psalm 84 and Korbanot (Numbers 28:1-8), and usually continue with the Pittum hakketoret. The opening section is concluded with Malachi 3:4. Ashkenaz (German Jews) and Polin (non-Hasidic Polish Jews) begin with a Ribon HaOlamim, then a Ribon HaOlam, then Korban HaTamid, and then Ashrei.

From Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur and on public fast days, except on Shabbat, erev Shabbat, and Tisha B'Av, Avinu Malkeinu is added following Amidah.

On Yom Kippur, Uva Letzion (and Ashrei according to Ashkenazim) are omitted from Mincha, and it begins with the Torah reading. Ashrei and Uva Letzion are a part of the Ne'ila service.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Genesis 4:3-5
  2. ^ Berachot 26b
  3. ^ Genesis 24:63
  4. ^ Living Jewish: values, practices and traditions By Berel Wein, page 87
  5. ^ On another view, before sunset
  6. ^ Mishnah Brurah, Orach Chaim 233:14