Khalkhal, Iran

Khalkhal (Persian: خلخال, Khalkhāl; formerly and local, Herowabad, Azerbaijani: هیرو, Hirow, Persian: هروآباد, also Romanized as Khalkhāl; formerly, Herowabad also Romanized as Herowābād, Harowabad, Herauabad, Heroābād, and Hirābād; also formerly, Herow, also Romanized as Harau and Herau)[2] is a city in the Central District of Khalkhal County, Ardabil province, Iran, and serves as capital of the county. The majority of population speaks Azeri. At the 2006 census, its population was 38,521 in 9,619 households.[3] The following census in 2011 counted 41,165 people in 11,213 households.[4] The latest census in 2016 showed a population of 39,304 people in 11,501 households.[1]

هیرو • Hirow
City view
City view
Khalkhal is located in Iran
Coordinates: 37°37′38″N 48°31′48″E / 37.62722°N 48.53000°E / 37.62722; 48.53000Coordinates: 37°37′38″N 48°31′48″E / 37.62722°N 48.53000°E / 37.62722; 48.53000
 • Total39,304
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Khalkhal, Iran at GEOnet Names Server

Etymology and historyEdit

According to Vladimir Minorsky, the name Khalkhāl may indicate a connection with the ancient Kharkhar kingdom, which existed somewhere in the eastern Zagros Mountains in Neo-Assyrian times.[5]: 62 

The 14th-century author Hamdallah Mustawfi listed Khalkhal in his Nuzhat al-Qulub as forming part of the tuman of Ardabil.[6] He described it as "formerly a fair-sized town" that had declined to a mere village by his time.[6] He wrote that Khalkhal had succeeded the earlier city of Firuzabad as the capital of its province after Firuzabad itself had declined.[6] Mustawfi wrote that the Khalkhal province comprised about 100 villages and had four districts: Khāmidah-Bīl, Sajasrūd, Anjīlābād, and Mīsjīn.[6] It was assessed for a tax value of 30,000 dinars.[6] Water from a spring on a nearby mountain powered two watermills, which provided enough irrigation for the surrounding fields.[6] Mustawfi said its pastures were "excellent" and hunting grounds were "numerous and well-stocked with game" and wrote that the district was known for producing yogurt (māst) that was "so thick it has to be cut with a knife, as though it were cheese".[6]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 24. Archived from the original (Excel) on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  2. ^ Khalkhal, Iran can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3070479" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 24. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  4. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)" (Excel). Iran Data Portal (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 24. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  5. ^ Minorsky, Vladimir (1957). "Mongol Place-Names in Mukri Kurdistan". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 19 (1): 58–81. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Hamdallah Mustawfi (1919). Le Strange, Guy (ed.). The Geographical Part of the Nuzhat-al-Qulub. p. 84. Retrieved 10 October 2022.