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The Indian Space Research Organisation has carried out 97 spacecraft missions,69 launch missions[1] and planned many missions including Chandrayaan-2,[2] and Aditya (spacecraft).

Contents

MissionsEdit

This is the list of all completed missions.

LunarEdit

Mission Name Details
Chandrayaan-1 Chandrayaan-1 was India's first lunar probe. It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisations in October 2008, and operated until August 2009. The mission included a lunar orbiter and an impactor. The mission was a major boost to India's space program, as India researched and developed its own technology in order to explore the Moon. The vehicle was successfully inserted into lunar orbit on 8 November 2008.[3][4]

InterplanetaryEdit

Mission Name Details
Mars Orbiter Mission Mars Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan is a spacecraft orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014. It was launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is India's first interplanetary mission and ISRO has become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and the European Space Agency. It is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt[5][6]

AstronomyEdit

Mission Name Details
ASTROSAT ASTROSAT is the first dedicated Indian Astronomy satellite mission launched by ISRO on 28 September 2015, which will be helpful in enable multi-wavelength observations of the celestial bodies and cosmic sources in X-ray and UV spectral bands simultaneously. The scientific payloads cover the Visible (3500–6000 Å...), UV (1300–op Å...), soft and hard X-ray regimes (0.5–8 keV; 3–80 keV). The uniqueness of ASTROSAT lie in its wide spectral coverage extending over visible, UV, soft and hard X-ray regions.[7]
South Asia Satellite South Asia Satellite was launched on 5 May 2017.This is a satellite which has been developed by ISRO for South Asian Nations. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced this in November 2014 during the 18th SAARC session.

SatellitesEdit

Earth satellitesEdit

India's first satellite Aryabhata was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975[8] from Kapustin Yar using a Kosmos-3M launch vehicle. (It was built by the ISRO) to gain experience in building and operating a satellite in space.[9] India has launched 100 Indian satellites of many types as on 31 January 2018. Satellites have been launched from various vehicles, including those launched by Russian, European and American rockets, as well as those launched indigenously by India. The organisation responsible for India's satellite program is the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).[10]

ISRO also launches satellites for foreign countries. As of November 2018, ISRO has launched 239 satellites for 28 foreign countries. In January 2017, India launched 104 satellites in a single mission, out of which 96 were from the United States and the rest from the Netherlands, Kazakhstan, Israel, UAE and India, by using a single launch vehicle. This eclipsed the previous record of 37 held by Russia.

Planned missionsEdit

Mission name Details
Chandrayaan-2

Chandrayaan-2 was launched from the second launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 PM IST (09:13 UTC) to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III).The planned orbit has a perigee of 169.7 km and an apogee of 45475 Km . It consists of a lunar orbiter, lander and rover, all developed in India. The main scientific objective is to map the location and abundance of lunar water.

Gaganyaan Gaganyaan ("Orbital Vehicle") is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft (jointly made by ISRO and HAL) intended to be the basis of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme. The spacecraft is being designed to carry three people, and a planned upgraded version will be equipped with rendezvous and docking capability.

This HAL-manufactured crew module had its first un-crewed experimental flight on 18 December 2014. The crewed vehicle is planned to be launched on ISRO's GSLV Mk III in December 2021. Prior to this, it will be launched un-crewed for test flights in December 2020 and July 2021. The three crew members will remain in space for seven days.

Chandrayaan-3 The Chandrayaan-3 will be deployed in 2024 for future moon exploration. Exploration of moon will help ISRO to setup habitat on lunar surface.
Aditya-L1

ISRO plans to carry out a mission to the Sun by the year 2019–20.[11] The probe is named as Aditya-1 and will weigh about 400 kg. It is the First Indian-based Solar Coronagraph to study solar Corona in visible and near IR bands. The launch of the Aditya mission was planned during the high solar activity period in 2012 but was postponed to 2015–2016 due to the extensive work involved in the fabrication and other technical aspects. The main objective is to study the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and consequently the crucial physical parameters for space weather such as the coronal magnetic field structures, the evolution of the coronal magnetic field, etc. This will provide completely new information on the velocity fields and their variability in the inner corona having an important bearing on the unsolved problem of heating of the corona would be obtained.[12][13]

AVATAR AVATAR from "Aerobic Vehicle for Transatmospheric Hypersonic Aerospace Transportation" is a concept for a manned single-stage reusable spaceplane capable of horizontal takeoff and landing, by India's Defence Research and Development Organisation along with Indian Space Research Organisation and other research institutions. The mission concept is for low-cost military and commercial satellite space launches, as well as for space tourism.[14]

The first scaled-down tests were conducted in 2016, and the first manned AVATAR flight is proposed for 2025.

RISAT-1A RISAT-1A is Radar imaging satellite, Its configuration is similar to RISAT-1. It is a land-based mission with primary application in terrain mapping and analysis of land, ocean and water surface for soil moisture.
NISAR Nasa-Isro Synthetic Aperture Radar (Nisar) is a joint project between NASA and ISRO to co-develop and launch a dual frequency synthetic aperture radar satellite to be used for remote sensing. It is notable for being the first dual-band radar imaging satellite.[15]
Mangalyaan 2 Mars Orbiter Mission 2 (MOM 2) also called Mangalyaan 2 is India's second interplanetary mission planned for launch to Mars by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in the 2021–2022 time frame. It will consist of an orbiter, and may include a lander and a rover.
Shukrayaan-1 The Indian Venusian orbiter mission is a planned orbiter to Venus by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to study the atmosphere of Venus. It will be launched some time after 2020.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "list of missions".
  2. ^ "India to launch Chandrayaan 2 by 2016–17". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  3. ^ "Chandrayaan-1".
  4. ^ "Chandrayaan-1".
  5. ^ "Mars Orbiter Mission Spacecraft".
  6. ^ "Mars Orbiter Mission".
  7. ^ "PSLV Successfully Launches India's Multi Wavelength Space Observatory ASTROSAT". Archived from the original on 30 September 2015.
  8. ^ "Aryabhata" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 611.
  9. ^ "Aryabhatta – India's First Satellite". 27 October 2009. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  10. ^ "Spacecraft". ISRO. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  11. ^ "Aditya – L1 First Indian mission to study the Sun". isro.gov.in.
  12. ^ "After the moon, ISRO eyes the sun". ndtv.com.
  13. ^ "ISRO's mission will probe sun before 2020".
  14. ^ "ISRO's design of reusable launch vehicle approved". DNA India. Bangalore, India. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  15. ^ "NISAR". nasa.com.

External linksEdit