List of mountains of the Alps over 4000 metres
This list tabulates all of the 82 official mountain summits of 4,000 metres (13,123 ft) or more in height in the Alps, as defined by the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA). All are located within France, Italy or Switzerland, and are often referred to by mountaineers as the Alpine four-thousanders. A further table of 46 subsidiary mountain points which did not meet the UIAA's selection criteria is also included.
The official UIAA list of 82 mountain summits, titled in English as 'The 4000ers of the Alps' was first published in 1994. They were selected primarily on a prominence of at least 30 metres (98 ft)) above the highest adjacent col or pass. Additional criteria were used to deselect or include some points, based on the mountain's overall morphology and mountaineering significance. (For example, the Grand Gendarme on the Weisshorn was excluded, despite meeting the prominence criterion as it was simply deemed part of that mountain's ridge.) A further 46 additional points of mountaineering significance, such as Pic Eccles, which did not meet the UIAA's primary selection criteria, were then included within an 'enlarged list'.
For a list containing many of the independent mountains of the Alps (i.e. only those with a prominence greater than 300 metres (980 ft) and covering all countries, see List of prominent mountains of the Alps.
Another, less formal, list of 4000 metre alpine mountains, containing only independent peaks with a prominence of over 100m, and based on an earlier 1990s publications by Richard Goedeke, contains just 51 mountains.
Clicking the symbol at the head of the column sorts the table by that column’s data.
The following expandable table forms an extended list of 46 ‘lesser summits’ identified by the UIAA. These are either:
- secondary summits or gendarmes which satisfy the topographic criteria, but are part of other well-defined mountain summits already listed above,
- or have failed to meet the topographic criteria, but have been included through more subjective criteria (i.e. morphological or mountaineering significance).
|Rocher de la Tournette||France, Italy||4677 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Dunantspitze||Switzerland||4632 m||Monte Rosa Massif|
|Grenzgipfel||Italy, Switzerland||4618 m||Monte Rosa Massif|
|Les Bosses||France, Italy||4547 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|La Grande Bosse||France, Italy||4513 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Monte Cervino Vetta Italiana/Sommet italien du mont Cervin||Italy, Switzerland||4476,4 m||Pennine Alps|
|Dom (Großer Gendarm)||Switzerland||4468 m||Pennine Alps|
|Aiguille de la Belle Etoile||Italy||4349 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Grand Gendarme (Weisshorn)||Switzerland||4331 m||Pennine Alps|
|Pointe Mieulet||France||4287 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Liskammnase||Italy, Switzerland||4272 m||Pennine Alps|
|Pointe Bayeux||France||4258 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Mont Blanc du Tacul (Punkt E)||France||4247 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Aiguille du Croissant||Switzerland||4243 m||Pennine Alps|
|Pic Tyndall||Italy, Switzerland||4241 m||Pennine Alps|
|Picco Muzio||Italy, Switzerland||4187 m||Pennine Alps|
|Entdeckungsfels (Roccia della Scoperta)||Switzerland||4178 m||Pennine Alps|
|Balmenhorn||Italy||4167 m||Pennine Alps|
|Alphubel south top||Switzerland||4166 m||Pennine Alps|
|Dent d'Hérens la Corne||Switzerland||4148 m||Pennine Alps|
|Pointe Burnaby||Switzerland||4135 m||Pennine Alps|
|Alphubel Nordostgipfel||Switzerland||4128 m||Pennine Alps|
|Alphubel Nordgipfel||Switzerland||4116 m||Pennine Alps|
|Rimpfischhorn (Großer Gendarm)||Switzerland||4108 m||Pennine Alps|
|Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey (Pointe SO)||Italy||4107 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Pointe de l'Androsace||France, Italy||4107 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey (Pointe NW)||Italy||4104 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Dent Blanche (Grand Gendarme)||Switzerland||4097 m||Pennine Alps|
|Felikhorn||Italy||4093 m||Pennine Alps|
|Lenzspitze Großer Gendarm||Switzerland||4091 m||Pennine Alps|
|Wengen Jungfrau||Switzerland||4089 m||Bernese Alps|
|Combin de la Tsessette gendarme (south-east)||Switzerland||4088 m||Pennine Alps|
|Pic Lory||France||4086 m||Dauphiné Alps|
|Dent d'Hérens Gendarme Crochu||Switzerland||4075 m||Pennine Alps|
|Pilier du Diable||France||4067 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Terzo pilastro del Col Maudit||France||4064 m||Pennine Alps|
|Pointe Bravais||France||4057 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Pic Eccles||Italy||4041 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Dent d'Hérens, L'Epaule||Italy, Switzerland||4040 m||Pennine Alps|
|Gendarme del Col Maudit||France||4032 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Il Roc||Italy||4026 m||Graian Alps|
|Pointe Eveline||France||4026 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|Pointe Croux||France||4023 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
|La Spedla / Punta Perrucchetti||Italy, Switzerland||4020 m||Bernina Range|
|L'Epaule||Switzerland||4017 m||Pennine Alps|
|Piton des Italiens||France, Italy||4003 m||Mont Blanc Massif|
Number of Alpine four-thousanders and distributionEdit
Since no exact and formal definition of a 'mountain' exists, the number of 4000-metre summits is arbitrary. The topographic prominence is an important factor to decide the official nomination of a summit. The 'Official list' proposed by the UIAA is based not only on prominence but also on other criteria such as the morphology (general appearance) and mountaineering interest. Summits such as Punta Giordani or Mont Blanc de Courmayeur have much less than the 30 metres minimum prominence criterion but are included in the list because of the other criteria. In comparison, the official 14 eight-thousanders recognised by the UIAA have all a prominence of over 600 metres (despite a proposed expansion). A minimum prominence criterion of 300 metres[Note 5] would reduce the number of Alpine four-thousanders to only 29, whilst a prominence criterion of 100 metres would raise it to 49.
The table below gives the number of four-thousanders as a function of their minimum prominence.
|Minimum prominence||UIAA list||Enlarged list||Karl Blodig list|
|Country / Range||2,000 metres (6,562 ft)||1,500 metres (4,921 ft) (Ultras)||1,000 metres (3,281 ft)||500 metres (1,640 ft)||300 metres (984 ft)||200 metres (656 ft)||100 metres (328 ft)||30 metres (98 ft)||-||-||-|
- Cantons of Valais (45), Bern (7) and Graubünden (1)
- Mont Blanc's summit is an ice cap which varies in height from year to year. It is now accurately remeasured every two years. In 2017 it was measured at 4808.72 metres.
- This relates to Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus, the nearest, next-highest mountain, which can be reached by descending to this height (108 metres above the sea).
- The 4 meter higher Pointe Graham was reached a month later, 20 August 1882, by William Woodman Graham guided by Auguste Cupelin and Alphonse Payot, using the fixed ropes of the first party
- Such as the one used in List of prominent mountains of the Alps above 3000 m
- "Mountain Classification – UIAA". Retrieved 21 October 2020.
- Gorączko, Marcin (31 December 2018). "Easy four-thousanders in the Alps: between alpinism and mass tourism". Geography and Tourism. 6 (2): 119–128. doi:10.5281/zenodo.2144166. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- "Liv Sansoz completes 82 x 4000m peaks in the Alps". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- "The 4000ers of the Alps: Official UIAA List" (PDF). UIAA-Bulletin (145). March 1994. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2010.
- "List of Alpine four-thousanders". Peakbagger.com.
- "Peakbagger". Retrieved 27 May 2009.
- "Alpsgipfel & Erstbesteiger". Retrieved 27 May 2009.
- "4808,72m: Mont Blanc's new height!". chamonix.net. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "Fiche Question".
- IGN Map of France (1986). St-Gervais-les-Bains - Mont Blanc (Sheet 3531 ed.). France.
- "Italia contro Francia". 13 September 2015.
- "Italia-Francia, il duello dei confini sulla cima del Monte Bianco". 8 September 2015.
- Brown, T. G. and de Beer, G. The First Ascent of Mont Blanc, 1957, p. 14
- Alpine Journal, vol. XXV, p. 620
- Gottlieb Studer, Über Eis und Schnee, Vol 2., p. 15
- "Chronik zur Mont Blanc-Region". Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- Hartmut Bielefeldt. "Viertausender d Alps". Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- ALPIN-Tourenbuch. "Hochtour: Mont Blanc Du Tacul". Retrieved 27 May 2009.
- Gottlieb Studer, Über Eis und Schnee, Vol 2., p. 63
- "Alpine 4000-meter Peaks". Peakbagger. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
- Excluding the Mont Blanc Massif
- Dumler, Helmut and Willi P. Burkhardt, The High Mountains of the Alps, Diadem, 1994 (ISBN 0906371430)
- Goedeke, Richard, Alpine 4000m Peaks by the Classic Routes, (2nd ed.) Menasha Ridge Press, 1997 (ISBN 0897321111)
- McLewin, Will, In Monte Viso’s Horizon: Climbing All the Alpine 4000m Peaks, Ernest Press, 1991 (ISBN 0948153091)
- Moran, Martin, The 4000m Peaks of the Alps: Selected Climbs, Alpine Club, 2007 (ISBN 0900523662)
- Club 4000, Tutti i 4000 - L'aria sottile dell'alta quota, Vivalda Editori - CAI Torino, 2010 (ISBN 88-7480-135-1