Galveston County, Texas

Galveston County (/ˈɡælvɪstən/ GAL-vis-tən) is a county in the U.S. state of Texas, located along the Gulf Coast adjacent to Galveston Bay. As of the 2020 census, its population was 350,682.[1] The county was founded in 1838. The county seat is the City of Galveston, founded the following year, and located on Galveston Island. The most-populous municipality in the county is League City, a suburb of Houston at the northern end of the county, which surpassed Galveston in population during the early 2000s.[2]

Galveston County
Galveston County Courts Building
Galveston County Courts Building
Official seal of Galveston County
Map of Texas highlighting Galveston County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 29°23′N 94°52′W / 29.38°N 94.86°W / 29.38; -94.86
Country United States
State Texas
Founded1838
Named forCity of Galveston
SeatGalveston
Largest cityLeague City
Area
 • Total874 sq mi (2,260 km2)
 • Land378 sq mi (980 km2)
 • Water495 sq mi (1,280 km2)  57%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total350,682
 • Estimate 
(2021)
355,062 Increase
 • Density400/sq mi (150/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district14th
Websitewww.galvestoncountytx.gov

Galveston County is part of the nine-county Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land (Greater Houston) metropolitan statistical area.

HistoryEdit

Sixteenth-century Spanish explorers knew Galveston Island as the Isla de Malhado, the "Isle of Misfortune", or Isla de Culebras, the "Isle of Snakes".[3] In 1519, an expedition led by Alonso Álvarez de Pineda actually sailed past Galveston Island while charting the route from the Florida peninsula to the Pánuco River. The information gathered from the expedition enabled the Spanish government to establish control over the entire Gulf Coast, including Galveston Island. In 1783, José Antonio de Evia, a Spanish navigator, surveyed the area and named the bay "Galveston" to honor Bernardo de Gálvez, who supported the United States in the Revolutionary War.[4]

Galveston County was formally established under the Republic of Texas on May 15, 1838.[5] The county was formed from territory taken from Harrisburg, Liberty, and Brazoria Counties, with governmental organization taking place in 1839.[6] The island and city of Galveston by far formed the most important population center. The city of Galveston was the republic's largest city and its center of commerce and culture. Port Bolivar on the Bolivar Peninsula was a port of secondary importance. Other development in the area was initially mostly ranching interests and small farming communities. Texas soon joined the United States, and Galveston's importance continued to grow as it came to dominate the worldwide cotton trade. As railroads between Galveston, Harrisburg, Houston, and other towns were built during the 19th century, small communities grew up along the rail lines. Nevertheless, Galveston continued to remain a prominent destination for the shipping and trade industries. A bridge was completed in 1859, when the Galveston, Houston, and Henderson Railroad built a wooden trestle that was used by all other railway lines to the island until 1875, when the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railway built its own bridge. At the end of the 19th century, a group of investors established Texas City directly across the West Bay from Galveston, with the hope of making it a competing port city. The port began operations just before the start of the 20th century.

 
Map of Galveston County in 1879
 
Queen of Angels Church in Dickinson, Texas

The 1900 Galveston Hurricane devastated the county, killing an estimated 6000 people on the island alone and numerous others in the rest of the county. The Port of Galveston was closed for a time during reconstruction, but recovery was swift and profound. By 1910, the county's citizens had developed the commission form of government, constructed the seawall, and raised the merit of the whole city.

Investors had worried that the Texas coast was a dangerous place to establish major commercial operations because of the threat of hurricanes, and the 1900 disaster seemed to prove that. Though Galveston rebuilt its port and other major operations quickly, major investment moved inland, largely to Houston. Soon, Houston and Texas City had outpaced Galveston as major ports.

The oil boom in Texas began in 1901, and pipelines and refineries soon were built in Texas City. Industrial growth blossomed, especially during World War II. Galveston's manufacturing sector, however, was more stagnant during the 20th century.

Galveston, traditionally an attractive tourist destination even before the storm, transformed itself into a major, nationally known destination. Around this time, entrepreneur, power broker, and racketeer Sam Maceo rose to power and transformed the island in what was known as the Free State of Galveston. [7] During this time, the city was home to many casinos, whorehouses, and speakeasies, in addition to becoming a center of culture, economy, and nightlife, all due to the free availability of gambling and alcohol. [7] The city's entertainment business spread throughout the county with major casino districts in Kemah and Dickinson enabled by a lax attitude among law enforcement in the county (Houstonians often humorously referred to the Galveston County line as the "Maceo-Dickinson line"). The county prospered as oil fueled Texas City's industrial growth, and wealthy tourists flocked to Galveston and the other entertainment districts. [7]

The gambling empire was destroyed in the 1950s, as state law enforcement dismantled its establishments. Galveston's economy crashed, as did the economies of some other county municipalities that were dependent on tourism. Texas City's economy weathered the storm because of its strong industry.

The establishment on NASA's Johnson Space Center in 1963 soon created new growth opportunities for the county municipalities near Clear Lake and Harris County. The Clear Lake area communities in Harris and Galveston Counties soon became more tied together, while the island of Galveston languished for many years as businesses increasingly left for the mainland.

Tourism has gradually resurged, both on the island and on the mainland, and today has become a major industry in the county. Aerospace and related service industries continue to be important in the Clear Lake area of the county. Texas City has become an important petrochemical center.

GeographyEdit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 874 square miles (2,260 km2), of which 495 square miles (1,280 km2) (57%) is covered by water.[8]

Galveston County is located on the plains of the Texas Gulf Coast in the southeastern part of the state. The county is bounded on the northeast by Galveston Bay and on the northwest by Clear Creek and Clear Lake. Much of the county covers Galveston Bay, and is bounded to the south by the Galveston Seawall and beaches on the Gulf of Mexico.

Adjacent countiesEdit

CommunitiesEdit

Galveston County has several unincorporated areas; most of them are on the Bolivar Peninsula. Others are outside of Hitchcock and Santa Fe along Texas State Highway 6, and the three communities in the "Bayshore" area: Bacliff, San Leon, and Bayview.[9]

CitiesEdit

VillagesEdit

Census-designated placesEdit

Unincorporated communitiesEdit

Alta Loma, previously unincorporated,[10] became a part of Santa Fe in 1978.[11]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18504,529
18608,22981.7%
187015,29085.8%
188024,12157.8%
189031,47630.5%
190044,11640.2%
191044,4790.8%
192053,15019.5%
193064,40121.2%
194081,17326.0%
1950113,06639.3%
1960140,36424.1%
1970169,81221.0%
1980195,94015.4%
1990217,39911.0%
2000250,15815.1%
2010291,30916.5%
2020350,68220.4%
2021 (est.)355,062[12]1.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[13]
1850–2010[14] 2010[15] 2020[16]
Galveston County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[15] Pop 2020[16] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 172,652 191,358 59.27% 54.57%
Black or African American alone (NH) 39,229 43,120 13.47% 12.30%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 1,052 1,036 0.36% 0.30%
Asian alone (NH) 8,515 12,202 2.92% 3.48%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 128 223 0.04% 0.06%
Some other race alone (NH) 426 1,455 0.15% 0.41%
Mixed/multiracial (NH) 4,037 12,652 1.39% 3.61%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 65,270 88,636 22.41% 25.28%
Total 291,309 350,682 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the U.S. Census Bureau treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

According to the census of 2000, 250,158 people, 94,782 households, and 66,157 families resided in the county.[17] The population density was 628 people per square mile (242/km2). The 111,733 housing units averaged 280 per square mile (108/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 72.69% White, 15.44% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 2.10% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 7.18% from other races, and 2.08% from two or more races. About 18% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. By the publication of the 2020 census, the population grew to 350,682, with a racial and ethnic makeup at 54.57% non-Hispanic white, 12.30% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.30% non-Hispanic Native American, 3.48% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.06% non-Hispanic Pacific Islander, 0.41% non-Hispanic some other race, 3.61% non-Hispanic multiracial, and 25.28% Hispanic or Latino of any race.[16]

Of the 94,782 households at the 2000 census, 33.80% had children under 18 living with them, 52.40% were married couples living together, 13.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.20% were not families. Around 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 2.60, and the average family size was 3.12.

In the county, theage distribution was 26.7% under 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who were 65 or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 93.10 males.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the county was $42,419, and for a family was $51,435. Males had a median income of $41,406 versus $28,703 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,568. About 10.10% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.60% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over.

PoliticsEdit

United States CongressEdit

U.S. Senators Name Party First Elected Level
Senate Class 2 John Cornyn Republican 2002 Senior Senator
Senate Class 1 Ted Cruz Republican 2012 Junior Senator
U.S. Representatives Name Party First Elected
District 14 Randy Weber Republican 2012
United States presidential election results for Galveston County, Texas[18]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 93,911 60.56% 58,842 37.95% 2,307 1.49%
2016 73,757 60.01% 43,658 35.52% 5,488 4.47%
2012 69,059 62.74% 39,511 35.89% 1,508 1.37%
2008 62,258 59.29% 41,805 39.81% 941 0.90%
2004 61,290 57.83% 43,919 41.44% 772 0.73%
2000 50,397 54.20% 40,020 43.04% 2,566 2.76%
1996 35,251 44.01% 38,458 48.02% 6,380 7.97%
1992 31,303 34.69% 38,623 42.80% 20,316 22.51%
1988 34,913 47.15% 38,633 52.18% 496 0.67%
1984 40,262 52.40% 36,092 46.97% 482 0.63%
1980 29,527 46.65% 30,778 48.62% 2,992 4.73%
1976 25,251 39.62% 37,873 59.42% 611 0.96%
1972 30,936 57.49% 22,565 41.93% 310 0.58%
1968 16,229 30.86% 26,041 49.52% 10,322 19.63%
1964 12,365 28.64% 30,672 71.04% 136 0.32%
1960 16,373 40.10% 23,940 58.64% 515 1.26%
1956 17,567 52.43% 15,603 46.57% 336 1.00%
1952 15,715 45.00% 19,058 54.58% 147 0.42%
1948 4,857 25.85% 12,491 66.47% 1,444 7.68%
1944 1,542 10.23% 11,748 77.94% 1,784 11.83%
1940 2,443 17.92% 11,161 81.87% 28 0.21%
1936 1,666 15.00% 9,370 84.37% 70 0.63%
1932 2,011 15.98% 10,491 83.38% 80 0.64%
1928 4,401 42.43% 5,951 57.38% 20 0.19%
1924 1,912 25.10% 5,068 66.52% 639 8.39%
1920 1,625 30.27% 2,933 54.63% 811 15.11%
1916 1,263 25.64% 3,543 71.94% 119 2.42%
1912 336 10.01% 2,513 74.86% 508 15.13%

Texas LegislatureEdit

Texas SenateEdit

District Name Party First Elected
11 Larry Taylor Republican 1999

Texas House of RepresentativesEdit

District Name Party First Elected Area(s) of Galveston County Represented
23 Mayes Middleton Republican 2014 Galveston, Jamaica Beach, Texas City, Port Bolivar, Crystal Beach, Gilchrist & High Island
24 Greg Bonnen Republican 2012 Hitchcock, La Marque, Santa Fe, Dickinson, League City, Friendswood (Galveston County part), Algoa, Kemah, Clear Lake Shores
 
Galveston County Administrative Courthouse
 
The Joe Max Taylor Galveston Law Enforcement Facility includes the main station of the Galveston County Sheriff's Office

EducationEdit

Eight independent school districts (ISDs) serve Galveston County communities:[19]

A ninth school district, La Marque Independent School District, was subsumed into Texas City ISD in 2016 after the Texas Education Agency revoked its accreditation due to poor academic and financial performance.[20]

Higher educationEdit

The city of Galveston is home to Texas A&M University at Galveston, an extension of the main A&M campus in College Station, and the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

The Texas Legislature specified that the following community colleges also serve the area: College of the Mainland for Texas City (including former La Marque), Hitchcock, Santa Fe, Friendswood, and Dickinson school districts as well as the Galveston County portion of Clear Creek ISD (in other words, mainland Galveston County); and Galveston College for Galveston ISD and High Island ISD (the islands).[21]

Public librariesEdit

The Galveston County Library System operates libraries in most of the larger towns and cities. The Rosenberg Library in Galveston has the distinction of being the oldest public library in Texas, and serves as the headquarters for the Galveston County Library System. Its librarian also functions as the Galveston County librarian. Also, seven other libraries are in Galveston County, including the Genevieve Miller Library in Hitchcock, the La Marque Public Library, the Helen Hall Public Library in League City, the Moore Memorial Public Library in Texas City, the Dickinson Public Library, the Friendswood Public Library, and the Mae Bruce Library in Santa Fe.

Political organizationEdit

The head of a Texas county, as set up in the Texas Constitution, is the county judge, who sits as the chair of the county's commissioners' court.[22] The county is split into four geographical divisions called precincts. Each precinct elects a commissioner to sit as a representative of their precinct on the commissioners court and also for the oversight of county functions in their area.

Other elected positions in Galveston County include a county clerk, a district attorney, a district clerk, a county clerk, a sheriff, nine constables, a tax assessor-collector, a county treasurer, and every judge in the county except municipal judges, who are appointed by the officials of their respective cities.[23]

Hospital servicesEdit

Galveston County is served by a major medical complex in Galveston and a private for-profit hospital in Texas City.

The University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston is a 1,200-bed, major medical complex of seven hospitals. The main general-care hospital is John Sealy Hospital, with other on-campus hospitals specializing in women, children, burn victims, geriatrics, and psychiatrics. Currently, UTMB is certified as a level I trauma center and serves as the lead trauma facility for the nine-county region in southeast Texas, including the Greater Houston area.[24]

The Mainland Medical Center, a 233-bed, private, for-profit hospital, operates in Texas City.[25]

CorrectionsEdit

The Galveston County Jail is located at 5700 Avenue H in Galveston.[26]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice and University of Texas Medical Branch manage health care facilities for prisoners in Galveston, Galveston County. The facilities include the co-gender Galveston Hospital for prisoners in Galveston[27] and the Young Medical Facility Complex for females in Texas City.[28] Hospital Galveston began contracting for medical treatment of prisoners in 1983.[29] Young opened in 1996 as the Texas City Regional Medical Unit.[30]

TransportationEdit

Major highwaysEdit

AirportsEdit

Scholes International Airport at Galveston (IATA: GLS, ICAO: KGLS), the county's sole publicly owned airport, is a two-runway airport located on Galveston Island in Galveston. The airport is primarily used for general aviation, offshore energy transportation, and some limited military operations.

Privately owned airports for private use include Creasy Airport and Kami-Kazi Airport, both inn unincorporated areas.

The closest airport with regularly scheduled commercial service is William P. Hobby Airport, located in Houston.[citation needed] The Houston Airport System stated that Galveston County is also within the primary service area of George Bush Intercontinental Airport, an international airport near Houston in Harris County.[31]

Private heliports for private use include:

RailEdit

All rail traffic is currently industry-related. Regularly scheduled passenger rail service in Galveston County ceased on April 11, 1967.[32]

Mass transitEdit

The City of Galveston is served by Island Transit, a public transportation agency.

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2022.
  2. ^ Schladen, Marty (July 23, 2006). "Forces drive people off island". Galveston County Daily News. Archived from the original on December 31, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2014.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  3. ^ Diana J. Kleiner. "Galveston County". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  4. ^ "Galveston". Galveston County Historical Museum. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  5. ^ Office of the Auditor of Galveston County, Texas. "Galveston County 2007 Comprehensive Financial Report" (PDF). Galveston County, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
  6. ^ Galveston County, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
  7. ^ a b c "Sam Maceo is the kindly king of the Texas gambling realm".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  9. ^ Evans, Thayer. "Crime numbers go down - Figures drop 26.4 percent in unincorporated Galveston County." Houston Chronicle. Thursday February 3, 2005. ThisWeek p. 1. "Other unincorporated areas are along Texas 6 outside Hitchcock and Santa Fe and in the Bayshore area, which includes Bacliff, Bayview and San Leon." Available at NewsBank Record Number: 3841079.
  10. ^ "Community Plan 2010-2011." Galveston County. p. 3 (PDF 3/41). Retrieved on January 5, 2015.
  11. ^ "ALTA LOMA, TX." Handbook of Texas. Retrieved on January 5, 2015.
  12. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021". Retrieved July 5, 2022.
  13. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decades". US Census Bureau.
  14. ^ "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  15. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Galveston County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  16. ^ a b c "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Galveston County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  17. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  18. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  19. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Galveston County, TX" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved June 29, 2022. - Text list
  20. ^ Zaveri, Mihir. "Texas City ISD moves toward absorbing La Marque school district" (Archive). Houston Chronicle. Wednesday, February 17, 2016. Retrieved on March 22, 2018.
  21. ^ Texas Education Code Sec. 130.174. COLLEGE OF THE MAINLAND DISTRICT SERVICE AREA. Sec. 130.179. GALVESTON COLLEGE DISTRICT SERVICE AREA.
  22. ^ Galveston County, http://www.co.galveston.tx.us/County_Judge/default.htm
  23. ^ "Pages - Galveston County". co.galveston.tx.us.
  24. ^ "Welcome - School of Health Professions - UTMB Health" (PDF). sahs.utmb.edu.
  25. ^ Mainland Medical Center, http://www.mainlandmedical.com/CustomPage.asp?guidCustomContentID={263215B6-AC55-4276-A52B-B8F34390E0BE} Archived June 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "Corrections Bureau - Jail Division." Galveston County Sheriff's Office. Accessed September 12, 2008.
  27. ^ "Hospital Galveston." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Accessed September 12, 2008.
  28. ^ "YOUNG MEDICAL FACILITY COMPLEX (GC) Archived August 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Accessed September 12, 2008.
  29. ^ Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Turner Publishing Company, 2004. 50. ISBN 1-56311-964-1, ISBN 978-1-56311-964-4.
  30. ^ Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Turner Publishing Company, 2004. 51. ISBN 1-56311-964-1, ISBN 978-1-56311-964-4.
  31. ^ "Master Plan Executive Summary Archived July 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." George Bush Intercontinental Airport Master Plan. Houston Airport System. December 2006. 2-1 (23/130). Retrieved on December 14, 2010.
  32. ^ "Galveston County Railroad Museum". galvestonrrmuseum.com.
  33. ^ "ASHE, John Baptista, (1810 - 1857)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  34. ^ "88 Dez Bryant, R". CBSSports.com. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  35. ^ "Red Bryant". Pro-Football-Reference.Com. Retrieved October 3, 2012.

Further readingEdit

  • Petitt, Jr., B.M. and A.G. Winslow. (1957). Geology and ground-water resources of Galveston County, Texas [U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1416]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 29°23′N 94°52′W / 29.38°N 94.86°W / 29.38; -94.86