Lipót Baumhorn

Lipót Baumhorn (Hungarian: Baumhorn Lipót, German: Leopold Baumhorn, December 28, 1860, Kisbér – July 8, 1932, Kisbér) was a Hungarian architect of Jewish heritage, the largest Hungarian synagogue architect in the first half of the 20th century. It formed about 20 synagogues in the Kingdom of Hungary.

Lipót Baumhorn
Baumhorn.jpg
Born
Baumhorn Lipót

(1860-12-28)December 28, 1860
DiedJuly 8, 1932(1932-07-08) (aged 71)
NationalityHungarian
OccupationArchitect
Practicesynagogues and other public buildings

CareerEdit

He graduated from the main real school in Győr, the technical university in Vienna under Freiherr von Ferstel, König and Weyr. Then he came to Budapest and worked for 12 years in the office of architects Ödön Lechner and Gyula Pártos. In 1893 and 1899. He traveled to Italy, 1904. to Central Europe for architectural studies. His first independent work was the Moorish-style synagogue in Esztergom, built in 1888, which established his reputation. Since then, B. has built 22 synagogues in Hungary, the most significant of which is Szeged (1903), which was one of the largest in the old Austro-Hungarian monarchy (with 740 men's and 600 women's seats), significant new rural, Nagybecskerek, Fiume, Brassó, Temesvár, Szolnok, Cegléd, Eger, Losonc, Liptószentmiklós, Budapest: Aréna-út, Páva utca, Csáky utca synagogues. Other buildings include: The King of Győr. table (1890), the glass factories of Salgótarján (1893), the pavilion of the paper and reproduction industry of the millennial exhibition (1896), the headquarters of the Temesvár Valley Water Regulatory Company, the Temesvár higher girls' school, the headquarters of the Szeged-Csongrád Savings Bank, (1903), the Újvidék Savings Bank the Baja Savings Bank, the Temesvár Lloyd and the Stock Exchange Palace (1910–12).[1]

BuildingsEdit

Secular buildingsEdit

  • Temesvár-Béga Palace (Timișoara)
  • Junior High School (Timișoara, 1902–1904) (with Jakab Klein)
  • Szeged-Csongrád Savings Bank (Szeged, Széchenyi tér 7. – Takarékpénztár u. 7. 1902–1903)
  • Iron house (Szeged, Horváth Mihály u. 9. – Takarékpénztár u. 8., 1912–1913)
  • Wagner Palace (Szeged, Kölcsey u. 4. – Kárász u. 14., 1904–1905)
  • Palace of the Savings Bank (Újvidék (Novi Sad), 1904)
  • Csata Street School (Budapest, 13th district, Csata u. 20., 1909–1911)
  • Wagner Palace (Szeged, Feketesas u. 28., 1910–1911)
  • Forbát House (Szeged, Dugonics tér 11. – Lajos Tisza 60., 1911–1912)
  • Lloyd's Palace (Timișoara, 1912)
  • Metal Trading Company Limited Office Building (Budapest, 13th district, Balzac u. 5., 1922)

Headquarters of the Jewish CommunityEdit

  • Headquarters of the Jewish Community of Szeged (Gutenberg u. 20 - Jósika 12., 1901–1903, Szeged)

SynagoguesEdit

Lipót Baumhorn designed many synagogues. The following is a detailed list:[2]

No. Location Name Built Destroyed Remarks Picture
1st Esztergom, Hungary Esztergom Synagogue 1888 stand It is used for cultural purposes.  
2nd Rijeka, Croatia Rijeka Synagogue 1895 1944 It was destroyed by Nazis. [2]
3rd Zrenjanin, Serbia Zrenjanin Synagogue 1896 1940s It was demolished by the German occupiers during World War II, only its organ escaped. [3]
4th Timișoara, Romania Fabric Synagogue 1897–1899 stand It is in a dilapidated state, threatened with collapse.  
5th Szolnok, Hungary Szolnok Synagogue 1898 stand Recently renovated. The Szolnok Gallery operates in the building.  
6th Brașov, Romania Brașov Synagogue 1899–1901 stand Recently renovated. In use.  
7th Szeged, Hungary Szeged New Synagogue 1900–1902 stand It is the second largest synagogue in Hungary and the fourth largest in the world. Recently renovated. In use.  
8th Cegléd, Hungary Cegléd Synagogue 1902 stand It functions as a sports hall.  
9th Novi Sad, Serbia Novi Sad Synagogue 1905–1909 stand It is used for many cultural concerts and events.  
10th Satu Mare, Romania Szatmar Synagogue 1906–1909[3] after 1945 It was demolished at an unknown time after World War II.  
11th Murska Sobota, Slovenia Murska Sobota Synagogue 1908 after 1945 It was demolished at an unknown time after World War II.  
12th Budapest, Hungary Arena Synagogue 1908–1909 stand The building is now used by the Budapest Honved Fencing Hall  
13th Nitra, Slovakia Nitra Synagogue 1908–1911 stand Renovated from 2003, it is also available to the public as a museum of Jewish culture and a venue for various cultural events.  
14th Eger, Hungary Eger Synagogue 1911–1913 1967 It was blown up, citing its exaggerated and degrading size of the settlement.  
15th Makó, Hungary Makó Neological Synagogue 1914 1965 After the destruction of Makó Jewry in World War II, the synagogue lost its former role. In the 1950s and 1960s, several ideas were born for recycling, but they were eventually dismantled. [4]
16th Nyíregyháza, Hungary Nyíregyháza New Synagogue 1918–1923 stand In use.  
17th Budapest, Hungary Páva Street Synagogue 1923–1924 stand Recently renovated. In use.  
18th Lučenec, Slovakia Lučenec Synagogue 1924–1925 stand Recently renovated. It is used for cultural purposes.  
19th Gyöngyös, Hungary Gyöngyös Synagogue 1929–1930 stand Recently renovated. It is used for cultural purposes.  

ExpansionsEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

  Media related to Lipót Baumhorn at Wikimedia Commons