Jack Brooks (American politician)
Jack Bascom Brooks (December 18, 1922 – December 4, 2012) was an American politician from Texas who served in the United States House of Representatives as a Democrat from 1953 to 1995. Defeated in 1994, Brooks was the most senior representative ever to have lost a general election.
|Chair of the House Judiciary Committee|
January 3, 1989 – January 3, 1995
|Preceded by||Peter W. Rodino|
|Succeeded by||Henry Hyde|
|Chair of the House Government Operations Committee|
January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1989
|Preceded by||Chester E. Holifield|
|Succeeded by||John Conyers (as Chair of Oversight Committee)|
|Member of the|
U.S. House of Representatives
January 3, 1953 – January 3, 1995
|Preceded by||Jesse M. Combs|
|Succeeded by||Steve Stockman|
|Constituency||2nd district (1953–1967)|
9th district (1967–1995)
|Member of the|
Texas House of Representatives
for District 16-1
|Preceded by||William L. Smith|
|Succeeded by||William C. Ross, Sr.|
Jack Bascom Brooks
December 18, 1922
Crowley, Louisiana, U.S.
|Died||December 4, 2012 (aged 89)|
Beaumont, Texas, U.S.
Charlotte Collins (m. 1960)
|Education||University of Texas at Austin|
|Branch/service||United States Marine Corps|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Brooks was born in Crowley, Louisiana. His family moved to Beaumont, Texas, when he was five years old. He attended public schools and enrolled in Lamar Junior College in 1939 after receiving a scholarship. He majored in journalism and transferred to the University of Texas at Austin, from which he earned a Bachelor of Arts in 1943. He was a member of the Texas Cowboys service organization. In 1949, while a member of the Texas Legislature, he earned a degree from the University of Texas Law School.
Brooks enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps during World War II. He served for about two years on the Pacific islands of Guadalcanal, Guam, Okinawa, and in North China. By the time he retired from the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve in 1972 he had reached the rank of colonel. On his office desk, Brooks kept a silver paperweight with the inscription "Fighting Marine".
A lifelong Democrat, Brooks was elected in 1946 to represent Jefferson County in the Texas House of Representatives. After his election he sponsored a bill that would make Lamar Junior College a four-year institution. The bill initially failed, but passed the following year. He won re-election to the state legislature in 1948 without opposition.
In 1952, Brooks was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for Texas's 2nd congressional district. In 1966, the 2nd was redistricted as the 9th district. Brooks was chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Government Operations from 1975 through 1988, and of the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary from 1989 until 1995. He also served on the Select Committee on Congressional Operations, the Joint Committee on Congressional Operations, and the Subcommittee on Legislation and National Security. In 1979, he became the senior member of the Texas congressional delegation, a position which he maintained for fifteen years.
Brooks was conservative on some issues like the death penalty and gun control, but more liberal on issues like domestic spending, labor, and civil rights. In 1956, he refused to sign the Southern Manifesto that opposed racial integration in public places. Brooks was one of the few Southern congressmen to support civil rights legislation; as a ranking member of the House Judiciary Committee, he helped to write the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
One of Brooks' signature bills required competitive bidding for federal computing contracts. The Brooks Act of 1965 is often cited as being a catalyst for technological advances. In 1967, Brooks opposed the move of the US Patent Office to attempt to introduce guidelines for software patentability.
As the leader of the Government Operations Committee, Brooks oversaw legislation affecting budget and accounting matters, and the establishment of departments and agencies. He also helped pass the Inspector General Act of 1978, the General Accounting Office Act of 1980, the Paper Reduction Act of 1980, and the Single Audit Act of 1984.
In 1988, Brooks' influence was made prominent by his unusual involvement in trade policy. He introduced a spending bill amendment that banned Japanese companies from U.S. public works projects for one year. He said that he was motivated by continuing signs that the Japanese government "intended to blatantly discriminate against U.S. firms in awarding public works contracts." House Majority Leader Tom Foley of Washington, who opposed the amendment, said Brooks "is one of the most powerful and effective chairmen in Congress."
Brooks' sponsorship of the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, which eventually was incorporated with an amendment to ban semi-automatic firearms, probably contributed to his electoral defeat by Republican Steve Stockman, despite Brooks' life membership in the National Rifle Association and his personal opposition to the ban.
Links to U.S. presidentsEdit
Kennedy and JohnsonEdit
On November 22, 1963, Brooks was in the motorcade carrying U.S. President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jackie Kennedy through downtown Dallas, Texas, when Kennedy was assassinated. Brooks was a contemporary of Lyndon B. Johnson, who was a U.S. Senator before becoming vice-president to Kennedy. He was present on Air Force One at Dallas Love Field when Johnson was sworn in as president after Kennedy's death.
Richard M. NixonEdit
He was a leader in the investigation that uncovered millions of dollars in public funds expended at the vacation homes of President Richard Nixon. Following the Watergate scandal in 1974, Brooks drafted the articles of impeachment later adopted by the House Judiciary Committee. For this reason, Nixon called Brooks his "executioner."
Personal life and deathEdit
Legacies and tributesEdit
- In 1978, a U.S. court house and post office in Beaumont, Texas, were renamed the Jack Brooks Federal Building.
- A Galveston County park in Hitchcock is named Jack Brooks Park.
- In 1989, a statue of Brooks was placed in the quadrangle at Lamar University in Beaumont.
- In 2001, NASA presented its Distinguished Service Medal to Brooks at a ceremony in the John Gray Center of Lamar University. NASA Admin. Daniel Goldin cited Brooks' long-standing support of the U.S. space program and his role in "strengthening the agency during its formative years." Goldin said "Congressman Brooks took it upon himself to personally deliver support to one of the agency's key programs: the design, development, and on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station."
- In 2002, Brooks was named Post Newsweek Tech Media's "Civilian executive of the last twenty years" by Government Computer News.
- In 2008, Brooks donated his archives to the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History of the University of Texas at Austin.
- In 2010, the Southeast Texas Regional Airport was renamed Jack Brooks Regional Airport in Brooks' honor.
- In the 2016 Oscar nominated movie Jackie, he was portrayed by actor David Friszman.
References and sourcesEdit
- Graczyk, Michael (December 5, 2012). "Longtime Texas US Rep. Jack Brooks dead at 89". Associated Press (AP). Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- "Jack Brooks Biography". Dolph Briscoe Center for American History. Congressional History Collection. Austin: University of Texas. 2013.
- "Jack Brooks (biography)" (PDF). Department of Political Science, College of Arts and Sciences. Beaumont Texas: Lamar University. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-14.
- Johnson, Julie (January 18, 1988). "Washington Talk: Congress; A 'Fighting Marine' Battles Japan on Trade". The New York Times.
- Badger, Tony (June 1999). "Southerners Who Refused to Sign the Southern Manifesto". The Historical Journal. Cambridge University Press. 42 (2): 517–534. doi:10.1017/S0018246X98008346. JSTOR 3020998.
- Cahn, Emily (December 5, 2012). "Jack Brooks of Texas Dies at 89". CQ Roll Call.
- "Jack Brooks Obituary". Beaumont Enterprise. Beaumont, Texas. Associated Press. December 8, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
- Martin, Douglas (December 5, 2012). "Jack Brooks, Former Texas Congressman, Dies at 89". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- Dunham, Richard (December 5, 2012). "Remembering Jack Brooks, LBJ protégé, Nixon 'executioner,' fierce partisan, Texas patriot". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- "A Tribute to Jack Brooks" (Press release). Austin, Texas: LBJ Presidential Library. December 6, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- Chang, Julie (December 5, 2012). "Jack Brooks legacy in SETX". Beaumont Enterprise. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
- "Center for American History Announces Acquisition of Congressman Jack Brooks Collection". Dolph Briscoe Center for American History (Press release). Austin: University of Texas. March 24, 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jack Brooks.|
- United States Congress. "Jack Brooks (id: B000880)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- The LBJ Foundation
- Appearances on C-SPAN
|Texas House of Representatives|
William L. Smith
| Member of the Texas House of Representatives
from District 16-1 (Beaumont)
William C. Ross, Sr.
Chester E. Holifield
| Chairman of the House Government Operations Committee
Peter W. Rodino
| Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee
|U.S. House of Representatives|
Jesse M. Combs
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 2nd congressional district
Clark W. Thompson
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 9th congressional district