Juǀʼhoan (also rendered Zhuǀʼhõa, Dzuǀʼoa, Zû-ǀhoa, JuǀʼHoan), also known as Southern or Southeastern !Kung (Southeastern Ju), is the southern variety of the !Kung dialect continuum, spoken in northeastern Namibia and the Northwest District of Botswana. Several regional dialects are distinguished: Epukiro, Tsumkwe, Rundu, Omatako and ǂKxʼauǁʼein, with Tsumkwe being the best described. The name "Juǀʼhoan" may be used specifically for the Tsumkwe dialect, though speakers of all dialects identify themselves as Juǀʼhoansi.
|Native to||Namibia, Botswana|
|Region||near border with Angola|
|Oral vowels||Nasal vowels|
- /a/ is realized as [ə] before /i/.
- The diphthong /oa/ may be realized as [wa].
Juǀʼhoan has four tones and five vowel qualities, which may be nasalized, glottalized, murmured, or combinations of these, and most of these possibilities occur both long and short. The qualities /a/ and /o/ may also be pharyngealized and strident (epiglottalized). Thus, there are a good 30 vowel phonemes, perhaps more, depending on one's analysis. There are, in addition, many vowel sequences and diphthongs.
Juǀʼhoan has an unusually large number of consonants, as typical for !Kung. The following occur at the beginnings of roots. For brevity, only the alveolar clicks are listed with the other consonants; the complete set of clicks is found below.
|ejective / glottalized||tsʼ||tʃʼ||kxʼ||ᵑǃˀ|
Tenuis and modally voiced consonants (blue) may occur with any vowel quality. However, other consonants (grey, transcribed with a superscript diacritic to their right) do not occur in the same root as murmured, glottalized, or epiglottalized vowels.
The prevoiced aspirated and ejective consonants, both pulmonic and clicks, contain a voiceless interval, which Miller (2003) attributes to a larger glottal opening than is found in Hindustani breathy-voiced consonants. Phonetically, however, they are voice contours, starting out voiced but becoming voiceless for the aspiration or ejection.
The phonemic status of [ʔ], [dz] and [dʒ] is uncertain. [ʔ] may be epenthetic before vowel-initial words; alternatively, it may be that no word may begin with a vowel. /mʱ/ occurs only in a single morpheme, the plural diminutive enclitic /mʱi/. /f/ and /l/ (not shown) only occur in loan words, and some accounts posit a /j/ and /w/. Labials (/p, pʰ, b, b͡pʰ, m/) are very rare initially, though β̞ is common between vowels. Velar stops (oral and nasal) are rare initially and very rare medially.
The uvulo-ejective consonants are analyzed as epiglottalized in Miller-Ockhuizen (2003). They have uvular frication and glottalization, and are similar to consonants in Nǀu described as uvular ejective by Miller et al. (2009). Their epiglottal character may be a phonetic consequence of the raised larynx involved in making them ejective.
Only a small set of consonants occur between vowels within roots. These are:
Medial [β̞, ɾ, m, n] (green) are very common; [ɣ, ŋ] are rare, and the other medial consonants occur in only a very few roots, many of them loans. [β̞, ɾ, ɣ] are generally analyzed as allophones of /b, d, ɡ/. However, [ɾ] especially may correspond to multiple root-initial consonants.
Juǀʼhoan has 48 click consonants. There are four click "types": dental, lateral, alveolar, and palatal, each of which found in twelve series or "accompaniments" (combinations of manner, phonation, and contour). These are perfectly normal consonants in Juǀʼhoan, and indeed are preferred over non-clicks in word-initial position.
|'noisy' clicks||'sharp' clicks||series|
|ǀᵡʼ||ǁᵡʼ||ǃᵡʼ||ǂᵡʼ||Epiglottalized (heterorganic contour)|
As above, tenuis and modally voiced consonants (blue) may occur with any vowel quality. However, other consonants (grey, transcribed with a superscript diacritic to their right) do not occur in the same root as murmured, glottalized, or epiglottalized vowels.
Glottalized clicks occur almost exclusively before nasal vowels. This suggests they are nasalized, as in most if not all other languages with glottalized clicks. The nasalization would not be audible during the click itself due to the glottalization, which would prevent any nasal airflow, but the velum would be lowered, potentially nasalizing adjacent vowels.
The 'uvularized' clicks are actually linguo-pulmonic contours, [ǃ͡qχ], etc. The 'uvulo-ejective' clicks are heterorganic affricates, and equivalent to linguo-glottalic consonants transcribed [ǃ͡kxʼ], etc., in other languages (Miller 2011).
See Ekoka !Kung for a related variety with a somewhat larger click inventory.
Juǀʼhoan is the only variety of !Kung to be written. Three orthographies have been used over the past half century, two based on pipe letters for clicks and one using only the basic Latin alphabet.
In the 1960s the South African Department of Education set about establishing official orthographies for the languages of Southwest Africa (Namibia). Jan Snyman was selected to develop an orthography for the then-unwritten Juǀʼhoasi, which was accepted in 1969. In this orthography, the name of the language is spelled Žuǀʼhõasi. A slightly modified form (Snyman 1975) is shown below.
In the 1980s the Bible Society of South Africa requested a new orthography, one that used only letters of the Latin alphabet, avoided diacritics as much as possible, and conformed as much as possible to the conventions of Afrikaans. This second orthography was accepted in 1987, in which the language is spelled Zjuc'hôa.
A third orthography was developed by the Ju|wa Bushman Development Foundation in 1994. This is the orthography that is currently in use in Namibia,, there does not seem to be any publication in Botswana.
The three orthographies, along with the IPA, are compared below. Tone is evidently unmarked.
|Labial plosives||Alveolar plosives||Velar plosives||Alveolar affricates||Postalveolar affricates|
|Dental clicks||Alveolar clicks|
|Palatal clicks||Lateral clicks|
The modern (1994) orthography also has ih, eh, ah, oh, uh for breathy (murmured) vowels, and ihn, ahn, ohn, uhn for breathy nasal vowels. However, Snyman maintains that these are positional variants of low-tone vowels, and not needed in an orthography (at least, not if tone were marked). Glottalized vowels are written with an apostrophe i all three orthographies.
Source: Dickens (2009).
Nouns and pronounsEdit
Nouns are grouped into noun classes based on animacy and species, with each class having a pronoun-set. The plural is formed by the suffixing of -si or -sín or by no change, -Ø. Many nouns have irregular plurals, such as jù (person, plural jú).
For example, the noun gǂhòà, "dog", belongs to class 2, and may be referred to with the pronoun ha, whereas gǀúí, "forest", belongs to class 5, which has ká as its corresponding pronoun.
The noun classes and their pronoun-sets are as follows:
|1||ha (sg); sá (dual); hì, sì (pl)||mà (sg); hìsì (pl)||ǁʼàhaà (sg); ǁʼàsà (dual); ǁʼàsìsà, ǁʼàhìsà (pl)||jù "person"|
|2||ha (sg); hì (pl)||mà (sg); hìsì (pl)||ǁʼàhaà (sg); ǁʼàhìsà (pl)||gǂhòà "dog"|
|3||ha (sg & pl)||mà (sg); màsì (pl)||ǁʼàhaà (sg & pl)||ǁxòè "meteor"|
|4||hì (sg & pl)||hì (sg); hìsì (pl)||ǁʼàhìà (sg); ǁʼàhìsà (pl)||gǁùú, "meteor"|
|5||ká (sg & pl)||gá (sg); gásì (pl)||ǁʼàkáà (sg); ǁʼàkásà (pl)||gǀúí "forest"|
Personal and demonstrative pronouns are:
|Singular||Dual incl.||Dual excl.||Plural incl.||Plural excl.|
|1st||mí||mtsá||ètsá||m, m!á||è, è!á|
|2nd||à; há (hort.)||ìtsá||ì, ì!á|
|3rd||ha (n1-3), hì (n4), ká (n5)||sá (n1)||hì (n1-2), sì (n1)|
Common words and phrasesEdit
- ján ǀàm – Good day
- ǂxáí – Good morning
- ǁáú tzà – Good evening
- gǁàán - Good afternoon
- à ján – How are you?
- ǁáú gè – Goodbye
- jù - person
- jú - people
- gǃú, dohmsoan - water
- nǃaisi u - Bon Voyage
- E nǁurì tè kxóní ǀʼùrì ǃóm
- we try and fix bicycle wheel
- 'We tried to fix the bicycle wheel.'
- Uto dchuun-a ǀKaece ko nǃama nǃang
- car hit-TRANS ǀKaece LK road in
- 'A car hit ǀKaece in the road'
- Besa komm ǁʼama-ǀʼan Oba ko tcisi
- Besa EMPH buy-give Oba LK things
- 'Besa bought Oba some things'
- dshau nǂai ʻm-a ha daʼabi ko mari
- woman cause eat-TRANS her child LK mealie meal
- 'The woman fed her child mealie meal.' (Dickens 2005:84)
- mi ba ǁohm-a ǃaihn ko ǀʼai
- my father chop-TRANS tree LK axe
- 'My father chopped the tree with an axe.'
- Dickens, Patrick J. (2005) A Concise Grammar of Ju|ʼhoan With a Ju|ʼhoan-English Glossary and a Subject Index, ISBN 978-3-89645-145-3, Rüdiger Köppe Verlag: Köln.
- Miller-Ockhuizen, Amanda (2003) The phonetics and phonology of gutturals: case study from Ju/'hoansi. Psychology Press.
- Snyman, Jan W. (1975) Zuǀʼhõasi Fonologie en Woordeboek. Cape Town: AA Balkema.
- Snyman, Jan W. (1983) 'Zuǀʼhõasi, a Khoisan Dialect of South West Africa/Namibia', in Dihoff, Ivan R. (ed.) Current Approaches to African Linguistics Vol 1, 115–125.
- Snyman, Jan W. (1997) 'A preliminary classification of the ǃXũũ and Zuǀʼhõasi Dialects', in Haacke, W.H.G. & Elderkin, E.D. (eds.) Namibian Languages: Reports and Papers. (Namibian African Studies, 4). Köln: Rüdiger Köppe, 21–106.
- Snyman, Jan W. (n.d.) An Official Orthography for Žu|'hõasi Kokx'oi. Pretoria.
- International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: AAVE-Esperanto. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. 2003. ISBN 9780195139778.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "South-Eastern Ju". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 63, 80–81. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Coordination and Subordination: Form and Meaning—Selected Papers from CSI Lisbon 2014. Fernanda Pratas, Sandra Pereira, Clara Pinto, 2014
- Africa's Endangered Languages: Documentary and Theoretical Approaches. Jason Kandybowicz, Harold Torrence, 2017