Jund Filasṭīn (Arabic: جُنْد فِلَسْطِيْن, "the military district of Palestine") was one of the military districts of the Umayyad and Abbasid province of Bilad al-Sham (Levant), organized soon after the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 630s. Jund Filastin, which encompassed most of Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Tertia, included the newly established city of Ramla as its capital and eleven administrative districts (kura), each ruled from a central town.
|Province of the Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid Caliphates|
|630s–late 11th century|
Arab Syria (Bilad al-Sham) and its provinces under the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century
|Capital||c. 630s–c. 715: Jerusalem and Ludd (likely dual capitals) |
c. 715–1099: Ramla
|late 11th century|
|Today part of||Israel|
The Muslim conquest of Palestine is difficult to reconstruct, according to the historian Dominique Sourdel. It is generally agreed that the Qurayshite commander Amr ibn al-As was sent to conquer the area by Caliph Abu Bakr, likely in 633. Amr traversed the Red Sea coast of the Hejaz (western Arabia), reached the port town of Ayla at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba, then crossed into the Negev Desert or further west into the Sinai Peninsula. He then arrived to the villages of Dathin and Badan near Gaza, where he entered negotiations with the Byzantine garrison commander. The talks collapsed and the Muslims bested the Byzantines in the subsequent clash at Dathin in February or March 634. At this stage of the conquest Amr's troops encamped at Ghamr al-Arabat in the middle of the Araba Valley between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. The town of Gaza was left alone, with Amr's primary objective at the time being the subjugation of the Arab tribes in the vicinity.
After the Muslims armies led by Khalid ibn al-Walid captured Bosra in the Hauran in May 634 they crossed the Jordan River to reinforce Amr as he faced a large Byzantine army. In the ensuing Battle of Ajnadayn, fought at a site 25 kilometers (16 mi) southwest of Jerusalem in July or August, the Muslims under Amr's overall command routed the Byzantines. In the aftermath of Ajnadayn, Amr captured the towns of Sebastia, Nablus, Lydda, Yibna, Amwas, Bayt Jibrin and Jaffa. Most of these towns fell after minor resistance, hence the scant information available about them in the sources.
Following the decisive Muslim victory against the Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmouk (636), fought along the Yarmouk tributary of the Jordan River east of Palestine, Amr besieged Jerusalem, which held out until the arrival of Caliph Umar, to whom Jerusalem's leaders surrendered in 637. The coastal towns of Gaza, Ascalon and Caesarea had continued to hold out. The commander Alqama ibn Mujazziz may have been sent against Byzantine forces in Gaza a number of times during and after Ajnadayn. Amr launched his conquest of Egypt from Jerusalem c. 640. Caesarea was besieged for a lengthy period and captured most likely by Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan in 639, 640 or 641. Not long after, Mu'awiya captured Ascalon, completing the conquest of Palestine, most of which had been undertaken by Amr.
Filastin became one of the four original junds (military districts) of Bilad al-Sham (Islamic Syria) established by Caliph Umar. In effect the Muslims maintained the preexisting administrative organization of the Byzantine district of Palaestina Prima.
The Umayyad period (661–750) was a relatively prosperous period for Filastin and the Umayyad caliphs invested considerably in the district's development. According to Sourdel, "Palestine was particularly honoured in the Umayyad period". The first Umayyad caliph, Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, who held overall authority over Syria, including Palestine, from the reign of Caliph Uthman (r. 644–656), was initially recognized as caliph in a ceremony in Jerusalem.
At its greatest extent, Filastin extended from Rafah in the south to Lajjun in the north, and from the Mediterranean coast well to the east of the southern part of the Jordan River. The mountains of Edom, and the town of Zoar (Sughar) at the southeastern end of the Dead Sea were included in the district. However, the Galilee was excluded, being part of Jund al-Urdunn in the north. Filastin roughly comprised the regions of Samaria, Judea, and the adjacent Mediterranean coastal plain from Mount Carmel in the north to Gaza in the south.
According to al-Baladhuri, the main towns of Filastin, following its conquest by the Rashidun Caliphate, were, from south to north, Rafah, Gaza, Bayt Jibrin, Yibna, Amwas, Lydda, Jaffa, Nablus, Sebastia, and Caesarea. Under Byzantine rule the port city of Caesarea was the territory's capital, a natural choice as it eased communications with the capital Constantinople. After the Muslim conquest, the administrative focus shifted to the interior. Amwas was referred to as a qasaba in the early Islamic sources; the term could refer to a central town, but most likely meant a fortified camp in the case of Amwas. It served as the principal military camp of the Muslim troops, where spoils were divided and stipends paid, until it was abandoned by the troops in 639 due to the plague of Amwas. From about 640 Ludd and/or Jerusalem have been determined as the capital or political-religious center of Filastin, according to modern historians.[a]
After the caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik founded the city of Ramla next to Ludd, he designated it the capital, and most of Ludd's inhabitants were forced to settle there. In the 9th century, during Abbasid rule, Jund Filastin was the most fertile of Syria's districts, and contained at least twenty mosques, despite its small size.
After the Fatimids conquered the district from the Abbasids, Jerusalem eventually became the capital, and the principal towns were Ascalon, Ramla, Gaza, Arsuf, Caesarea, Jaffa, Jericho, Nablus, Bayt Jibrin, and Amman. The district persisted in some form until the Seljuk invasions and the Crusades of the late 11th century.
At the time of the Arab conquest, the region had been inhabited mainly by Aramaic-speaking Miaphysite Christian peasants. The population of the region did not become predominantly Muslim and Arab in identity until several centuries after the conquest. The principal Arab tribes which settled Filastin and formed its army were the Lakhm, Judham, Kinana, Khath'am, Khuza'a, and Azd Sarat.
The governors of Jund Filastin:
- Amr ibn al-As and Alqama ibn Mujazziz al-Kinani (634–639; they were assigned as the commanders in charge of Filastin by Caliph Abu Bakr)
- Alqama ibn Mujazziz al-Kinani (639–641 or 644; when Amr left Filastin to conquer Egypt, Alqama was left as governor. One version in the Islamic tradition placed his death in 641, while another held that he was governor at the death of Caliph Umar in 644 According to one version Umar made Alqama governor of half of Filastin from his seat in Jerusalem, while Alqama ibn Hakim al-Kinani was appointed over the other half of Palestine from Ramla—Lydda is most likely meant here. This division may have been done following the plague of Amwas in 639.)
- Abd al-Rahman ibn Alqama al-Kinani (c. 644–645 or 646; governed for undetermined period during the reign of Umar's successor Caliph Uthman in 644–656)
- Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan (645 or 646–661; appointed by Caliph Uthman after the death of Abd al-Rahman ibn Alqama; he was already governor of the junds of Dimashq and al-Urdunn under Umar was given authority over Jund Hims by Uthman)
- Al-Harith ibn Abd al-Azdi (673/74–676/77; governed during the reign of Caliph Mu'awiya I)
- Hassan ibn Malik ibn Bahdal al-Kalbi (677?–684, governed during the reign of Caliph Mu'awiya I, the latter's son and Hassan's cousin Yazid I, and Yazid's son Mu'awiya II)
- Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685–685; governed for his father Caliph Marwan I, succeeded the latter as caliph later in 685; his caliphal accession was in Jerusalem)
- Rawh ibn Zinba al-Judhami (685–685; served as deputy governor for Abd al-Malik)
- Yahya ibn al-Hakam (governed for undetermined period in 685–694 for his nephew Caliph Abd al-Malik; inscription on a milestone dated to 692 was found at Samakh crediting him for a roadwork at Fiq, both places in neighboring Jund al-Urdunn; his tombstone was found near Katzrin, in Jund al-Urdunn)
- Aban ibn Marwan (governed for undetermined period during the rule of his brother Caliph Abd al-Malik)
- Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik (pre-705–715; governed for part of his father Caliph Abd al-Malik's reign and the full reign of his brother al-Walid I: continued to rule from Palestine, either from Ramla or Jerusalem, until later moving to Jund Qinnasrin)
- Nadr ibn Yarim ibn Ma'dikarib ibn Abraha ibn al-Sabbah (717–720; governed during the reign of Caliph Umar II; a chief of the Himyar nobility of Jund Hims)
- Sa'id ibn Abd al-Malik (February 743–April 744; governed during the reign of his nephew Caliph al-Walid II)
- Yazid ibn Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik (744–744; rebel governor installed by the troops of Palestine led by Rawh ibn Zinba's son Sa'id, who expelled Yazid's uncle Sa'id ibn Abd al-Malik)
- Dab'an ibn Rawh ibn Zinba al-Judhami (744–745; appointed by Caliph Yazid III after the surrender of the rebel troops of Palestine)
- Thabit ibn Nu'aym al-Judhami (745–745; was chosen by the troops of Palestine as their governor and swore allegiance to Caliph Marwan II before rebelling against him shortly after)
- Al-Rumahis ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Kinani (745–750; appointed governor by Marwan II during Thabit's revolt and continued in office until the Abbasid Revolution)[b]
- Salih ibn Ali (751–753; governed during the reign of his nephew Caliph al-Saffah)
- Abd al-Wahhab ibn Ibrahim (–775)
- Nasr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath al-Khuza'i (777–777; governed during the reign of Caliph al-Mahdi but reassigned to Sind in the same year)
- Ibrahim ibn Salih (–780)
- Al-Fadl ibn Rawh ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi (–787)
- Ibrahim ibn Salih (787–)
- Harthama ibn A'yan (–796; a mawla of the Banu Dabba tribe; reassigned to Egypt).
- Sulayman ibn Abi Ja'far (809–811; appointed by his great nephew Caliph al-Amin, his governorship included Damascus and Homs)
- Bugha al-Saghir (863–; appointed by Caliph al-Musta'in)
- The historians Guy le Strange, Moshe Gil, Muhammad Adnan Bakhit, and N. Hamash considered Ludd the capital before the founding of Ramla, while Goitein and Amikam Elad considered Jerusalem as the district's political-religious center before Ramla's founding.
- In another version, a man of the Judham, Dab'an ibn Rawh ibn Zinba's son al-Hakam, seized power in Palestine in 750 during the Abbasid Revolution, after which Caliph Marwan II, who had entered the district during his flight to Egypt, appointed another al-Hakam's uncle, Abd Allah ibn Yazid ibn Rawh, but he was unable to wrest power from al-Hakam.
- Avni, Gideon (2014). "Shifting Paradigms for the Byzantine–Islamic Transition". The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An Archaeological Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199684335.
- Sourdel 1965, p. 910.
- Donner 1981, p. 115.
- Wensinck 1960, p. 451.
- Donner 1981, p. 116.
- Donner 1981, p. 129.
- Sourdel 1965, pp. 910–911.
- Donner 1981, p. 153.
- Sourdel 1965, p. 911.
- Donner 1981, pp. 139, 152–153.
- Lecker 1989, p. 30, note 61.
- Luz 1997, p. 27.
- Luz 1997, p. 28.
- Estakhri quoted by Le Strange, G. (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. pp. 25–30. OCLC 1004386.
- Luz 1997, p. 30.
- Crone 1980, p. 225, note 210.
- Blankinship 1993, p. 87.
- Blankinship 1993, p. 87, note 489.
- Humphreys 1990, p. 73.
- Luz 1997, pp. 30–31.
- Friedmann 1992, pp. 192–193.
- Humphreys 1990, p. 74.
- Humphreys 1990, pp. 72–74.
- Crone 1980, p. 227, note 235.
- Gundelfinger & Verkinderen 2020, p. 264.
- Mayer 1952, p. 185.
- Elad 1999, p. 24.
- Crone 1980, p. 100.
- Crone 1980, p. 125.
- Sharon 1966, pp. 370–371.
- Sharon 2004, pp. 230–232.
- Crone 1980, p. 124.
- Crone 1980, pp. 125–126.
- Eisener 1997, p. 892.
- Kennedy 2004, pp. 105–106.
- Crone 1980, p. 127.
- Gil 1997, p. 84.
- Crone 1980, p. 129.
- Hillenbrand 1989, p. 190.
- Hillenbrand 1989, p. 193.
- Williams 1985, p. 3.
- Williams 1985, pp. 6, 170.
- Williams 1985, p. 171.
- Williams 1985, pp. 198, 204, 208.
- Gil 1997, p. 842.
- Crone 1980, p. 185.
- Gil 1997, pp. 284, 842.
- Crone 1980, p. 177.
- Saliba 1985, p. 13.
- Kennedy 2004, p. 289.
- Blankinship, Khalid Yahya, ed. (1993). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume XI: The Challenge to the Empires. SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0851-3.
- Crone, Patricia (1980). Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52940-9.
- Eisener, R. (1997). "Sulaymān b. ʿAbd al-Malik". In Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. & Lecomte, G. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Volume IX: San–Sze. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 821–822. ISBN 978-90-04-10422-8.
- Donner, Fred M. (1981). The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05327-8.
- Elad, Amikam (1999). Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic Worship: Holy Places, Ceremonies, Pilgrimage (2nd ed.). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-10010-5.
- Friedmann, Yohanan, ed. (1992). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume XII: The Battle of al-Qādisīyyah and the Conquest of Syria and Palestine. SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0733-2.
- Gil, Moshe (1997) . A History of Palestine, 634–1099. Translated by Ethel Broido. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59984-9.
- Gundelfinger, Simon; Verkinderen, Peter (2020). "The Governors of al-Sham and Fars in the Early Islamic Empire - A Comparative Regional Perspective". In Hagemann, Hannah-Lena; Heidemann, Stefan (eds.). Elites — Connecting the Early Islamic Empire. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 255–330. ISBN 978-3-11-066648-9.
- Hawting, Gerald R. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750 (Second ed.). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24072-7.
- Hillenbrand, Carole, ed. (1989). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume XXVI: The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate: Prelude to Revolution, A.D. 738–744/A.H. 121–126. SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-810-2.
- Humphreys, R. Stephen, ed. (1990). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume XV: The Crisis of the Early Caliphate: The Reign of ʿUthmān, A.D. 644–656/A.H. 24–35. SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0154-5.
- Kennedy, Hugh (2004). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century (Second ed.). Harlow: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-40525-7.
- Lecker, Michael (1989). "The Estates of 'Amr b. al-'Āṣ in Palestine: Notes on a New Negev Arabic Inscription". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 52 (1): 24–37. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00023041. JSTOR 617911. S2CID 163092638.
- Luz, Nimrod (April 1997). "The Construction of an Islamic City in Palestine. The Case of Umayyad al-Ramla". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 7 (1): 27–54. doi:10.1017/S1356186300008300. JSTOR 25183294. S2CID 163178178.
- Mayer, L. A. (1952). "As-Sinnabra". Israel Exploration Society. 2 (3): 183–187. JSTOR 27924483.
- Saliba, George, ed. (1985). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume XXXV: The Crisis of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphate: The Caliphates of al-Mustaʿīn and al-Muʿtazz, A.D. 862–869/A.H. 248–255. SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-883-7.
- Sharon, Moshe (June 1966). "An Arabic Inscription from the Time of the Caliph 'Abd al-Malik". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 29 (2): 367–372. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00058900. S2CID 162899475.
- Sharon, Moshe (2004). Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae (CIAP): D-F. Volume Three. Leiden and Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-04-13197-3.
- Sourdel, D. (1965). "Filasṭīn — I. Palestine under Islamic Rule". In Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. & Schacht, J. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Volume II: C–G. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 910–913. OCLC 495469475.
- Williams, John Alden, ed. (1985). The History of al-Ṭabarī, Volume XXVII: The ʿAbbāsid Revolution, A.D. 743–750/A.H. 126–132. SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-884-4.
- Wensinck, A. J. (1960). "ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ al-Sahmī". In Gibb, H. A. R.; Kramers, J. H.; Lévi-Provençal, E.; Schacht, J.; Lewis, B. & Pellat, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Volume I: A–B. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 451. OCLC 495469456.