Eight-thousander

The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognises eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and, since 2012, the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.

Locations of the world's 14 eight-thousanders

The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who completed the feat without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2010, Spaniard Edurne Pasaban, became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen; in 2011, Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders without the aid of supplementary oxygen.

From 1950 to 1964, all 14 of the eight-thousanders were summited, however, it was not until January 2021, with the Nepalese winter ascent of K2, that all eight-thousanders had been summited during the winter season.

On 29 October 2019, Nepalese climber Nirmal Purja, set a speed record by climbing all eight-thousanders in 6 months and 6 days.[1][2]

Climbing historyEdit

 
Flight over Khumbu-region; six eight-thousanders and some seven-thousanders are visible

The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery, Geoffrey Hastings and J. Norman Collie tried to climb Pakistan's Nanga Parbat in 1895. The attempt failed when Mummery and two Gurkhas, Ragobir Thapa and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche.[3]

The first recorded successful ascent of an eight-thousander was by the French Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, who reached the summit of Annapurna on 3 June 1950 during the 1950 French Annapurna expedition .[4] The first winter ascent of an eight-thousander was done by a Polish team led by Andrzej Zawada on Mount Everest. Two climbers Leszek Cichy and Krzysztof Wielicki reached the summit on 17 February 1980.[5]

The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner, on 16 October 1986. In 1987, Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka became the second person to accomplish this feat. Kukuczka is also the man who established the most new routes (9) on the main eight-thousanders. Messner summited each of the 14 peaks without the aid of bottled oxygen. This feat was not repeated until nine years later by the Swiss Erhard Loretan in 1995. Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, with 30 ascents between 1998 and 2011.[6] Spaniard Juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 ascents between 1985 and 2011.[7]

The Italian Simone Moro made the most first winter ascents of eight-thousanders (4); Jerzy Kukuczka made four winter ascents as well, but one was a repetition. The final eight-thousander to be climbed in the winter season was K2, which was summitted by a 10-person Nepalese team led by Nirmal Purja on 16 January 2021.[8]

 
30–highest peaks above 500 m (1,640 ft) in prominence.[9]

In 2010, Spanish climber Edurne Pasaban, became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders with no disputed climbing.[10] In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen.[11][12]

The first couple and team who summited all 14 eight-thousanders together were the Italians Nives Meroi (second woman without supplementary oxygen), and her husband Romano Benet [it] in 2017. The couple climbed alpine style, without the use of supplementary oxygen and other aids.[13]

As of November 2018, the country with the most climbers to have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders is Italy with seven climbers, followed by Spain with six climbers, and South Korea with five climbers. Kazakhstan and Poland each have three climbers who have completed the "Crown of the Himalaya" (all 14 eight-thousanders).

On 29 October 2019, former Nepalese Gurka, and Special Boat Service (SBS) elite soldier Nirmal Purja, set a new speed record by climbing the 14 eight-thousanders in 6 months and 6 days, beating the previous record of just under 8 years.[1][2]

List of 14Edit

Selected data for the 14 eight-thousanders[14][15]
Mountain[14] First ascent[14] First winter ascent[14] From 1950 to March 2012[15] Climber Death
Rate[16][17][a]
Peak Height[18] Prom.[18] Isol.[18] Location Date Summiter(s) Date Summiter(s) Total Ascents[b] Total Deaths[c] Deaths / Ascents[d]
Everest 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) undefined or infinite   Nepal
  China
29 May 1953   Edmund Hillary

  Tenzing Norgay
on British expedition

17 February 1980
  Krzysztof Wielicki
  Leszek Cichy
5656 223 3.9% 1.52%
K2 8,611 metres (28,251 ft) 4,020 metres (13,190 ft) 1,315.6 kilometres (817.5 mi)   Pakistan
  China[20]
31 July 1954   Achille Compagnoni
  Lino Lacedelli

on Italian expedition

16 January

2021[8]

 Nirmal Purja

 Gelje Sherpa

 Mingma David Sherpa

 Mingma G

 Sona Sherpa

 Mingma Tenzi Sherpa

 Pem Chhiri Sherpa

 Dawa Temba Sherpa

 Kili Pemba Sherpa

 Dawa Tenjing Sherpa

306 81 26.5% [e]
Kangchenjunga 8,586 metres (28,169 ft) 3,922 metres (12,867 ft) 124.2 kilometres (77.2 mi)   Nepal
  India[21]
25 May 1955   George Band
  Joe Brown
on British expedition
11 January 1986   Krzysztof Wielicki
  Jerzy Kukuczka
283 40 14.1% 3.00%
Lhotse 8,516 metres (27,940 ft) 610 metres (2,000 ft) 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi)   Nepal
  China
18 May 1956   Fritz Luchsinger
  Ernst Reiss
31 December 1988   Krzysztof Wielicki 461 13 2.8% 1.03%
Makalu 8,485 metres (27,838 ft) 2,378 metres (7,802 ft) 17.2 kilometres (10.7 mi)   Nepal
  China
15 May 1955   Jean Couzy
  Lionel Terray
on French expedition
9 February 2009   Simone Moro
  Denis Urubko
361 31 8.6% 1.63%
Cho Oyu 8,188 metres (26,864 ft) 2,344 metres (7,690 ft) 27.7 kilometres (17.2 mi)   Nepal
  China
19 October 1954   Joseph Joechler
  Pasang Dawa Lama
  Herbert Tichy
12 February 1985   Maciej Berbeka
  Maciej Pawlikowski
3138 44 1.4% 0.64%
Dhaulagiri I 8,167 metres (26,795 ft) 3,357 metres (11,014 ft) 317.4 kilometres (197.2 mi)   Nepal 13 May 1960   Kurt Diemberger
  Peter Diener
  Nawang Dorje
  Nima Dorje
  Ernst Forrer
  Albin Schelbert
21 January 1985   Andrzej Czok
  Jerzy Kukuczka
448 69 15.4% 2.94%
Manaslu 8,163 metres (26,781 ft) 3,092 metres (10,144 ft) 105.5 kilometres (65.6 mi)   Nepal 9 May 1956   Toshio Imanishi
  Gyalzen Norbu
12 January 1984   Maciej Berbeka
  Ryszard Gajewski
661 65 9.8% 2.77%
Nanga Parbat 8,125 metres (26,657 ft) 4,608 metres (15,118 ft) 187.9 kilometres (116.8 mi)   Pakistan 3 July 1953   Hermann Buhl
on German–Austrian expedition
26 February 2016   Muhammad Ali Sadpara
  Simone Moro
  Alex Txikon
335 68 20.3% [e]
Annapurna I 8,091 metres (26,545 ft) 2,984 metres (9,790 ft) 33.7 kilometres (20.9 mi)   Nepal 3 June 1950   Maurice Herzog
  Louis Lachenal

on French expedition

3 February 1987   Jerzy Kukuczka
  Artur Hajzer
191 61 31.9% 4.05%
Gasherbrum I
(Hidden Peak)
8,080 metres (26,510 ft) 2,155 metres (7,070 ft) 23.4 kilometres (14.5 mi)   Pakistan
  China
5 July 1958   Andrew Kauffman
  Pete Schoening
9 March 2012   Adam Bielecki
  Janusz Gołąb
334 29 8.7% [e]
Broad Peak 8,051 metres (26,414 ft) 1,701 metres (5,581 ft) 8.6 kilometres (5.3 mi)   Pakistan
  China
9 June 1957   Fritz Wintersteller
  Marcus Schmuck
  Kurt Diemberger
  Hermann Buhl
5 March 2013   Maciej Berbeka
  Adam Bielecki
  Tomasz Kowalski
  Artur Małek
404 21 5.2% [e]
Gasherbrum II 8,034 metres (26,358 ft) 1,524 metres (5,000 ft) 5.3 kilometres (3.3 mi)   Pakistan
  China
7 July 1956   Fritz Moravec
  Josef Larch
  Hans Willenpart
2 February 2011   Simone Moro
  Denis Urubko
  Cory Richards
930 21 2.3% [e]
Shishapangma 8,027 metres (26,335 ft) 2,897 metres (9,505 ft) 90.8 kilometres (56.4 mi)   China 2 May 1964   Xu Jing
  Chang Chun-yen
  Wang Fuzhou
  Chen San
  Cheng Tien-liang
  Wu Tsung-yue
  Sodnam Doji
  Migmar Trashi
  Doji
  Yonten
14 January 2005   Piotr Morawski
  Simone Moro
302 25 8.3%

Proposed expansionEdit

In 2012, to relieve capacity pressure,[22] overcrowding on the world’s highest mountain was tackled by placing greater restrictions on expeditions to the summit of Mount Everest. The move is a response to growing problems with litter, pollution and recent clashes between Sherpas and Western climbers. But, in an attempt to appease those hoping to conquer the 29,029 ft (8,848 m) tall peak, the Nepalese government is to open access to five other summits that sit over 26,247 ft (8,000 m) and develop climbing tourism. Nepal lobbied the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (or UIAA) to reclassify five summits (two on Lhotse and three on Kanchenjunga), as standalone eight-thousanders, while Pakistan lobbied for a sixth summit (on Broad Peak).[23] The UIAA initiated in 2012 what it calls the ARUGA project with an aim to see if new 8,000 m (26,247 ft)-plus could feasibly achieve international recognition. Under that project, Nepal had tabled five new peaks and Pakistan had tabled one. In 2012, the UIAA set up a project group to consider the proposals called the AGURA Project.[23] The six proposed summits for reclassification are subsidiary-summits of existing eight-thousanders, but which are also themselves above 8,000 m (26,247 ft) and have a prominence above 60 m (197 ft).

  Proposed to the UIAA in 2012 for reclassification as standalone eight-thousanders.[23]
List of the subsidiary peaks of the 14 eight-thousanders.[24]
Proposed new eight-thousander Height
(m)
Prominence
(m)
Dominance
(Prom / Height)[25]
Dominance
classification[25]
Broad Peak Central 8011 181 2,26 B2
Kangchenjunga W-Peak (Yalung Kang) 8505 135 1,59 C1
Kangchenjunga S-Peak 8476 116 1,37 C2
Kangchenjunga C-Peak 8473 63 0,74 C2
Lhotse C-Peak I 8410 65 0,77 C2
Lhotse Shar 8382 72 0,86 C2
K 2 SW-Peak 8580 30 0,35 D1
Lhotse C-Peak II 8372 37 0,44 D1
Everest W-Peak 8296 30 0,36 D1
Yalung Kang Shoulder 8200 40 0,49 D1
Kangchenjunga SE-Peak 8150 30 0,37 D1
K 2 P. 8134 (SW-Ridge) 8134 35 0,43 D1
Annapurna C-Peak 8013 49 0,61 D1
Nanga Parbat S-Peak 8042 30 0,37 D1
Annapurna E-Peak 7986 65 0,81 C2
Shisha Pangma C-Peak 8008 30 0,37 D1
Everest NE-Shoulder 8423 19 0,23 D2
Everest NE-Pinnacle III 8383 13 0,16 D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle III 8327 10 0,12 D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle II 8307 12 0,14 D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle I 8290 10 0,12 D2
Everest NE-Pinnacle II 8282 25 0,30 D2

The proposed six new eight-thousander peaks would not meet the wider UIAA criteria of 600 m (1,969 ft) of elevation from nearest larger mountain's saddle, called topographic prominence, as used by the UIAA elsewhere for major mountains (the lowest prominence of the existing 14 eight-thousanders is Lhotse, at 610 metres (2,001 ft)).[26][27] For example, only Broad Peak Central, with a topographic prominence of 181 metres (594 ft), would even meet the 150 metres (492 ft) prominence threshold to be a British Isles Marilyn.[26] However, the appeal noted the UIAA's 1994 reclassification of Alpine four-thousander peaks, where a prominence threshold of 30 m (98 ft) was used,[f] amongst other criteria; the logic being that if 30 m (98 ft) worked for 4,000 m (13,123 ft) summits, then 60 m (197 ft) is proportional for 8,000 m (26,247 ft) summits.[28]

As of November 2018, there has been no conclusion by the UIAA and the proposals appear to have been set aside.

Climbers of all 14Edit

There is no single undisputed source for verified Himalayan ascents; however, Elizabeth Hawley's The Himalayan Database,[29] is considered as an important source for the Nepalese Himalayas.[30][31] Online ascent databases pay close regard to The Himalayan Database, including the website AdventureStats.com,[32] and the Eberhard Jurgalski List.[33] Various mountaineering journals, including the Alpine Journal and the American Alpine Journal, maintain extensive records and archives but do not always opine on ascents.

Verified ascentsEdit

 
Reinhold Messner, first to climb all 14 eight-thousanders, and first to do so without supplementary oxygen.
 
Edurne Pasaban, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders after Oh Eun-sun’s claim was disputed.
 
Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen.
  First male to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders, and first to do so without supplementary oxygen
  First female to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders; with supplementary oxygen
  First female to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders; no supplementary oxygen
  Fastest ascent of all 14 eight-thousanders
  Youngest person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders

The "No O2" column lists people who have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen.

List of climbers who have summited all 14 eight-thousanders.[34]
Order Order
(No O2)
Name Period Born Age Nationality
1 1 Reinhold Messner 1972–1986 1944 42   Italian
2 Jerzy Kukuczka 1979–1987 1948 39   Polish
3 2 Erhard Loretan 1982–1995 1959 36   Swiss
4 [35] Carlos Carsolio 1985–1996 1962 33   Mexican
5 Krzysztof Wielicki 1980–1996 1950 46   Polish
6 3 Juanito Oiarzabal 1985–1999 1956 43   Spanish
7 Sergio Martini 1983–2000 1949 51   Italian
8 Park Young-seok 1993–2001 1963 38   Korean
9 Um Hong-gil 1988–2001 1960[36] 40   Korean
10 4 Alberto Iñurrategi 1991–2002[37] 1968 33   Spanish
11 Han Wang-yong 1994–2003 1966 37   Korean
12 5[38] Ed Viesturs 1989–2005 1959 46   American
13 6[39][40][41] Silvio Mondinelli 1993–2007 1958 49   Italian
14 7[42] Ivan Vallejo 1997–2008 1959 49   Ecuadorian
15 8[43] Denis Urubko 2000–2009 1973 35   Kazakhstani
16 Ralf Dujmovits 1990–2009 1961[44] 47   German
17 9 Veikka Gustafsson 1993–2009 1968 41   Finnish
18[45] Andrew Lock 1993–2009 1961[46] 48   Australian
19 10 João Garcia 1993–2010 1967 43   Portuguese
20[47] Piotr Pustelnik 1990–2010 1951 58   Polish
21[48] Edurne Pasaban 2001–2010 1973 36   Spanish
22[49] Abele Blanc 1992–2011[50][51] 1954 56   Italian
23 Mingma Sherpa 2000–2011[50] 1978 33   Nepali
24 11 Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner 1998–2011[50] 1970 40   Austrian
25 Vassily Pivtsov 2001–2011[50] 1975 36   Kazakhstani
26 12 Maxut Zhumayev 2001–2011[50] 1977 34   Kazakhstani
27 Kim Jae-soo 2000–2011[50] 1961 50   Korean
28[52] 13 Mario Panzeri 1988–2012 1964 48   Italian
29[53] Hirotaka Takeuchi 1995–2012[53] 1971 41   Japanese
30 Chhang Dawa Sherpa 2001–2013[50] 1982 30   Nepali
31 14 Kim Chang-ho 2005–2013[50] 1970 43   Korean
32 Jorge Egocheaga 2002–2014[54] 1968 45   Spanish
33 15 Radek Jaroš 1998–2014[50] 1964 50   Czech
34/35[55] 16/17[55] Nives Meroi 1998–2017[56][57] 1961 55   Italian
34/35[55] 16/17[55] Romano Benet [it] 1998–2017[56][57][58] 1962 55   Italian
  Slovenian
36 18 Peter Hámor 1998–2017[59] 1964 52   Slovak
37 19 Azim Gheychisaz 2008–2017[60] 1981 37   Iranian
38 Ferran Latorre 1999–2017[61] 1970 46   Spanish
39 20 Òscar Cadiach 1984–2017[62] 1952 64   Spanish
40 Kim Mi-gon 2000–2018[63][64] 1973 45   Korean
41 Sanu Sherpa 2006–2019[65] 1975 44   Nepali
42 Nirmal Purja 2014–2019[2][66][g] 1983 36   Nepali
43 Mingma Gyabu Sherpa 2010–2019[67][68] 1989 30   Nepali

Disputed ascentsEdit

Claims have been made for all 14 peaks in which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascent. The disputed ascent in each claim is shown in parentheses. In most cases, the Himalayan chronicler Elizabeth Hawley is considered the definitive source regarding the facts of the dispute. Her The Himalayan Database is the source for other online Himalayan ascent databases (e.g. AdventureStats.com).[30][31]

Cho Oyu is a recurrent problem peak as it is a small hump about 30 mins into the summit plateau, and the main proxy of a view of Everest, which is possible from the true summit, requires clear weather.[69][70] Shishapangma is another problem peak because of its dual summits, which despite being close in height, are up to two hours climbing time apart.[71] Hawley judged that Ed Viesturs had not reached the true summit, and he re-climbed the mountain to definitively establish his ascent.[72]

Name Period Born Age Nationality
Fausto De Stefani (Lhotse 1997)[73]
(His partner Sergio Martini reclimbed Lhotse in 2000 to verify his 14, see above)
1983–1998 1952 46   Italian
Alan Hinkes (Cho Oyu 1990)[74][75]
(Hinkes rejects Hawley's decision to "unrecognise" his Cho Oyu ascent, see "Cho Oyu dispute")
1987–2005 1954 53   British
Vladislav Terzyul (Shishapangma (West) Summit 2000, Broad Peak 1995[76][77])[78][79]
(As he did not claim the main summit of Shishapangma, this status is unlikely to change)
1993–2004 (deceased) 1953 49   Ukrainian
Oh Eun-sun (Kangchenjunga 2009)[80][81][82]
(As the potential first female climber of all 14, this dispute was followed internationally)[81]
1997–2010 1966 44   Korean
Carlos Pauner (Shishapangma 2012)[83]
(Pauner acknowledged his uncertainty as it was dark, but says he might reclimb to remove the doubt)[84]
2001–2013 1963 50   Spanish
Zhang Liang (Shishapangma 2018)[85][86][87]
(According Chinese state media and The Himalayan Times, Zhang completed all 14 with other three climbers in the 2018 Chinese Shishapangma expedition, which is suspected that they only reached the central summit)
2000–2018 1964 54   Chinese

GalleryEdit

Comparison of the heights of the Eight-thousanders (red triangles) with the Seven Summits and Seven Second Summits.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Per The Himalayan Database (HDB) tables, the Climber (or Member) Death Rate is the ratio of deaths above base camp, of all climbers who were hoping to summit and who went above base camp, for 1950 to 2009, and is closer to a true probability of death; the data is only for Nepalese Himalaya. Summary tables from the HDB report for all mountains above 8,000 metres, imply that the death rate for the period 1990 to 2009 (e.g. modern expeditions), is roughly half that of the combined 1950 to 2009 period.[16]
  2. ^ As recorded by Eberhard Jurgalski
  3. ^ As recorded by Eberhard Jurgalski and being any death (climber or other) above Base Camp.[19]
  4. ^ This should not be mistaken as being a death rate; it does not imply a probabiltiy of death for a climber attempting to climb an eight-thousander as it includes all deaths from all activities undertaken above base camp (e.g. training or reconissance trips, camp stocking activities by porters who will not be summiting the mountain, rescue attempts etc.). It therefore compares deaths from the larger group of people who were, and were not, making a summit attempt, with the smaller group who were making a summit attempt. While it is not a probability, the statistic does reflect the ratio of people who died above base camp for each climber who summited.
  5. ^ a b c d e Data is not available for the Pakistani Himalayas
  6. ^ The UIAA main list also includes summits that have a prominence far lower than 30 metres.
  7. ^ Nirmal Purja climbed all fourteen 8,000m peaks between April 2019 and October 2019, but climbed his first, Dhaulagiri, in 2014.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Sports Editor (29 October 2019). "Nirmal Purja: Ex-soldier climbs 14 highest mountains in six months". BBC News. Retrieved 24 December 2019. A Nepali mountaineer and former British Marine has climbed the world's tallest 14 peaks in six months - beating an earlier record of almost eight years.
  2. ^ a b c Freddie Wilkinson. "Nepal climber makes history speed climbing world's tallest peaks". National Geographic. Retrieved 24 December 2019. On October 29th, Nirmal Purja Magar announced via Instagram that he had summited China's Shishapangma. This marked the fourteenth 8,000-meter peak he had climbed in seven months and the completion of an extraordinary project to speed climb the world's tallest mountains in rapid succession.
  3. ^ "Fast Facts About Nanga Parbat". climbing.about.com. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  4. ^ Herzog, Maurice (1951). Annapurna: First Conquest of an 8000-meter Peak. Translated from the French by Nea Morin and Janet Adam Smith. New York: E.P Dutton & Co. p. 257.
  5. ^ Zawada, Andrzej (1984). Translated by Doubrawa-Cochlin, Ingeborga; Cochlin, Peter. "Mount Everest: The First Winter Ascent" (PDF). The Alpine Journal: 50–59.
  6. ^ "Preliminary stats: Himalaya and Everest 2011 spring review". ExplorersWeb. 8 June 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  7. ^ "Lhotse Summits". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  8. ^ a b Farmer, Ben (16 January 2021). "Former Gurkha Nirmal Purja among Nepalese climbers to complete first winter ascent of deadly K2". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  9. ^ PEAKBAGGER: World 7200-meter Peaks (Ranked Peaks have 500 meters of Clean Prominence)
  10. ^ "Oh Eun-Sun report, final: Edurne Pasaban takes the throne". ExplorersWeb. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  11. ^ "Austrian woman claims Himalayas climbing record". BBC News. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  12. ^ "Austrian is first woman to scale 14 peaks without oxygen". AsiaOne. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  13. ^ "Alpinismo, il record di Meroi-Benet: è italiana la prima coppia su tutti gli Ottomila". 11 May 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d Eberhard Jurgalski. "General Info". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  15. ^ a b "DAILY CHART: Stairway to heaven, how deadly are the world's highest mountains?". The Economist. 29 March 2013. For every three thrill-seekers that make it safely up and down Annapurna I, one dies trying, according to data from Eberhard Jurgalski of website 8000ers.com, collected in his forthcoming book "On Top of the World: The New Millennium", co-authored by Richard Sale.
  16. ^ a b Elizabeth Hawley; Richard Sailsbury (2011). "The Himalaya by the Numbers: A Statistical Analysis of Mountaineering in the Nepal Himalaya" (PDF). p. 129. Table D-3: Deaths for peaks with more than 750 members above base camp from 1950–2009
  17. ^ "Himalayan Death Tolls". The Washington Post. 24 April 2014.
  18. ^ a b c PeakBagger: World 8000–metre Peaks
  19. ^ Eberhard Jurgalski. "Fatalities tables". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. Included are only fatalities from, at or above BC or caused from there. Fatalities on approach or return marches are not listed.
  20. ^ "K2 lies in Pakistan, near the northern border with China". BBC News.
  21. ^ Harding, Luke (13 July 2000). "Climbers banned from sacred peak". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  22. ^ Richard Gray (23 August 2013). "The new peaks opened as alternatives to Mount Everest". The Daily Telegraph. Nepal
  23. ^ a b c Navin Singh Khadka (18 October 2013). "Nepal mountain peak expansion bid stalls". BBC News.
  24. ^ Eberhard Jurgalski. "Subsidiary Peaks". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. There are several different subsidiary peaks! Here are the geographical facts, from the one "relative independent Main-Peak" (EU category B) over the important subsidiary peaks (C) to the major notable points (D1) Especially the last category is just guessed by contours or from photographs.
  25. ^ a b Eberhard Jurgalski. "Dominance". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. Accordingly, the author introduced altitude classes (AC) and a proportional prominence, which he named orometrical dominance (D). D is calculated easily but fittingly: (P/Alt) x 100. Thus, it indicates the percentage of independence for every elevation, no matter what the altitude, prominence or mountain type it is. From a scientific point of view, altitude could be seen as the thesis, prominence as the antithesis, whereas dominance would be the synthesis.
  26. ^ a b "Do we really need more 8000m peaks". Mark Horrell. 23 October 2013. The most prominent one, Broad Peak Central is just 196m high and the least prominent, Lhotse Middle, is a meagre 60m. To put this in context, the highest mountain in Malta is 253m, while the Eiffel Tower stands a whopping 300m.
  27. ^ "A funny name for a mountain". Mark Horrell. 4 June 2014.
  28. ^ "UIAA Mountain Classification: 4,000ERS OF THE ALPS". UIAA. March 1994. Topographic criterium: for each summit, the level difference between it and the highest adjacent pass or notch should be at least 30 m (98 ft) (calculated as average of the summits at the limit of acceptability). An additional criterium can be the horizontal distance between a summit and the base of another adjacent 4000er.
  29. ^ Elizabeth Hawley; Richard Salisbury (2018). "The Himalayan Database, The Expedition Archives of Elizabeth Hawley". The Himalayan Database.
  30. ^ a b If a mountaineer wants worldwide recognition that they have reached the summit of some of the most formidable mountains in the world, they will need to get the approval of Elizabeth Hawley."Elizabeth Hawley, unrivalled Himalayan record keeper". BBC News. 29 August 2010.
  31. ^ a b "Elizabeth Hawley, Who Chronicled Everest Treks, Dies at 94". New York Times. 26 January 2018.
  32. ^ "High Altitude Mountaineering statistics". AdventureStats.com. 2018.
  33. ^ "Climbers who have ascended to the summits of all of the world's 14 mountains over 8000 metres". 8000ers.com (Eberhard Jurgalski). 2018.
  34. ^ Eberhard Jurgalski (26 May 2012). "Climbers – First 14". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  35. ^ Carlos Carsolio required emergency oxygen on his descent from Makalu in 1988.
  36. ^ EverestNews2004.com, News (age calculated: in 2004 Hong-Gil Um was 44). "Mr. Um Hong Gil has bagged his 15th 8000 meter peak". Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  37. ^ Kukuxumusu, Spanish News. "Alberto Iñurrategi achieves his fourteenth "eight thousand meters"". Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  38. ^ "Best of ExplorersWeb 2005 Awards: Ed Viesturs and Christian Kuntner". Mounteverest.net. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008. ...the American climber became one of only five men in the world to accomplish the quest entirely without supplementary oxygen.
  39. ^ Mounteverest.net. "The wolf is back: Gnaro bags Baruntse". Archived from the original on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008. Last year, Silvio 'Gnaro' Mondinelli broke the haunted 13 when he summited the last peak on his list of 14, 8000ers – becoming only the 6th mountaineer in the world to have bagged them all without supplementary oxygen.
  40. ^ "The day after: Silvio Mondinelli, Broad Peak and all 14 8000m summits". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 30 November 2008. 13/07 interview with Silvio Mondinelli after the summit of his 14th 8000m peak without supplementary oxygen.
  41. ^ "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008. Implied in text: ...Following Italian Silvio "Gnaro" Mondinelli last year and American Ed Viesturs in 2005, Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
  42. ^ "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008. ...Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
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  48. ^ "Shisha Pangma: Edurne Pasaban summits – completes the 14x800ers". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
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  55. ^ a b c d Nives Meroi and Romano Benet climbed all the Eight-thousanders together, it wasn't revealed if one of them climbed the last peak a few moments before the other, thus they share the same position
  56. ^ a b "Nives Meroi and Romano Benet summit Annapurna, their 14th 8000er". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  57. ^ a b "Nives Meroi in Roman Benet preplezala 14 osemtisočakov". Sta.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  58. ^ "Slovenec s 15. osemtisočaka". Delo.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 11 May 2017.
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  62. ^ "Cadiach, camino del campo 3 tras coronar el Broad Peak" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  63. ^ "김미곤 히말라야 14봉 등정 보고회 열려" (in Korean). Mountain Journal. 27 July 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
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  69. ^ I have summitted Cho Oyu 4 times and will be heading for my fifth this coming season. Each time I have watched the Koreans and Japanese go only to where they can see Everest, not the summit, because they know this is what will be asked."Cho Oyu summit: Where is it exactly". Explorersweb.com. September 2017.
  70. ^ Many people who climb Cho Oyu in Tibet stop at a set of prayer flags with views of Everest and believe they’ve reached the top, unaware they still have to walk for 15 minutes across the summit plateau until they can see the Gokyo Lakes in Nepal."When is a summit not a summit?". Mark Horrell. 12 November 2014.
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  82. ^ What would appear to be the most serious blow to Miss Oh, on 26 August this year the Korean Alpine Federation, the nation's largest climbing association, concluded that Miss Oh had not reached the top of Kangchenjunga."Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985–2014" (PDF). Elizabeth Hawley. 2014. p. 394.
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External linksEdit

KangchenjungaEdit

 
The south face of Lhotse, as seen from Chukhung Ri.
  This sports-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Date Name Nationality
17 May 2019 Ivan Tomov   Bulgaria Cerebral edema [1]
17 May 2018 Rustem Amirov   Russia Altitude sickness [2]
19 May 2016 Ang Furba Sherpa     Nepal Fall [3]
27 April 2015 Hiroshi Yamagata   Japan Avalanche (2015 Mount Everest avalanches) [4]
25 April 2015 Zhen-Fang Ge   China Avalanche (2015 Mount Everest avalanches) [4]
18 April 2014 Asman Tamang     Nepal Avalanche (2014 Mount Everest ice avalanche) [5]
20 May 2013 Hsiao-Shih Lee   China Altitude sickness [6][7]
16 October 2012 Temba Sherpa     Nepal Fall [8]
21 May 2012 Milan Sedláček   Czech Republic Exhaustion [9]
7 May 2010 Sergey Duganov   Russia Altitude sickness [10][11][12]
25 May 2009 Sergey Samoilov   Kazakhstan Fall [13][14]
21 May 2007 Pemba Doma     Nepal Fall [14][15]
9 May 2006 Pavel Kalný   Czech Republic Fall [14][16]
5 October 2003 Sun-dug Hwang   South Korea Avalanche (on Lhotse Shar) [14]
5 October 2003 Joo-hoon Park   South Korea Avalanche (on Lhotse Shar) [14]
17 September 2000 Vladimir Bondarev   Russia Avalanche [14]
27 May 1997 Vladimir Bashkirov   Russia Illness [14][17]
24 October 1989 Jerzy Kukuczka   Belgium Fall [14][18]
27 September 1987 Antoni (Toni) Sors   Spain Avalanche (on Lhotse Shar) [14]
27 September 1987 Sergio Escalera   Spain Avalanche (on Lhotse Shar) [14]
27 September 1987 Francesc Porras   Spain Avalanche (on Lhotse Shar) [14]
27 September 1987 Antonio Quiñones   Spain Avalanche (on Lhotse Shar) [14]
14 September 1987 Czesław Jakiel   Poland Avalanche [14]
30 October 1986 Pedro Alonso   Spain Fall (on Lhotse Shar) [14]
25 October 1985 Rafał Chołda   Poland Fall [14]
16 October 1981 Philippe Petten    Switzerland Disappearance (on Lhotse Shar) [14]
16 October 1981 Pierre Favez    Switzerland Disappearance (on Lhotse Shar) [14]
  1. ^ "Bulgarian climber dies at Camp IV on Mt Lhotse". thehimalayantimes.com. 17 May 2019.
  2. ^ "Russian climber dies on Mt Lhotse as summit bids underway on different peaks". The Himalayan Times. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  3. ^ "Over 200 summitting Mount Everest today; a Sherpa guide dies". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  4. ^ a b "Everest: List of Avalanche Victims". Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Spring 2014". Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  6. ^ "7th Death on Everest in 2013". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  7. ^ "Taiwan mountaineer dies while attempting to scale peak in Nepal". Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  8. ^ Un sherpa fallece en el ataque a cima del Lhotse; Kuriki sigue subiendo en el Everest. Desnivel. 18 October 2012
  9. ^ Šedivý, Filip & Hromádka, Martin (22 May 2012). "Horolezec Sedláček zahynul na himalájské osmitisícovce Lhotse – Zprávy.rozhlas.cz – ověřené a aktuální informace 24 hodin denně, 7 dní v týdnu". Rozhlas.cz.
  10. ^ Everest & Himalaya 2010 Season's End Chronicle, Take 1: 8000er Collectors, Everest Serial Summiteers and Lost Climbers. explorersweb.com. 18 August 2010
  11. ^ "Everest 2010: Rescues and Casualties". theadventureblog.blogspot.ru. 27 May 2010.
  12. ^ "Weather Watch – Everest 2010 – Mt. Everest 2010 Season Coverage". alanarnette.com. 9 May 2010. Archived from the original on 17 August 2012.
  13. ^ "Kazakhstan Expedition Everest Lhotsze-2009 – Sergey Samoilov perished on Lhotse". Mountain.kz. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Fatalities Lhotse". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  15. ^ "Famous female Nepal climber dead". BBC News. 23 May 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  16. ^ Lhotse fall update: Czech Pavel Kalny lost, Martin Minarik uninjured Archived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. mounteverest.net. 12 May 2006
  17. ^ Results of the season 1997. Himalayan expeditions. Plans for 1998 season. risk.ru
  18. ^ "Famed Polish climber dies in accident - UPI Archives". Upi.com. 26 October 1989. Retrieved 10 June 2016.