Lillesand (Urban East Norwegian: [ˈlɪ̂lːəsɑn] )[4] is municipality in Agder county, Norway. It is part of the traditional district of Sørlandet. The administrative center of the municipality is the town of Lillesand. Some of the larger villages in Lillesand municipality include Åkerøyhamn, Brekkestø, Gamle Hellesund, Helldal, Høvåg, Ribe, Skottevik, Trøe, Ulvøysund, and Vesterhus.

Lillesand Municipality
Lillesand kommune
Blindleia in Lillesand
Blindleia in Lillesand
Agder within Norway
Agder within Norway
Lillesand within Agder
Lillesand within Agder
Coordinates: 58°14′49″N 08°19′01″E / 58.24694°N 8.31694°E / 58.24694; 8.31694
CountryNorway
CountyAgder
DistrictSørlandet
Established1 Jan 1838
 • Created asFormannskapsdistrikt
Administrative centreLillesand
Government
 • Mayor (2019)Einar Holmer-Hoven (H)
Area
 • Total190.32 km2 (73.48 sq mi)
 • Land180.39 km2 (69.65 sq mi)
 • Water9.93 km2 (3.83 sq mi)  5.2%
 • Rank#306 in Norway
Population
 (2023)
 • Total11,419
 • Rank#100 in Norway
 • Density63.3/km2 (164/sq mi)
 • Change (10 years)
Increase +13.8%
DemonymsLillesandar
Lillesander[1]
Official language
 • Norwegian formBokmål
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNO-4215[3]
WebsiteOfficial website

The 190-square-kilometre (73 sq mi) municipality is the 306th largest by area out of the 356 municipalities in Norway. Lillesand is the 100th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 11,419. The municipality's population density is 63.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (164/sq mi) and its population has increased by 13.8% over the previous 10-year period.[5][6]

General information edit

 
Lillesand Church in the centre of the town

The town of Lillesand was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt law). During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1962, the following areas were merged into a new, larger municipality of Lillesand:[7]

Name edit

The municipality was named after the town of Lillesand, originally just Sand (Old Norse: Sandr). The name is identical to the word sandr which means "sand" or "sandy beach". The prefix is lille, which means "little", was added after the founding of Christianssand in 1641 to distinguish it from the greater and more important town nearby.[8]

Coat of arms edit

 
Current coat of arms (since 1987)
 
Previous coat of arms (1954-1987)

The coat of arms was granted on 11 September 1987. The official blazon is "Azure, three anchors argent in pall annulets conjoined" (Norwegian: I blått tre sølv ankere forent i trepass). This means the arms have a blue field (background) and the charge is three anchors. The anchors have a tincture of argent which means it is commonly colored white, but if it is made out of metal, then silver is used. The blue color in the field and the anchors were chosen to symbolize the connection that the municipality has with the sea. There are three anchors to symbolize the three smaller municipalities that were merged in 1964 to form the present municipality. The arms were designed by Daniel Rike. The municipal flag has the same design as the coat of arms.[9][10][11]

The previous coat of arms for Lillesand was approved on 15 December 1954 and in use until 10 September 1987. The blazon was "Azure, an anchor under a tern volant argent". This means the arms have a blue field (background) and the charge is an anchor with a arctic tern flying above it. The anchor and tern have a tincture of argent which means it is commonly colored white, but if it is made out of metal, then silver is used. Both symbols refer to the long coastline of the municipality and the importance of fishing and shipping for the local economy. The arms were designed by Jens T. Thommasen and Kjell Westermark Mørch.[9][10]

Churches edit

The Church of Norway has two parishes (sokn) within the municipality of Lillesand. It is part of the Vest-Nedenes prosti (deanery) in the Diocese of Agder og Telemark.

Churches in Lillesand
Parish (sokn) Church name Location of the church Year built
Høvåg Høvåg Church Høvåg c. 1100
Lillesand Lillesand Church Lillesand 1889
Justøy Chapel Brekkestø 1884
Vestre Moland Church Møglestu c. 1150

History edit

Sanden, which consisted of the small area near the harbor, was the original name for the municipality of Lillesand. Lillesand is built on the ancient estate of Lofthus. Christian Jensen Lofthuus was captured on his Lofthus estate around 1780.

In 1821, when Lillesand became a privileged port, it had a population of only 300 and had nine shipyards. By 1895 the merchant fleet was 95 vessels strong. But the death of the sailing ship caused severe economic difficulties for Lillesand. Sailing ships had been inexpensive and could be built from local timber. Steamers were built of steel, were expensive and required more capital than locals could muster. Shipyards were closed. Many of the residents emigrated from there to the United States. Lillesand remained a fishing village, though even this area suffered when the herring left the coast.

The Saltholmen Lighthouse, located on an island off Lillesand, is a nineteenth century lighthouse with a slate roof and a concrete tower for the light. It operated as a staffed lighthouse from 1882 to 1952. Saltholmen (lit. "Salty Islet") is named after the salt extraction industry once there, established by Hans Nielsen Hauge.

The Lillesand-Flaksvandbanen operated between Lillesand and Flaksvann from 1896 to 1953.

ORP Orzeł, a Polish submarine, sank the German troopship Rio de Janeiro on 8 April 1940 off Lillesand. Rio de Janeiro was on its way to take part in the initial landings of Operation Weserübung the next day, the invasion of Norway.

Geography edit

 
Justøy Bridge over Blindleia in Lillesand.

Lillesand is bordered in the north by Birkenes municipality, to the east by Grimstad municipality and to the south by Kristiansand municipality. The lake Østre Grimevann is a large lake in the northern part of the municipality and the river Tovdalselva runs through the municipality, too. The Blindleia is an inland waterway that starts in Gamle Hellesund in Høvåg near Kristiansand in southern Norway, and continues past Lillesand. It is a salt water passage protected from the open sea by the offshore archipelago. The island of Justøy lies just south of the town of Lillesand, along the Blindleia. The Kvåsefjorden lies along the southwestern border of Lillesand municipality.

Navigation through the Blindleia passage requires attention to detail, but is not difficult as there are no tides, and very little current. The minimal tidal change in the skerries is due to its geographical location; the tidal flow that comes in from the Atlantic Ocean splits on the British Isles. One tidal stream goes through the English Channel, while the other goes around the north of the British Isles. The stream of the English Channel reaches the coast of Norway before the wave traveling around the British Islands. These two tidal "waves" are completely out of phase when they meet here, neutralizing the tidal effect.

Gallery edit

Lillesand's Waterfront

Government edit

Lillesand Municipality is responsible for primary education (through 10th grade), outpatient health services, senior citizen services, welfare and other social services, zoning, economic development, and municipal roads and utilities. The municipality is governed by a municipal council of directly elected representatives. The mayor is indirectly elected by a vote of the municipal council.[12] The municipality is under the jurisdiction of the Agder District Court and the Agder Court of Appeal.

Municipal council edit

The municipal council (Kommunestyre) of Lillesand is made up of 27 representatives that are elected to four year terms. The tables below show the current and historical composition of the council by political party.

Lillesand kommunestyre 2023–2027 [13]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 5
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 3
  Green Party (Miljøpartiet De Grønne) 1
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 8
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 2
  Pensioners' Party (Pensjonistpartiet) 3
  Red Party (Rødt) 1
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 1
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 2
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 1
Total number of members:27
Lillesand kommunestyre 2019–2023 [14]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 6
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 2
  Green Party (Miljøpartiet De Grønne) 1
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 8
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 2
  Pensioners' Party (Pensjonistpartiet) 2
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 2
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 2
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 2
Total number of members:27
Lillesand kommunestyre 2015–2019 [15]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 6
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 2
  Green Party (Miljøpartiet De Grønne) 1
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 10
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 2
  Pensioners' Party (Pensjonistpartiet) 2
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 1
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 1
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 2
Total number of members:27
Lillesand kommunestyre 2011–2015 [16]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 5
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 2
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 13
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 2
  Pensioners' Party (Pensjonistpartiet) 1
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 1
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 1
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 2
Total number of members:27
Lillesand kommunestyre 2007–2011 [15]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 4
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 4
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 13
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 3
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 1
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 2
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 2
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 2003–2007 [15]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 5
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 4
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 7
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 4
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 2
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 5
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 2
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1999–2003 [15]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 6
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 2
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 8
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 5
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 1
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 4
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 3
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1995–1999 [17]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 6
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 9
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 3
  Pensioners' Party (Pensjonistpartiet) 3
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 2
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 3
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 3
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1991–1995 [18]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 5
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 2
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 8
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 3
  Pensioners' Party (Pensjonistpartiet) 2
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 2
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 4
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 3
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1987–1991 [19]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 7
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 3
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 9
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 4
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 1
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 2
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 3
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1983–1987 [20]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 7
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 3
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 10
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 4
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 1
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 2
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 2
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1979–1983 [21]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 6
  Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) 1
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 12
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 5
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 2
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 1
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 2
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1975–1979 [22]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 6
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 10
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 6
  New People's Party (Nye Folkepartiet) 1
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 3
  Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) 1
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 2
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1971–1975 [23]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 8
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 8
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 4
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 4
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 5
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1967–1971 [24]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 8
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 8
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 4
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 3
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 6
Total number of members:29
Lillesand kommunestyre 1963–1967 [25]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 8
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 8
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 3
  Centre Party (Senterpartiet) 2
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 8
Total number of members:29
Lillesand bystyre 1959–1963 [26]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 3
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 8
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 4
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 6
Total number of members:21
Lillesand bystyre 1955–1959 [27]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 3
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 8
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 4
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 6
Total number of members:21
Lillesand bystyre 1951–1955 [28]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 3
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 7
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 3
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 7
Total number of members:20
Lillesand bystyre 1947–1951 [29]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 3
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 5
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 5
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 7
Total number of members:20
Lillesand bystyre 1945–1947 [30]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 2
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 5
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) 5
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 8
Total number of members:20
Lillesand bystyre 1937–1941* [31]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 1
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 7
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 12
Total number of members:20
Note: Due to the German occupation of Norway during World War II, no elections were held for new municipal councils until after the war ended in 1945.
Lillesand bystyre 1934–1937 [32]  
Party name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet) 1
  Conservative Party (Høyre) 7
  Liberal Party (Venstre) 12
Total number of members:20

Mayors edit

The mayors (Norwegian: ordfører) of Lillesand (incomplete list):

  • 1907-1937: Noan Christian Gauslaa (V)
  • 1938-1945: Henrik Rønnevig
  • 1946-1951: Kristoffer Knudsen
  • 1952-1955: Ole Grimnes (H)
  • 1956-1957: Sigurd Aanonsen (H)
  • 1958-1961: Kjell Rosenberg (V)
  • 1962-1963: Birger Gauslaa (V)
  • 1964-1967: Daniel Steen Varen (V)
  • 1968-1973: Håkon A. Østberg (H)
  • 1974-1975: Eigil Bjørk Knudsen (KrF)
  • 1976-1983: Bjørgulf Aune (H)
  • 1984-1987: Kristian Sundtoft (H)
  • 1988-1991: Gunnar Oftedahl (H)
  • 1992-1995: Ragnhild Omdal Mollatt (H)
  • 1995-1999: Kristian Sundtoft (H)
  • 1999-2003: Odd Steindal (H)
  • 2003-2019: Arne Thomassen (H)
  • 2019-present: Einar Holmer-Hoven (H)

Attractions edit

 
Øvre gate with white wooden houses in the town center of Lillesand

The Norwegian National Park Skjærgårdsparken lies between Risør and Lillesand. Skjærgårdsparken, "the Park of Archipelago" is a paradise of islands, skerries, and rocks. Blindleia is a 12 kilometers Inland waterway between Lillesand and Ulvøysund with much small boat traffic in the summertime. The village of Brekkestø is tourist area on the island of Justøya.

Lillesand Town- and Maritime Museum is a local, culture historic museum, located in the centre of the town. The museum is also called Carl Knudsen-gården.

The Norwegian author Jostein Gaarder refers to this town in several of his books, for example in Sophie's World, where The Solitaire Mystery refers to Lillesand.

Churches edit

Lillesand Church is a wooden church which was built in 1887–1889 in Gothic Revival/Swiss style. The architect was Henrik Thrap-Meyer who also designed the pulpit, altarpiece and baptismal font. The altarpiece was done by Abraham Tønnessen. Lillesand Church is perched high above the city on a hill at Kirkeheia.[33][34]

In the current Lillesand municipality are also the medieval stone churches Vestre Moland Church and Høvåg Church, both of which are listed cultural heritage sites.

Notable people edit

 
Knut Hamsun, 1939
 
Jorunn Lossius, 2018

International relations edit

Twin towns — Sister cities edit

Lillesand has sister city agreements with the following places:[36]

References edit

  1. ^ "Navn på steder og personer: Innbyggjarnamn" (in Norwegian). Språkrådet.
  2. ^ "Forskrift om målvedtak i kommunar og fylkeskommunar" (in Norwegian). Lovdata.no.
  3. ^ Bolstad, Erik; Thorsnæs, Geir, eds. (26 January 2023). "Kommunenummer". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget.
  4. ^ Berulfsen, Bjarne (1969). Norsk Uttaleordbok (in Norwegian). Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co (W Nygaard). p. 199.
  5. ^ Statistisk sentralbyrå. "Table: 06913: Population 1 January and population changes during the calendar year (M)" (in Norwegian).
  6. ^ Statistisk sentralbyrå. "09280: Area of land and fresh water (km²) (M)" (in Norwegian).
  7. ^ Jukvam, Dag (1999). "Historisk oversikt over endringer i kommune- og fylkesinndelingen" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Statistisk sentralbyrå. ISBN 9788253746845.
  8. ^ Thorsnæs, Geir, ed. (31 October 2017). "Lillesand". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  9. ^ a b "Civic heraldry of Norway - Norske Kommunevåpen". Heraldry of the World. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  10. ^ a b "Lillesand, Aust-Agder (Norway)". Flags of the World. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  11. ^ "Godkjenning av våpen og flagg". Lovdata.no (in Norwegian). Norges kommunal- og arbeidsdepartementet. 11 September 1987. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  12. ^ Hansen, Tore; Vabo, Signy Irene, eds. (20 September 2022). "kommunestyre". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  13. ^ "Kommunestyrevalg 2023 - Agder". Valgdirektoratet. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  14. ^ "Kommunestyrevalg 2019 – Agder". Valgdirektoratet. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d "Table: 04813: Members of the local councils, by party/electoral list at the Municipal Council election (M)" (in Norwegian). Statistics Norway.
  16. ^ "Kommunestyrevalg 2011 – Aust-Agder". Valgdirektoratet. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  17. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1995" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1996. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  18. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1991" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1993. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  19. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1987" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1988. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  20. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1983" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1984. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  21. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1979" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1979. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  22. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1975" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1977. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  23. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1972" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1973. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  24. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1967" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1967. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  25. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1963" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1964. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  26. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1959" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1960. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  27. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1955" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1957. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  28. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1951" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1952. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  29. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1947" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1948. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  30. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1945" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1947. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  31. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1937" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1938. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  32. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1934" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1935. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  33. ^ "Lillesand kirke". Den Norske Kirke. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  34. ^ "Henrik Thrap-Meyer". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  35. ^ Jan Trygve Røyneland at IMDb. Retrieved 01 January 2021.
  36. ^ "Vennskapskommuner" (in Norwegian). Lillesand kommune. Retrieved 5 November 2017.

External links edit