Leninogorsky District

Leninogorsky District (Russian: Лениного́рский райо́н; Tatar: Лениногорск районы, Leninogorsk rayonı[citation needed]) is a territorial administrative unit and municipality of the Republic of Tatarstan within the Russian Federation. The district is located in the southeast of the republic and encompasses an area of 1843.2 square kilometers (about 711.6 sq mi). According to the 2010 census, the municipality had a population of 22,700 people. The main city Leninogorsk is not included within the administrative structure of the district.[4]

Leninogorsky District
Лениногорский район
Other transcription(s)
 • TatarЛениногорск районы
Hill "Mir", Leninogorsky District
Hill "Mir", Leninogorsky District
Flag of Leninogorsky District
Coat of arms of Leninogorsky District
Map
Location of Leninogorsky District in the Republic of Tatarstan
Coordinates: 54°35′38″N 52°18′10″E / 54.59389°N 52.30278°E / 54.59389; 52.30278Coordinates: 54°35′38″N 52°18′10″E / 54.59389°N 52.30278°E / 54.59389; 52.30278
CountryRussia
Federal subjectTatarstan<
Administrative centerLeninogorsk
Area
 • Total1,843.20 km2 (711.66 sq mi)
Population
 • Total22,700
 • Estimate 
(2018)[2]
82,693 (+264.3%)
 • Density12/km2 (32/sq mi)
 • Urban
0%
 • Rural
100%
Administrative structure
 • Inhabited localities66 Rural localities
Municipal structure
 • Municipally incorporated asLeninogorsky Municipal District
 • Municipal divisions1 Urban settlements, 24 Rural settlements
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[3])
OKTMO ID92636000
Websitehttp://leninogorsk.tatarstan.ru/

The settlement of Pismyanka on the site of modern Leninogorsk arose in 1795. In the 19th century, the Novopismyanskaya volost was part of the Bugulminsky county (uyezd) of the Orenburg province, and then subsequently became a part the Samara province. In August 1955, the settlement of Pismyanka which was then part of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, was redesignated as a city and named Leninogorsk in honor of the revolutionary Vladimir Lenin. The Novopismyansky district was renamed to Leninogorsky in concert with these developments.[4]

EtymologyEdit

The Leninogorsk district received its name from the city of Leninogorsk. Until 1955, Leninogorsk was called Novaya Pismyanka, which separated from the village of Pismyanskaya Staraya (also Pismyanka Yasachnaya) in the 19th century. As the geographer Yevgeny Pospelov states, the common toponym Pismyanka comes from the Russian adaptation of the Tatar Pismen or Pichmen, which is often found in the names of rivers and villages in Tatarstan.[5]

Flag and coat of armsEdit

In July 2005, the Council of the Leninogorsky municipal district approved its new heraldic insignia. The visual design of the coat of arms includes a black joist bordered with silver piercing into the green field, and there are two golden flowers tilting in opposite directions at the bottom of the shield. At the top of the coat of arms is a green tulip with a gold contour depicted on a red background.[6][7]

According to official guidelines, the green field with flowers symbolize the geographical features of the southeast of Tatarstan, and indicate a variety of the local flora and fauna. Experts interpret the black joist in different ways: on the one hand, it might be considered as an oil gusher showing the economic prosperity of the area. On the other hand, the shape of the joist can be interpreted as a network of roads and in Leninogorsk as an important industrial and transport hub in the south-east of the republic. The opened tulip crowning the coat of arms demonstrates respect and preservation of national traditions. The flag is based on heraldic elements of the district coat of arms and reproduces the colors of the national flag of Tatarstan. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of 2:3.[6]

Geography and climateEdit

 
Map of oil fields in the region

LocationEdit

The Leninogorsky district is located in the southeast of the Republic of Tatarstan and shares borders with the Almetyevsky district in the north, Bugulminsky in the east, the Cheremshansky district in the west and with the Samara region (Shentalinsky and Klyavlinsky districts) in the south. The district spans 63 km at its widest point and stretchest 33 km between the furthest points on its north-south axis. The district is located in the forest-steppe zone and has a temperate continental climate.[8]

Geological characteristicsEdit

The Leninogorsky district has one of the highest reliefs among the regions of Tatarstan. The topography of the district is diverse and the elevation of terrain features varies widely from 150 to 340 meters, with minimum elevations being recorded in river valleys while the highest points are located on the upper plateau of the Bugulma-Belebey and Shugurov Uplands. The local landscape is characterized by a number of river valleys, ravines and dens. The rivers Sheshma, Stepnoy Zai and their inflows cross through the territory of the district.[9]

The Leninogorsky district has the largest number of springs in the republic at 263, and large deposits of oil, bitumen, limestone, dolomite, sand and gravel, clay and other mineral resources.[9]

Flora and faunaEdit

There are four nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries in the region: the Shugurovsky hunting reserve, the Stepnoy nature reserve, the Sheshma rivers and the Stepnoy Zai. 25% of the district's territory is covered with broad-leaved woodlands with oak, maple, linden and birch growing there. Local forests have a rich grass cover and various types of plants are widespread here, for example, Russian bedstraw, green strawberry, Marshall thyme, feather grass, fescue, fescue, feather grass and other vegetation. In total, there are 110 plant species in the region, some of which are protected species included in the Republic Red List and the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation linear onion, long-leaved gerbil, pale yellow scabiosa and others.[10]

The southeast of Tatarstan is distinguished by a variety of bird and animal fauna. Ornithologists note that 68 species of birds live here. The most widespread is the lark, the rarest are yellow wagtails and the field pipit. Among bird species included in the local Red Book are the burial eagle, quails, partridges, field harriers, meadow harriers, long-eared owls, rough-legged owls, golden bee-eaters and green woodpeckers. The forests of the district are inhabited by the European hare, foxes, European bobak marmots while raccoon dogs and steppe polecats are less commonly encountered. The local fauna also includes rodents such as the common vole, wood mice and bank voles, and protected species from the Red Book of Tatarstan including the steppe mouse and Eversmann's hamster.[10]

HistoryEdit

 
Ufa Province Map
 
Samara Province Map

16th–19th centuriesEdit

Until the 17th century, the south-east of the Kama region remained sparsely populated. According to available archaeological data, the pasture lands on the lands of the modern Leninogorsk region belonged to Muftiari nomads. In 1552, the Kazan Khanate was conquered by Ivan the Terrible and four years later the Bashkirs were also incorporated into the growing Russian state. In 1708 these territories became part of the newly formed Kazan province, which included all the middle and lower Volga and Ural regions.[11]

In the 1730s, the villages of Malaya Bugulma (now the village of Medvedka) and Bolshaya Bugulma (the city of Bugulma) were established as the settlements for soldiers. The boundaries of the region repeatedly changed, and in 1744 these territories were included into the Orenburg province. The borders of the Kazan and Orenburg provinces passed along the Cheremshan River, then descended southeast to Kichuya before ascending northeast to Menzelinsk. In the 1740s, settlers began to move to the lands of the modern Leninogorsk region as a result of the Russification policy pursued by the tsarist government. According to the results of the population census in tsarist Russia carried out in the period from 1744 to 1747, there were only 13 villages in the region (Karataevo, Naderevo, Seitovo, Urmushla, Sary Bikchurovo, Analokovo, Ishtiryak, Karkali, Shugurovo, Toktarovo, Kuakbashevo, Shachili and Izmailovo). However, these villages were not the only settlements in the region, since Christian villages like the Pismyanskaya and Kuvatskaya settlements were not included in the census book of the yasak Tatars. According to the results of the third census of 1761–1762, Kuvatskaya Sloboda had 210 households with a population of 1,083 people, Pismyanskaya Sloboda amounted 109 households with 711 people and Medvedka contained 67 households and 486 people. By that time, new Tatar villages had also appeared, such as Sarabikulovo, Karataevo, Sugushla and Kirligach. In the 1770s, a number of Mordovian and Chuvash villages of Mordovskaya Ivanovka, Karamalka, Kuzaykino and others appeared in these lands.[12]

In 1773–1775 a peasant uprising broke out in the Middle Volga region under the leadership of Yemelyan Pugachev. In October 1773, a riot engulfed Bugulminskoe Vojvodstvo and a total of ten insurgent detachments of about 15 thousand people, armed with 15 cannons occupied the region. After the suppression of the rebellion, a new wave of refugees poured into the territory of the present Leninogorsky district. The villages of Bakirovo, Novy Ishtiryak, Timyashevo, Upper Shirshila, Yultimirovo were subsequently founded as a consequence of this new wave of settlement. In 1775, Catherine the Great initiated an administrative reform and a number of provinces and counties changed their borders. On the basis of these reforms in 1781, the Bugulminsky uyezd was formed which included the territories of modern Leninogorsky, Almetyevsky, Cheremshansky and other districts. In 1781, the Ufa governorship became an independent province, consisting of two regions: Ufa and Orenburg. Eight districts were assigned to Ufa, one of which was the Bugulminsky uyezd.[13][14]

By 1785, about 6,000 people lived on the territory of the future Leninogorsky district. Ten years later, the village of Novaya Pismyanka (future city of Leninogorsk) was established within the Bugulminsky uyezd. By 1797, Tatar villages had grown significantly in population. By that time, the population of Bugulma numbered 359 households with 1858 residents, Medvedka contained 99 households and 870 residents, Sarabikulov held 28 households and 178 residents while Seitovo-Kerligach had 40 households and 227 residents.[15]

The Samara province which incorporated the Bugulminsky uyezd was formed in 1851 as a result of administrative reforms. By 1860 there were 37 settlements with a population of about 22,230 people in the province and already by 1872 the population had increased to 28,929 people. The formation of most of the large settlements of the Bugulma district had been completed by the end of the 19th century. Following the Stolypin reforms, a number of new villages had emerged on the territory of the district by 1905, for example, Novo-Elhovo, Akkul, Novaya Chershila, Maryanovka, Malakhovka, Volzhanka and Stepnoy Zai. Five years later in 1910, 55,015 people were living in this area.[16][17][13]

20th centuryEdit

 
Well No. 1, which produced the first oil of Tatarstan on August 2, 1943

In 1917, the Soviets seized power in Tatarstan. Leninogorsk was one of the battlefields of the Russian Civil War, and the town changed hands several times between the belligerents. In October 1918, the Red Army occupied Bugulma, but the next spring the Bolsheviks were pushed back by White military leader Alexander Kolchak. By mid-May 1919, the city was again under the control of the Bolsheviks.[18]

In 1920, the Bugulminsky uyezd, to which the Novopismyanskaya Sloboda belonged, was transformed into a canton bearing the same name within the Tatar ASSR. A year later, a severe famine broke out in the Volga region visiting great hardship upon residents and killing several million people. In the Bugulminsky canton alone, more than 35 thousand residents died of hunger, including a third of the population of the future Leninogorsky district. To fight hunger and help children, the “Promgol” canteen was organized here.[19]

In 1930 the Tatar ASSR was divided into districts. Instead of the Bugulminsky canton, the Shugurovsky, Bugulminsky, Cheremshansky, Bavlinsky, Almetyevsky and later Aznakaevsky districts were established. At that time, the lands of the modern Leninogorsky districts had been divided between the Bugulminsky and Almetyevsky regions. In the early 1930s, therapeutic mud was discovered in the village of Bakirovo and a resort of the same name was built, and hospitals and first-aid posts began to open on the territory including the Nizhne-Cherchelinskaya outpatient clinic.[20]

In February 1935, the Novopismyansky district was formed, which included the Novo-Pismyansky, Staro-Pismyansky, Zai-Karataevsky, Glazovsky, Mikhailovsky, Ivanovsky, Alyoshkinsky and Gorkinsky village councils. In the 1930s, clubs and libraries, amateur art circles, and a collective farm and state farm theater would all be opened in the district. In 1937, the airport “Bugulma” was built seven kilometers from the village of Staraya Pismyanka. The following year, oil exploration works were carried out in the southeast of Tatarstan. Soon the first settlement of oil workers, Zelyonaya Roshcha appeared in the Leninogorsky district.[13]

At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, about 10 thousand Tatars volunteered to go the front. It has been established that 6,789 soldiers from the Leninogorsk region perished in the war, with 12 of them being awarded honors as Heroes of the Soviet Union — Gilmi Bagautdinov Gilmi, Gazinur Gafiatullin, Ivan Denisov, Ivan Zavarykin, Ibragim Murzin, Samat Sadriev, Grigory Ushpolis, Akram, Islam Khalikov, Misbakh Khaliulin, Evstafiy Yakovlev and Vasily Yanitsky, three more received the title of full holders of the Order of Glory – Gabdulla Matygullin, Mikhail Alaev and Yakov Nikolaev.[21]

Shortages of fuel during the Great Patriotic War led to research expeditions in the south-east of the republic. On August 2, 1943, experts discovered the Shugurovskoye oil field at a depth of about 750 meters. A few weeks later, the first oil gusher with a flow rate of 20 tons per day was established there. By a decree of the Government of the USSR dated March 11, 1944, it was decided to continue exploration work and build an industry on the previously discovered oil field, resulting in the opening of the Shugurovsky enlarged field on May 30, 1945. At the end of January 1947, drilling of well No. 3 began near the village of Timyashevo in the Romashkinskaya area, located 7 km from Novaya Pismyanka. In the same year, the well started producing up to 60 tons of oil per day, then up to 120 tons. Thus, the Romashkinskoye oil field provided a powerful incentive for the development of the regional economy.[13]

In 1950, the Bugulmaneft and Tatburneft trusts were organized, and the construction of a new workers' settlement began. On August 18, 1955, by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, the working settlement Novaya Pismyanka was transformed into a city and received the name of the leader of the revolution — Leninogorsk. Later the Novo-Pismyanskiy region was renamed Leninogorsky. In October 1959, parts of the Shugurovsky district with Staro-Varvarinsky, Spiridonovsky, Mordva-Ivanovsky, Kerligachevsky, Kuzaikinsky, Kuakbashsky, Urmashlinsky, Sarabikulovsky, Nizhne-Chershelinsky, Mordva-Karmalinsky, Staro-Kuvushinsky, Novo-Kuvashinsky , Staro-Ishtiryakovsky, Chutinsky, Novo-Serezhkinsky, Urdalinsky, and Mukmin-Karataevsky village councils along with the Stepno-Zaysky village council merged with the Staro-Pismyansky and Savochkinsky village councils to form the Pismyansky Soviet.[22][13]

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Leninogorsky District is one of the forty-three districts in the republic. The town of Leninogorsk serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as a town of republic significance or an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[4]

As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Leninogorsky Municipal District, with the town of republic significance of Leninogorsk being incorporated within it as the Leninogorsk Urban Settlement.[4]

Currently, the district executive committee is subordinate to the Council, the head of the district and its residents. The main departments of the committee are: the registry office, the department of architecture and urban planning, the department of economics, the sector of guardianship and trusteeship, the public point of law enforcement, the archive and others. Since October 2019, Zulfiya G. Mikhailova has held the position of head of the executive committee. The head of the Leninogorsky municipal district and the mayor of Leninogorsk is Ryagat G. Khusainov.[23]

EconomicsEdit

Current situationEdit

Since the mid-20th century, petroleum has been the leading industry in the Leninogorsky district. In 2019, the region's oil industry produced 3.45 million tons of oil which amounted to 46% of the gross territorial product. Many enterprises in the region are engaged in technical support of the oil and gas industry. Among the largest companies are Leninogorskneft, Lozna, AvtoSpetsOborudovanie, Leninogorskii mekhanicheskii zavod (Leninogorsk Mechanical Plant), Leninogorskii zavod zhelezobetonnykh izdelii (Leninogorsk Reinforced Concrete Plant), Leninogorskii pribornyi zavod (Leninogorsk Instrument Plant), LSK, Geotech, Leninogorskii remontno-mekhanicheskii zavod (Leninogorsk Mechanical Repair plant) and others. There are also several large light manufacturing and food processing enterprises operating in the district.[24] A total of about 566 economically active small and medium-sized businesses are currently operating in the region. The economy of the Leninogorsky district accounts for about 3.5% of the total industrial production of Tatarstan.[25] For the year 2019, the district ranked 12th in terms of socio-economic development among the municipalities of the republic.[26]

Another significant share of the district's income, about 23%, comes from the construction industry. Many enterprises work only in the field of construction of facilities for the oil and gas industry, including Orteks, Uralstroyneft, RosNeftKompleks and other companies.[26]

In the 2010s, the district administration embarked on a course to diversify the regional economy with a special focus on agriculture. By 2020, agricultural land occupied more than 55% of the total land area of the district. Wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, potatoes and other crops are commonly cultivated in the district. Additionally, the livestock industry is among the prevailing sources of revenue for rural commodity producers. Horse breeding is a particularly active sphere of development in the district economy. For example, the horse breeding entrepreneur Farid Nabiullin has been striving for ten years to bring back the disappearing Tatar breed of horses. At the moment, there are only a few hundred remaining representatives of this breed in Tatarstan.[24][27]

Economists have identified mechanical engineering, metallurgical and construction industries as the most attractive targets for investment in the region. The presence of secondary specialized and higher educational institutions, as well as the city's significant share of the working population in the district, determines the human resources potential of Leninogorsk.[28] Within the framework of the republic project “Strategy 2030” aimed at facilitating the socio-economic development of the region, for the next decade, the district administration will try to create a comfortable living environment in cities and towns and improve the population’s living standards.[29][30]

As of January 2020, the number of registered unemployed citizens in the Leninogorsky district was 176, that is, approximately 0.37% of the total workforce. In 2019, the living wage in the district was 8958 rubles, and the average pension was 15,189 rubles, which is 6.2% higher than the previous year.[31][32]

TransportEdit

The Leninogorsk district occupies an advantageous geographical position and is located close to important transport networks. The specific requirements of industrial and agricultural production as well as those of the petroleum industry determined the location of transport routes in the region. Among the most important roads are the federal highway R-239 “Kazan—Orenburg—border with Kazakhstan”, the regional roads “BugulmaLeninogorskShugurovoShentala (to Nurlat, Ulyanovsk)”, “LeninogorskKarabash, Leninogorsk—Almetyevsk” and “Leninogorsk—Aznakayevo, Shugurovo—Sarabikulovo—Cheremshan”, “Almetyevsk—Sarabikulovo”.[33][10]

Settlements are provided with a network of hard-surface roads with a total length of 739 km, 165 km of which are intercity ones. Local highways are serviced by private enterprises, of which 165 km are assigned to the Improvement and Greening Company, 207 km are served by Leninogorsk-Avtodor, and 205 km are served by Tatneftedor.[10]

The “AgryzNaberezhnye ChelnyAkbash” railway runs through the district. Stations and stopping points in the area are: 42 km, Vatan, 35 km, 30 km, Pismyanka (Leninogorsk), 19 km, Yalan, 13 km and 6 km/Akkul. In 2013, the percentage of the district's population living in settlements that do not have bus or rail connections was 1.2%.[34][35]

Social welfare and public lifeEdit

In the Leninogorsky district, medical care is provided by the Leninogorsk central district hospital (CDH), which includes hospitals of the Central District Hospital and Medical Units, the Staro-Kuvakskaya medical outpatient clinic, the Shugurovskaya district hospital, a dental clinic, a children's hospital, a women's consultation center, a maternity hospital, as well as 29 feldsher-obstetric points and health centers.[36][37] In 2020, the Honored Doctor of the Republic of Tatarstan Rim Amerov was appointed to the post of head physician of the Leninogorsk CDH. In November of the same year, additional hospital beds for patients infected by the coronavirus and pneumonia were funded for the Leninogorsk medical unit.[38][39]

As of the 2019/2020 academic year, there were 34 educational institutions attended by 8,582 schoolchildren in the district. The average class size is 23.9 students in the city and 8.2 in the countryside. There are 12 schools offering instruction in the Tatar language in the region, which are attended by more than a thousand students. Three professional education institutions also operate in the region with dormitories designed for 1076 students.[40][35]

The Centralized Library System (CLS) operates in the region, uniting 36 libraries with a total collection of about 735 thousand books and printed publications. The CLS serves over 50 thousand visitors annually.[41]

The sports infrastructure of the district is presented by more than 240 sports facilities, including the Yunost stadium, the Sports Palace, arenas, three ski jumps, the Professional technical creativity club and other facilities. Students of sports schools take an active part in all-Russian and republican competitions. Sports and recreational work is carried out both in children's educational institutions and at enterprises. For instance, the specialists of the “Administration for Youth, Sports and Tourism” organize the Spartakiad among enterprises and educational institutions. In 2016, Leninogorsk became one of the destinations for the competitions of the Student Basketball League.[42] According to the 2016 statistics, about 47% of the Leninogorsk population is regularly engaged in physical activities and sports. In February 2020, a carting competition was held in Leninogorsk, timed to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Tatar ASSR.[43] В феврале 2020-го к Лениногорске прошли соревнования по картингу, приуроченные к 100-летию образования ТАССР и 60-летию ДОСААФ Лениногорска[44]

Attractions and cultureEdit

At different times in Leninogorsk and surrounding areas lived the educator Gabdrakhim Utyz Imyani, the orientalist Riza Fakhretdin, contemporary writers Shamil Bikchurin, Zyamit Rakhimov and other outstanding figures of culture and art. In the Soviet period, twelve Leninogorsk citizens were awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union award for special services, three were awarded the Order of Glory, and twenty-three were awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor.

The city and the region have the Palace of Culture, the Museum of Local Lore, the country's first oil industry museum, parks of culture and recreation and other attractions. There are also 47 obelisks, 16 monuments and 17 sites of historical significance. Traditional festivals are regularly held in the area. For example, the village of Mordovskaya Karmalka organizes the "Baltai" holiday, the village of Novoye Serezhkino hosts a festival of Chuvash culture "Play the accordion!", while the village of Fedotovka revives the Kryashen traditions.

District temples
  • Christian
    • Leninogorsk Holy Trinity Church (built in 1989)
    • Temple-chapel of All Saints in the village of Kamyshla (2000)
    • Chapel of the Holy Great Martyr Paraskeva Pyatnitsa in the village of Staraya Pismyanka (2000)
    • Temple of Archangel Michael in the village of Potapovo-Tumbarla (2002)
    • Temple of the Archangel Michael in the village of Spiridonovka (1889)
    • Temple in honor of the Archangel Michael in the village of Fedotovka (2007)
    • Church of the Life-Giving Trinity in the village of Novaya Pismyanka (1864)
    • Church of the Nativity of Christ in the village of Martynovo (1802)
  • Islamic
    • Mosque "Ikhlas" in Leninogorsk (2006)

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  2. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  3. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d Zigashin, Ivanov & Tomaeva 2015, pp. 184–185.
  5. ^ Pospelov 2002, p. 240.
  6. ^ a b "Лениногорский район" [Leninogorsky District]. TatCenter. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  7. ^ "Решение об утверждении герба Лениногорского муниципального района" [Resolution to approve the coat of arms of the Leninogorsk municipal district]. Территориальная геральдика Республики Татарстан [erritorialnaia geraldika Respubliki Tatarstan]. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  8. ^ Tourist Passport 2018, p. 6.
  9. ^ a b Tourist Passport 2018, pp. 6–7.
  10. ^ a b c d Zigashin, Ivanov & Tomaeva 2015, pp. 184–189.
  11. ^ Nogmanov 2019, pp. 7–8.
  12. ^ Nogmanov 2019, pp. 7–25.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Историческая справка. История г. Лениногорска и Лениногорского района" [Historical Background. History of Leninogorsk and Leninogorsky District]. Лениногорская Централизованная библиотечная система. October 30, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
  14. ^ Burkhanov & Nigamatzyanov 2017, pp. 118–121, 138–139.
  15. ^ Tarkhov 2001, pp. 1–32.
  16. ^ Podkovyrov 1910.
  17. ^ Artemyev 1864.
  18. ^ Gallyamova 2014, pp. 42–44.
  19. ^ Gallyamova 2014, pp. 54–55.
  20. ^ "Санаторий "Бакирово" отметит 85-летие "Юбилейной неделей"" [Sanatorium "Bakirovo" will celebrate the 85th anniversary of the “Jubilee week”]. Tatar-Inform. August 22, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  21. ^ Khakimov 1997.
  22. ^ Minkin 2011, pp. 3–26.
  23. ^ "Хусаинов Рягат Галиагзамович" [Khusainov Riagat Galiagzamovich]. Лениногорский муниципальный район [Leninogorskii munitcipalnyi raion]. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  24. ^ a b "Потенциал муниципалитетов. Лениногорский район" [Potential of municipalities. Leninogorsky District]. Invest Tatarstan. 2019. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  25. ^ "В Лениногорске прошло заседание Совета по итогам социально-экономического развития района в 2019 году и задачах на 2020 год" [Leninogorsk hosted a meeting of the Council on the results of the socio-economic development of the region in 2019 and tasks for 2020]. БезФормата [BezFormata]. February 6, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  26. ^ a b Medyanik 2020, pp. 2489–2490.
  27. ^ Фарид Набиуллин [Farid Nabiullin] (December 17, 2016). ""У нас много богатых татар, которые ради возрождения традиций готовы вкладываться"" [“We have many rich Tatars who are ready to invest for the sake of reviving traditions”]. «БИЗНЕС Online» [BUSINESS Online]. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  28. ^ "Инвестиционный паспорт Лениногорского муниципального района Республики Татарстан" [Investment passport of the Leninogorsk municipal district of the Republic of Tatarstan] (PDF). Invest Tatarstan. 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  29. ^ "Татарстан 2030]". Татарстан 2030 [Tatarstan 2030]. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  30. ^ "Стратегия развития Лениногорского муниципального района до 2030 года" [Development strategy of the Leninogorsky municipal district until 2030]. Лениногорский муниципальный район. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  31. ^ "Ситуация на рынке труда Лениногорского района на 01.03.2020 года" [The situation on the labor market in the Leninogorsky district as of 03/01/2020]. Работа России. Портал государственной службы занятости Республики Татарстан [Rabota Rossii. Portal gosudarstvennoi sluzhby zaniatosti Respubliki Tatarstan]. March 4, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  32. ^ Medyanik 2020, pp. 2489–2504.
  33. ^ Tourist Passport 2018, pp. 3–4.
  34. ^ "Железнодорожная линия Акбаш-Агрыз" [Akbash-Agryz railway line]. Сайт о железной дороге [Sait o zheleznoi doroge]. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  35. ^ a b "Доклад Хусаинова Рягата Галиагзамовича Главы Лениногорского района о достигнутых значениях показателей для оценки эффективности деятельности органов местного самоуправления городских округов и муниципальных районов за 2010 и их планируемых значениях на трёхлетний период" [Report of Ryagat Galiagzamovich Khusainov, Head of the Leninogorsky District, on the achieved values of indicators for assessing the effectiveness of local government bodies in urban districts and municipal districts in 2010 and their planned values for a three-year period]. Лениногорский муниципальный район [Leninogorskii munitcipalnyi raion]. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  36. ^ "ГАУЗ "Лениногорская ЦРБ"" [GAUZ "Leninogorskaya Central District Hospital"]. Портал здравоохранения Республики Татарстан [Portal zdravoohraneniya Respubliki Tatarstan]. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  37. ^ "В Бугульме и Лениногорске сменили главврачей ЦРБ" [In Bugulma and Leninogorsk, the head doctors of the Central Regional Hospital were replaced]. «Бизнес Online» [BUSINESS Online]. August 14, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  38. ^ "В Лениногорске создали дополнительные места для пациентов с Covid-19" [Additional places for Covid-19 patients created in Leninogorsk]. Tatar-Inform. November 17, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  39. ^ "Представление нового главного врача ГАУЗ "Лениногорская ЦРБ"" [Presentation of the new chief physician of GAUZ "Leninogorskaya CDH"]. ГАУЗ “Лениногорская Центральная районная больница” Республики Татарстан. August 13, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  40. ^ "Муниципальное казённое учреждение "Управление образования" ИКМО "Лениногорский муниципальный район" Республики Татарстан. Татарстан Республикасы "Лениногорск муниципаль районы" муниципаль берәмлеге "Мәгариф идарәсе" муниципаль учреждениесе" [Municipal government institution "Education Department" IKMO "Leninogorsky Municipal District" of the Republic of Tatarstan]. Электронное образование Республики Татарстан [Elektronnoe obrazovanie Respubliki Tatarstan]. 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  41. ^ "Лениногорская центральная библиотека имени Габдуллы Тукая" [Leninogorsk Central Library named after Gabdulla Tukai]. Культура.РФ [Kultura.RF]. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  42. ^ Materials 2017, pp. 28–36.
  43. ^ ""Наше будущее зависит от нас самих". Республика Татарстан: С пути не сойдём" ["Our future depends on ourselves." Republic of Tatarstan: We will not leave the path]. Спортивный клуб “Летающий лыжник” [Sportivnyi klub “Letaiushchii lyzhnik”]. March 12, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  44. ^ "В Лениногорске пройдут соревнования по картингу" [Karting competitions to be held in Leninogorsk]. Газета Республика Татарстан [Gazeta Respublika Tatarstan]. February 7, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.

SourcesEdit

  • 6 ноября 1992 г. «Конституция Республики Татарстан», в ред. Закона №79-ЗРТ от 22 ноября 2010 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 65 и 76 Конституции Республики Татарстан». Опубликован: "Ведомости Верховного Совета Татарстана", №9–10, ст. 166, 1992. (November 6, 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan, as amended by the Law #79-ZRT of November 22, 2010 On Amending Articles 65 and 76 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan. ).
  • Государственный Совет Республики Татарстан. Закон №34-ЗРТ от 31 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ территорий и статусе муниципального образования "Лениногорский муниципальный район" и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Закона №139-ЗРТ от 30 декабря 2014 г. «Об изменении границ территорий отдельных муниципальных образований и внесении изменений в Закон Республики Татарстан "Об установлении границ территорий и статусе муниципального образования "Лениногорский муниципальный район" и муниципальных образований в его составе"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Республика Татарстан", №№18–19, 1 февраля 2005 г. (State Council of the Republic of Tatarstan. Law #34-ZRT of January 31, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Territories and the Status of the Municipal Formation of "Leninogorsky Municipal District" and of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #139-ZRT of December 30, 2014 On Changing the Borders of the Territory of Several Municipal Formations and on Amending the Law of the Republic of Tatarstan "On Establishing the Borders of the Territories and the Status of the Municipal Formation of "Leninogorsky Municipal District" and of the Municipal Formations It Comprises". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Министерство юстиции Республики Татарстан. Приказ №01-02/9 от 4 февраля 2014 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов в Республике Татарстан», в ред. Приказа №01-02/160 от 11 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Приказ Министерства юстиции Республики Татарстан от 04.02.2014 №01-02/9 "Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов в Республике Татарстан"». Опубликован: Официальный сайт правовой информации Министерства юстиции Республики Татарстан (http://pravo.tatarstan.ru), 27 февраля 2014 г. (Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Tatarstan. Order #01-02/9 of February 4, 2014 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Inhabited Localities in the Republic of Tatarstan, as amended by the Order #01-02/160 of March 11, 2015 On Amending the Order of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Tatarstan #01-02/9 of February 4, 2014 "On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Inhabited Localities in the Republic of Tatarstan". ).
  • Государственный Совет Республики Татарстан. Закон №116-ЗРТ от 7 декабря 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Татарстан», в ред. Закона №54-ЗРТ от 2 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 14 Закона Республики Татарстан "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Татарстан"». Вступил в силу через три месяца со дня официального опубликования, за исключением части второй статьи 31, которая вступает в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Республика Татарстан", №247, 10 декабря 2005 г. (State Council of the Republic of Tatarstan. Law #116-ZRT of December 7, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Tatarstan, as amended by the Law #54-ZRT of July 2, 2015 On Amending Article 14 of the Law of the Republic of Tatarstan "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Tatarstan". Effective as of the day which is three months after the day of the official publication, with the exception of part two of Article 31, which takes effect on the day of the official publication.).

BibliographyEdit