Isotopes of uranium
Uranium (92U) is a naturally occurring radioactive element that has no stable isotope. It has two primordial isotopes, (uranium-238 and uranium-235), that have long half-lives and are found in appreciable quantity in the Earth's crust. The decay product uranium-234 is also found. Other isotopes such as uranium-232 have been produced in breeder reactors. In addition to isotopes found in nature or nuclear reactors, many isotopes with far shorter half-lives have been produced, ranging from 215U to 242U (with the exception of 220U and 241U). The standard atomic weight of natural uranium is 238.02891(3).
|Standard atomic weight Ar, standard(U)|
Naturally occurring uranium is composed of three major isotopes, uranium-238 (99.2739–99.2752% natural abundance), uranium-235 (0.7198–0.7202%), and uranium-234 (0.0050–0.0059%). All three isotopes are radioactive, creating radioisotopes, with the most abundant and stable being uranium-238 with a half-life of 4.4683×109 years (close to the age of the Earth).
Uranium-238 is an α emitter, decaying through the 18-member uranium series into lead-206. The decay series of uranium-235 (historically called actino-uranium) has 15 members and ends in lead-207. The constant rates of decay in these series makes comparison of the ratios of parent–to–daughter elements useful in radiometric dating. Uranium-233 is made from thorium-232 by neutron bombardment.
The isotope uranium-235 is important for both nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons because it is the only isotope existing in nature to any appreciable extent that is fissile in response to thermal neutrons. The isotope uranium-238 is also important because it absorbs neutrons to produce a radioactive isotope that subsequently decays to the isotope plutonium-239, which also is fissile.
List of isotopesEdit
|Z||N||Isotopic mass (u)
[n 2][n 3]
[n 5][n 6]
[n 7][n 8]
|Natural abundance (mole fraction)|
|Excitation energy[n 8]||Normal proportion||Range of variation|
|228U||92||136||228.031374(16)||9.1(2) min||α (95%)||224Th||0+|
|229U||92||137||229.033506(6)||58(3) min||β+ (80%)||229Pa||(3/2+)|
|233U||92||141||233.0396352(29)||1.592(2)×105 y||α||229Th||5/2+||Trace[n 9]|
|234U[n 10][n 11]||Uranium II||92||142||234.0409521(20)||2.455(6)×105 y||α||230Th||0+||[0.000054(5)][n 12]||0.000050–|
|234mU||1421.32(10) keV||33.5(20) ms||6−|
|235U[n 13][n 14][n 15]||Actin Uranium
|235mU||0.0765(4) keV||~26 min||IT||235U||1/2+|
|236U||Thoruranium||92||144||236.045568(2)||2.342(3)×107 y||α||232Th||0+||Trace[n 16]|
|236m1U||1052.89(19) keV||100(4) ns||(4)−|
|236m2U||2750(10) keV||120(2) ns||(0+)|
|237U||92||145||237.0487302(20)||6.75(1) d||β−||237Np||1/2+||Trace[n 17]|
|238U[n 11][n 13][n 14]||Uranium I||92||146||238.0507882(20)||4.468(3)×109 y||α||234Th||0+||[0.992742(10)]||0.992739–|
|238mU||2557.9(5) keV||280(6) ns||0+|
|239m1U||20(20)# keV||>250 ns||(5/2+)|
|239m2U||133.7990(10) keV||780(40) ns||1/2+|
|240U||92||148||240.056592(6)||14.1(1) h||β−||240Np||0+||Trace[n 18]|
- mU – Excited nuclear isomer.
- ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
- # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
Modes of decay:
CD: Cluster decay EC: Electron capture SF: Spontaneous fission
- Bold italics symbol as daughter – Daughter product is nearly stable.
- Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
- ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.
- # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).
- Intermediate decay product of 237Np
- Used in uranium–thorium dating
- Used in uranium–uranium dating
- Intermediate decay product of 238U
- Primordial radionuclide
- Used in Uranium–lead dating
- Important in nuclear reactors
- Intermediate decay product of 244Pu, also produced by neutron capture of 235U
- Neutron capture product, parent of trace quantities of 237Np
- Intermediate decay product of 244Pu
Actinides vs fission productsEdit
Actinides and fission products by half-life
|Actinides by decay chain||Half-life
|Fission products of 235U by yield|
No fission products
|226Ra№||247Bk||1.3 k – 1.6 k|
|240Pu||229Th||246Cmƒ||243Amƒ||4.7 k – 7.4 k|
|245Cmƒ||250Cm||8.3 k – 8.5 k|
|230Th№||231Pa№||32 k – 76 k|
|236Npƒ||233Uƒ||234U№||150 k – 250 k||‡||99Tc₡||126Sn|
|248Cm||242Pu||327 k – 375 k||79Se₡|
|237Npƒ||2.1 M – 6.5 M||135Cs₡||107Pd|
|236U||247Cmƒ||15 M – 24 M||129I₡|
... nor beyond 15.7 M years
|232Th№||238U№||235Uƒ№||0.7 G – 14.1 G|
Legend for superscript symbols
Uranium-232 has a half-life of 68.9 years and is a side product in the thorium cycle. It has been cited as an obstacle to nuclear proliferation using 233U as the fissile material, because the intense gamma radiation emitted by 208Tl (a daughter of 232U, produced relatively quickly) makes the 233U contaminated with it more difficult to handle. Uranium-232 is a rare example of an even-even isotope that is fissile with both thermal and fast neutrons.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle. Uranium-233 was investigated for use in nuclear weapons and as a reactor fuel; however, it was never deployed in nuclear weapons or used commercially as a nuclear fuel. It has been used successfully in experimental nuclear reactors and has been proposed for much wider use as a nuclear fuel. It has a half-life of 159,200 years.
Uranium-233 is produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium-232. When thorium-232 absorbs a neutron, it becomes thorium-233, which has a half-life of only 22 minutes. Thorium-233 decays into protactinium-233 through beta decay. Protactinium-233 has a half-life of 27 days and beta decays into uranium-233; some proposed molten salt reactor designs attempt to physically isolate the protactinium from further neutron capture before beta decay can occur.
Uranium-233 usually fissions on neutron absorption but sometimes retains the neutron, becoming uranium-234. The capture-to-fission ratio is smaller than the other two major fissile fuels uranium-235 and plutonium-239; it is also lower than that of short-lived plutonium-241, but bested by very difficult-to-produce neptunium-236.
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium. In natural uranium and in uranium ore, U-234 occurs as an indirect decay product of uranium-238, but it makes up only 0.0055% (55 parts per million) of the raw uranium because its half-life of just 245,500 years is only about 1/18,000 as long as that of U-238. The path of production of U-234 via nuclear decay is as follows: U-238 nuclei emit an alpha particle to become thorium-234 (Th-234). Next, with a short half-life, a Th-234 nucleus emits a beta particle to become protactinium-234 (Pa-234). Finally, Pa-234 nuclei each emit another beta particle to become U-234 nuclei.
Extraction of rather small amounts of U-234 from natural uranium would be feasible using isotope separation, similar to that used for regular uranium-enrichment. However, there is no real demand in chemistry, physics, or engineering for isolating U-234. Very small pure samples of U-234 can be extracted via the chemical ion-exchange process—from samples of plutonium-238 that have been aged somewhat to allow some decay to U-234 via alpha emission.
Enriched uranium contains more U-234 than natural uranium as a byproduct of the uranium enrichment process aimed at obtaining U-235, which concentrates lighter isotopes even more strongly than it does U-235. The increased percentage of U-234 in enriched natural uranium is acceptable in current nuclear reactors, but (re-enriched) reprocessed uranium might contain even higher fractions of U-234, which is undesirable. This is because U-234 is not fissile, and tends to absorb slow neutrons in a nuclear reactor—becoming U-235.
U-234 has a neutron capture cross-section of about 100 barns for thermal neutrons, and about 700 barns for its resonance integral—the average over neutrons having various intermediate energies. In a nuclear reactor non-fissile isotopes capture a neutron breeding fissile isotopes. U-234 is converted to U-235 more easily and therefore at a greater rate than U-238 is to Pu-239 (via neptunium-239) because U-238 has a much smaller neutron-capture cross-section of just 2.7 barns.
Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium. Unlike the predominant isotope uranium-238, it is fissile, i.e., it can sustain a fission chain reaction. It is the only fissile isotope that is a primordial nuclide or found in significant quantity in nature.
Uranium-235 has a half-life of 703.8 million years. It was discovered in 1935 by Arthur Jeffrey Dempster. Its (fission) nuclear cross section for slow thermal neutron is about 504.81 barns. For fast neutrons it is on the order of 1 barn. At thermal energy levels, about 5 of 6 neutron absorptions result in fission and 1 of 6 result in neutron capture forming uranium-236. The fission-to-capture ratio improves for faster neutrons.
Uranium-236 is an isotope of uranium that is neither fissile with thermal neutrons, nor very good fertile material, but is generally considered a nuisance and long-lived radioactive waste. It is found in spent nuclear fuel and in the reprocessed uranium made from spent nuclear fuel.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature. It is not fissile, but is a fertile material: it can capture a slow neutron and after two beta decays become fissile plutonium-239. Uranium-238 is fissionable by fast neutrons, but cannot support a chain reaction because inelastic scattering reduces neutron energy below the range where fast fission of one or more next-generation nuclei is probable. Doppler broadening of U-238's neutron absorption resonances, increasing absorption as fuel temperature increases, is also an essential negative feedback mechanism for reactor control.
Around 99.284% of natural uranium is uranium-238, which has a half-life of 1.41×1017 seconds (4.468×109 years, or 4.468 billion years). Depleted uranium has an even higher concentration of the U-238 isotope, and even low-enriched uranium (LEU), while having a higher proportion of the uranium-235 isotope (in comparison to depleted uranium), is still mostly U-238. Reprocessed uranium is also mainly U-238, with about as much uranium-235 as natural uranium, a comparable proportion of uranium-236, and much smaller amounts of other isotopes of uranium such as uranium-234, uranium-233, and uranium-232
|Decay mode||Decay energy (MeV)|
|Beta decay 20%||1.28|
|Beta decay 80%||1.21|
|Isotopes of uranium |
Complete table of nuclides
Uranium-239 is an isotope of uranium. It is usually produced by exposing 238U to neutron radiation in a nuclear reactor. 239U has a half-life of about 23.45 minutes and decays into neptunium-239 through beta decay, with a total decay energy of about 1.29 MeV. The most common gamma decay at 74.660 keV accounts for the difference in the two major channels of beta emission energy, at 1.28 and 1.21 MeV.
239Np further decays to plutonium-239 also through beta decay (239Np has a half-life of about 2.356 days), in a second important step that ultimately produces fissile 239Pu (used in weapons and for nuclear power), from 238U in reactors.
- Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
- "Uranium Isotopes". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
- Half-life, decay mode, nuclear spin, and isotopic composition is sourced in:
Audi, Georges; Kondev, Filip G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, Wen Jia; Naimi, Sarah (2017), "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties" (PDF), Chinese Physics C, 41 (3): 030001–1—030001–138, Bibcode:2017ChPhC..41c0001A, doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030001
- Wang, Meng; Audi, Georges; Kondev, Filip G.; Huang, Wen Jian; Naimi, Sarah; Xu, Xing (2017), "The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs, and references" (PDF), Chinese Physics C, 41 (3): 030003–1—030003–442, doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030003
- Y. Wakabayashi; K. Morimoto; D. Kaji; H. Haba; M. Takeyama; S. Yamaki; K. Tanaka; K. Nishio; M. Asai; M. Huang; J. Kanaya; M. Murakami; A. Yoneda; K. Fujita; Y. Narikiyo; T.Tanaka; S.Yamamoto; K. Morita (2014). "New Isotope Candidates, 215U and 216U" (PDF). RIKEN Accel. Prog. Rep. 47: xxii.
- H. M. Devaraja; S. Heinz; O. Beliuskina; V. Comas; S. Hofmann; C. Hornung; G. Münzenberg; K. Nishio; D. Ackermann; Y. K. Gambhir; M. Gupta; R. A. Henderson; F. P. Heßberger; J. Khuyagbaatar; B. Kindler; B. Lommel; K. J. Moody; J. Maurer; R. Mann; A. G. Popeko; D. A. Shaughnessy; M. A. Stoyer; A. V. Yeremin (2015). "Observation of new neutron-deficient isotopes with Z ≥ 92 in multinucleon transfer reactions" (PDF). Physics Letters B. 748: 199–203. Bibcode:2015PhLB..748..199D. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2015.07.006.
- Khuyagbaatar, J.; et al. (11 December 2015). "New Short-Lived Isotope 221U and the Mass Surface Near N = 126". Physical Review Letters. 115 (24): 242502. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.242502.
- Trenn, Thaddeus J. (1978). "Thoruranium (U-236) as the extinct natural parent of thorium: The premature falsification of an essentially correct theory". Annals of Science. 35 (6): 581–97. doi:10.1080/00033797800200441.
- Plus radium (element 88). While actually a sub-actinide, it immediately precedes actinium (89) and follows a three-element gap of instability after polonium (84) where no nuclides have half-lives of at least four years (the longest-lived nuclide in the gap is radon-222 with a half life of less than four days). Radium's longest lived isotope, at 1,600 years, thus merits the element's inclusion here.
- Specifically from thermal neutron fission of U-235, e.g. in a typical nuclear reactor.
- Milsted, J.; Friedman, A. M.; Stevens, C. M. (1965). "The alpha half-life of berkelium-247; a new long-lived isomer of berkelium-248". Nuclear Physics. 71 (2): 299. Bibcode:1965NucPh..71..299M. doi:10.1016/0029-5582(65)90719-4.
"The isotopic analyses disclosed a species of mass 248 in constant abundance in three samples analysed over a period of about 10 months. This was ascribed to an isomer of Bk248 with a half-life greater than 9 y. No growth of Cf248 was detected, and a lower limit for the β− half-life can be set at about 104 y. No alpha activity attributable to the new isomer has been detected; the alpha half-life is probably greater than 300 y."
- This is the heaviest nuclide with a half-life of at least four years before the "Sea of Instability".
- Excluding those "classically stable" nuclides with half-lives significantly in excess of 232Th; e.g., while 113mCd has a half-life of only fourteen years, that of 113Cd is nearly eight quadrillion years.
- "Uranium 232". Nuclear Power. Archived from the original on 26 February 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- C. W. Forsburg; L. C. Lewis (1999-09-24). "Uses For Uranium-233: What Should Be Kept for Future Needs?" (PDF). Ornl-6952. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
- B. C. Diven; J. Terrell; A. Hemmendinger (1 January 1958). "Capture-to-Fission Ratios for Fast Neutrons in U235". Physical Review Letters. 109: 144–150. Bibcode:1958PhRv..109..144D. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.109.144.
- CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 57th Ed. p. B-345
- CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 57th Ed. p. B-423
- Isotope masses from:
- Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from:
- de Laeter, John Robert; Böhlke, John Karl; De Bièvre, Paul; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Peiser, H. Steffen; Rosman, Kevin J. R.; Taylor, Philip D. P. (2003). "Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 75 (6): 683–800. doi:10.1351/pac200375060683.
- Wieser, Michael E. (2006). "Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 78 (11): 2051–2066. doi:10.1351/pac200678112051. Lay summary.
- Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from the following sources.
- Audi, Georges; Bersillon, Olivier; Blachot, Jean; Wapstra, Aaldert Hendrik (2003), "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties", Nuclear Physics A, 729: 3–128, Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A, doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001
- National Nuclear Data Center. "NuDat 2.x database". Brookhaven National Laboratory.
- Holden, Norman E. (2004). "11. Table of the Isotopes". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9.