Immaculate Heart of Mary
The Immaculate Heart of Mary is a devotional name used to refer to the interior life of the Blessed Virgin Mary, her joys and sorrows, her virtues and hidden perfections, and, above all, her virginal love for God the Father, her maternal love for her son Jesus, and her compassionate love for all people.
The Immaculate Heart of Mary
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Feast||Saturday following the Feast of the Sacred Heart|
|Attributes||Burning bloodied heart, pierced with a sword, banded with roses, and lily flowers|
|Patronage||Alliance of Sacred Hearts, Russian Territories, Scotland, Central Africa, Republic of the Congo, Angola, Ecuador, Panama, Philippines, Georgia|
The Eastern Catholic Churches occasionally utilize the image, devotion, and theology associated with the Immaculate Heart of Mary. However, this is a cause of some controversy, some seeing it as a form of liturgical latinisation. The Roman Catholic view is based on Mariology, as exemplified by Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae.
Traditionally, the heart is depicted pierced with seven wounds or swords, in homage to the seven dolors of Mary. Also, roses or another type of flower may be wrapped around the heart.
The veneration of the Heart of Mary is analogous to the worship of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. There are, however, differences in this analogy as devotion to the heart of Jesus is especially directed to the "divine heart" as overflowing with love for humanity. In the devotion to Mary, however, the attraction is the love of her heart for Jesus and for God.
The second difference is the nature of the devotion itself: in the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Roman Catholic venerates in a sense of love responding to love, in the devotion to the Heart of Mary, study and imitation hold as important a place as love. The aim of the devotion is to unite humankind to God through Mary's heart, and this process involves the ideas of consecration and reparation. The object of the devotion being to love God and Jesus better by uniting one's self to Mary for this purpose and by imitating her virtues. (There also exists a private devotion to the Most Chaste Heart of Saint Joseph, the spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, foster-father of Jesus Christ God.)
History of devotionEdit
In Chapter 2 of St. Luke's gospel, the evangelist twice reports that Mary kept all things in her heart, that there she might ponder over them. Luke 2:35 recounts the prophecy of Simeon that her heart would be pierced with a sword. This image (the pierced heart) is the most popular representation of the Immaculate Heart.
St. John's Gospel further invited attention to Mary's heart with its depiction of Mary at the foot of the cross at Jesus' crucifixion. St. Augustine said of this that Mary was not merely passive at the foot of the cross; "she cooperated through charity in the work of our redemption".
St. Leo said that through faith and love she conceived her son spiritually, even before receiving him into her womb, and St. Augustine tells us that she was more blessed in having borne Christ in her heart than in having conceived him in the flesh.
Devotion to the Heart of Mary began in the Middle Ages with saints like Anselm of Canterbury, and Bernard of Clairvaux. It was practiced and developed by Mechtilde, Gertrude the Great and Bridget of Sweden. Evidence is also discernible in the pious meditations on the Ave Maria and the Salve Regina, usually attributed either to Saint Anselm of Lucca (d. 1080) or Saint Bernard; and also in the large book "De laudibus Beatae Mariae Virginis" (Douai, 1625) by Richard de Saint-Laurent, Penitentiary of Rouen in the thirteenth century.
A little earlier it had been included by Saint Thomas Becket in the devotion to the joys and sorrows of Mary, by Saint Hermann (d.1241) in his devotions to Mary, and somewhat later it appeared in Bridget of Sweden's "Book of Revelations". Saint Bernardine of Siena (d.1444), is sometimes called "Doctor of the Heart of Mary", and from him the Church has borrowed the lessons of the second nocturn for the feast of the Heart of Mary. Saint Francis de Sales speaks of the perfections of this heart, the model of love for God, and dedicated his "Theotimus" to it.
During this same period one finds occasional mention of devotional practices to the Heart of Mary, e.g., in the "Antidotarium" of Nicolas du Saussay (d. 1488), in Pope Julius II, and in the "Pharetra" of Lanspergius. In the second half of the sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth, ascetic authors dwelt upon this devotion at greater length.
It was, however, Saint John Eudes (d. 1681) who propagated the devotion, to make it public, and to have a feast celebrated in honor of the Heart of Mary, first at Autun in 1648 and afterwards in a number of French dioceses. He established several religious societies interested in upholding and promoting the devotion, of which his large book on the Coeur Admirable (Admirable Heart), published in 1681, resembles a summary. Jean Eudes' efforts to secure the approval of an office and feast failed at Rome, but, notwithstanding this disappointment, the devotion to the Heart of Mary progressed. Eudes began his devotional teachings with the Heart of Mary, and then extended it to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. However, it was only in 1805 that Pope Pius VII allowed a feast to honor the Immaculate Heart of Mary.
In 1699 Father Pinamonti (d. 1703) published a short work on the Holy Heart of Mary in Italian, and in 1725, Joseph de Gallifet combined the cause of the Heart of Mary with that of the Heart of Jesus in order to obtain Rome's approbation of the two devotions and the institution of the two feasts. In 1729, his project was defeated, and in 1765, the two causes were separated, to assure the success of the principal one.
|Year||Date (Novus Ordo)|
|2017||Impeded (would be on 24 June)|
|2019||Impeded (would be on 29 June)|
|2022||Impeded (would be on 25 June)|
|2028||Impeded (would be on 24 June)|
|2030||Impeded (would be on 29 June)|
In its principal object this feast is identical with the feast of the "Inner Life of Mary", celebrated by the Sulpicians on 19 October. It commemorates the joys and sorrows of the Mother of God, her virtues and perfections, her love for God and her Divine Son and her compassionate love for mankind.
As early as 1643, St. John Eudes and his followers observed 8 February as the feast of the Heart of Mary. In 1799 Pius VI, then in captivity in Florence, granted the Bishop of Palermo the feast of the Most Pure Heart of Mary for some of the churches in his diocese. In 1805 Pope Pius VII made a new concession, thanks to which the feast was soon widely observed. Such was the existing condition when a twofold movement, started in Paris, gave fresh impetus to the devotion; the two factors of this movement were, first of all, the revelation of the "Miraculous Medal" in 1830, and then the establishment at Notre-Dame-des-Victoires of the Archconfraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Refuge of Sinners, which spread rapidly. On 21 July 1855, the Congregation of Rites finally approved the Office and Mass of the Most Pure Heart of Mary without, however, imposing them upon the Universal Church.
Pope Pius XII instituted the feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary in 1944 to be celebrated on 22 August, coinciding with the traditional octave day of the Assumption. In 1969, Pope Paul VI moved the celebration of the Immaculate Heart of Mary to the Saturday, immediately after the Solemnity of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. This means in practice that it is now held on the third Saturday after Pentecost.
At the same time as he closely associated the celebrations of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Pope Paul VI moved the celebration of the Queenship of Mary from 31 May to 22 August, bringing it into association with the feast of her Assumption. Those who use the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal or an earlier one (but not more than 17 years before 1962) observe the day established by Pius XII.
The celebration of this feast is omitted in those years when it is impeded by a higher ranking feast. This would apply when it is due to fall on 24 June (Nativity of St John the Baptist) and 29 June (Saints Peter and Paul), and more rarely 31 May (Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary) and 3 July (Saint Thomas the Apostle). It is also impeded when it is due to fall on 25 June and 30 June because of the coincidence of solemnities the day before, necessitating the transfer of one of them to the following [available] day. (Note that there may be variations in local calendars. For example, this feast is not impeded in England and Wales in 2019 since Saints Peter and Paul will be celebrated on Sunday 30 June.)
Traditional depictions of the IHM show it pierced with seven wounds or swords, in homage to the seven dolors of Mary. The Seven Sorrows of Mary are a popular Roman Catholic devotion. There are devotional prayers which consist of meditation on her Seven Sorrows. One practice is to pray seven Hail Marys daily. The term "Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart of Mary" refers to the combined devotion of both the Immaculate Heart and the Seven Sorrows of Mary as first used by the Franciscan Tertiary Berthe Petit.
The Miraculous MedalEdit
The devotion to Mary's Heart has had a greater flowering following the manifestation of the Miraculous Medal to St. Catherine Labouré in 1830. The Immaculate Heart is depicted on the Miraculous Medal, pierced by a sword. The Sacred Heart of Jesus also appears on the medal, next to the Immaculate Heart, crowned with thorns. The M on the medal signifies the Blessed Virgin at the foot of the Cross when Jesus was being crucified.
Five First SaturdaysEdit
Our Lady of Fátima asked that, in reparation for the sins committed against her Immaculate Heart, on the first Saturday of five consecutive months a Catholic believer go to the Sacrament of Penance (within eight days before or after the first Saturday), receive the Holy Communion, recite five decades of the Rosary, and keep her company for 15 minutes while meditating on the 15 mysteries of the Rosary. She promised that, whoever would ever do this, would be given the graces necessary for salvation at the hour of one's death.
Alliance with the Sacred HeartEdit
The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary is based on the historical, theological and spiritual links in Catholic devotions to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary. The joint devotion to the hearts was first formalized in the 17th century by St. John Eudes who organized the scriptural, theological and liturgical sources relating to the devotions and obtained the approbation of the Church, prior to the visions of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the devotions grew, both jointly and individually through the efforts of figures such as St. Louis de Montfort who promoted Catholic Mariology and St. Catherine Labouré's Miraculous Medal depicting the Heart of Jesus thorn-crowned and the Heart of Mary pierced with a sword. The devotions, and the associated prayers, continued in the 20th century, e.g., in the Immaculata prayer of St. Maximillian Kolbe and in the reported messages of Our Lady of Fátima which stated that the Heart of Jesus wishes to be honored together with the Heart of Mary.
The Popes have supported the individual and joint devotions to the hearts through the centuries; in 1956 the encyclical Haurietis aquas, Pope Pius XII encouraged the joint devotion to the hearts, In 1979 the encyclical Redemptor hominis, Pope John Paul II explained the theme of unity of Mary's Immaculate Heart with the Sacred Heart. In his Angelus address on 15 September 1985 he coined the term The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and in 1986 addressed the international conference on that topic held at Fátima, Portugal.
Acts of ConsecrationEdit
During the third apparition at Fátima, Portugal, on 13 July 1917, Our Lady allegedly said to the three little shepherds: God wishes to establish the devotion to her Immaculate Heart in the world in order to save souls from hell and bring about world peace, and also asked for the consecration of Russia to her Immaculate Heart. Pope Pius XII, in his Apostolic Letter of 7 July 1952 Sacro Vergente, consecrated Russia to the Most Blessed Virgin Mary.
Also, the Blessed Alexandrina of Balazar, in Portugal, reported many private apparitions, messages and prophecies received directly from Jesus and the Blessed Virgin Mary. In June 1938, based on the request of her spiritual director Father Mariano Pinho, several bishops from Portugal wrote to Pope Pius XI, asking him to consecrate the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. At that time Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII) was the secretary of the state of the Vatican, and later he performed the consecration of the world.
On 25 March 1984 Pope John Paul II fulfilled this request again, when he made the solemn act of consecration of the world, and implicitly of Russia, to the Immaculate Heart of Mary before the miraculous statue of Our Lady of Fátima brought to Saint Peter's Square in the Vatican for the occasion. Sister Lúcia, OCD, then the only surviving visionary of Fátima apparitions, confirmed that the request of Mary for the consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary was accepted by Heaven, and therefore, was fulfilled. Again on October 8, 2000, the same pope made an act of entrustment of the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the new millennium.
In August 2013, Pope Francis announced that he would consecrate the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary on 13 October 2013, as part of the Marian Day celebration that involved the iconic statue of Our Lady of the Rosary of Fátima.
Consecration of the world to the Immaculate Heart of MaryEdit
The whole world has been repeatedly consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by different popes:
Countries consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of MaryEdit
Several nations have been consecrated by their respective bishops to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, in particular:
- Ecuador (1892)
- Portugal (13 May 1931 – 13 May 1938)
- France (November 22, 1940 – March 28, 1943)
- Netherlands and Belgium (15 August 1943)
- Poland (8 September 1946 – 4 June 1979 – 6 June 2017, Bp. Stanisław Gądecki)
- Japan (1947)
- Austria (18 May 1947)
- Canada (22 June 1947 – 26 September 2017)
- Brasil (1948)
- Argentina (1948)
- Australia (1948)
- England and Wales (1948 – 20 February 2017, Card. Vincent Nichols)
- Bolivia (12 October 1948 – 15 April 2018)
- Indonesia (1951)
- Germany (4 September 1954)
- Spain (12 October 1954 – 25 May 2005)
- Italy (13 September 1959)
- United States (19 November 1959)
- Switzerland (08 Dicember 1960)
- Angola (13 October 1985)
- Samoa (07 Dicember 2007 – 3 Dicember 2017, Abp. Alapati Lui Mataeliga)
- Dominican Republic (25 September 2008, Card. Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez)
- Philippines (8 June 2013, 4 May 2018)
- Lebanon and Countries of the Middle-East (16 June 2013 - 25 June 2017, Card. Bechara Boutros Rai)
- Ireland (15 August 2013, Card. Sean Brady)
- Ukraine (23 October 2016, Bp. Sviatoslav Shevchuk)
- Congo (4 February 2017, Card. Pietro Parolin)
- Panama (9 March 2017, Abp. José Domingo Ulloa Mendieta)
- Russia and Countries of Central Asia (13 May 2017, Card. Josef Cordes)
- Scotland (3 September 2017, Abp. Philip Tartaglia)
- Afghanistan (13 October 2017, fr. Giovanni Scalese)
- Nigeria (13 October 2017)
- Nicaragua (28 April 2018, Card. Leopoldo Brenes, Bp. Silvio José Báez Ortega)
Cities consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of MaryEdit
Dioceses consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of MaryEdit
- Diocese of Green Bay, Wisconsin (10 September 2009, Bp. David L. Ricken)
- Diocese of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, Missouri (25 March 2010, Bp. James Vann Johnston)
- Diocese of Winona, Minnesota (8 September 2011, Bp. John M. Quinn)
- Archdiocese of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (13 October 2013, Abp. Paul S. Coakley)
- Archdiocese of Portland, Oregon (28 June 2014, Abp. Alexander K. Sample)
- Archdiocese of Milwaukee, Wisconsin (7 October 2016, Abp. Jerome E. Listecki)
- Diocese of Madison, Wisconsin (7 October 2016, Bp. Robert Morlino)
- Diocese of La Crosse, Wisconsin (7 October 2016, Bp. William P. Callahan)
- Diocese of Superior, Wisconsin (7 October 2016, Bp. James P. Powers)
- Diocese of Birmingham, Alabama (14 January 2017, Bp. Robert J. Baker)
- Diocese of Tyler, Texas (13 May 2017, Bp. Joseph E. Strickland)
- Diocese of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, Missouri (13 May 2017, Bp. James Vann Johnston)
- Diocese of Providence, Rhode Island (13 May 2017, Bp. Thomas J. Tobin)
- Archdiocese of Detroit, Michigan (13 May 2017, Abp. Allen H. Vigneron)
- Diocese of Paterson, New Jersey (13 May 2017, Arthur J. Serratelli)
- Diocese of Fargo, North Dakota (13–14 May 2017, Bp. John T. Folda)
- Diocese of Worcester, Massachusetts (3 June 2017, Bp. Robert J. McManus)
- Diocese of San Angelo, Texas (27 September 2017, Bp. Micheal J. Sis)
- Archdiocese of San Francisco, California (7 October 2017, Abp. Salvatore J. Cordileone)
- Diocese of Jackson, Mississippi (8 October 2017, Bp. Joseph Kopacz)
- Archdiocese of Louisville, Kentucky (8 October 2017, Abp. Joseph E. Kurtz)
- Diocese of Phoenix, Arizona (13 October 2017, Bp. Thomas J. Olmsted)
- Archdiocese of Denver, Colorado (13 October 2017, Abp. Samuel J. Aquila)
- Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota (13 October 2017, Abp. Bernard Hebda)
- Archdiocese of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (15 October 2017, Abp. Charles J. Chaput)
- Diocese of Colorado Springs, Colorado (15 October 2017, Bp. Michael J. Sheridan)
- Diocese of Albany, New York (8 December 2017, Bp. Edward B. Scharfenberger)
- Diocese of Santa Rosa, California (8–12 December 2017, Bp. Robert Vasa)
- Diocese of Austin, Texas (10 December 2017, Bp. Joe S. Vásquez)
- Diocese of St. Petersburg, Florida (6 May 2018, Bp. Gregory Parkes)
- Archdiocese of Montréal (23 November 2013, Abp. Christian Lépine)
- Archdiocese of Ottawa (1 July 2017, Abp. Terrence Thomas Prendergast)
- Diocese of Victoria (1 July 2017, Bp. Gary Michael Gordon)
- Archdiocese of Saint John's (1 July 2017, Abp. Martin William Currie)
- Archdiocese of Edmonton (1 July 2017, Abp. Richard William Smith)
- Diocese of Calgary (1 July 2017, Bp. William Terrence McGrattan)
- Archdiocese of Toronto (1 July 2017, Card. Thomas Christopher Collins)
- Archdiocese of Vancouver (2 July 2017, Abp. John Michael Miller)
- Archdiocese of Québec (2 July 2017, Card. Gérald Cyprien Lacroix)
- Diocese of Trois-Rivières (15 August 2017, Bp. Luc-André Bouchard)
- Diocese of Nicolet (8 December 2017, Bp. André Gazaille)
- Archdiocese of Monterrey (23 November 2013, Abp. Rogelio Cabrera López)
- Archdiocese of Mexico City (12 December 2014, Card. Juan Sandoval Íñiguez)
- All the 21 Portuguese dioceses (13 May 2016, Card. Manuel Clemente together with all the bishops of Portugal)
- All the 42 Polish dioceses (9 September 2017, Abp. Stanisław Gądecki together with all the bishops of Poland)
- All the Dutch dioceses (13 May 2017, Card. Willem J. Eijk together with all the bishops of the Netherlands)
- Diocese of Chioggia, Veneto (10 October 1954, Bp. Giovanni Battista Piasentini)
- Diocese of Reggio Emilia-Guastalla, Emilia-Romagna (13 May 2017, Bp. Massimo Camisasca)
- Diocese of Pavia, Lombardy (13 May 2017, Bp. Corrado Sanguineti)
- Diocese of Carpi, Emilia-Romagna (16 September 2017, Bp. Francesco Cavina)
- Diocese of Ischia, Campania (13 October 2017, Bp. Pietro Lagnese)
- Diocese of Cesena-Sarsina, Emilia-Romagna (8 Dicember 2017, Bp. Douglas Regattieri)
- Diocese of Ariano Irpino-Lacedonia, Campania (8 Dicember 2017, Bp. Sergio Melillo)
- Diocese of San Miniato, Tuscany (12 May 2017, Bp. Andrea Migliavacca)
- Archdiocese of Siracusa, Sicily (1 September 2018, Bp. Salvatore Pappalardo)
- Archdiocese of Vercelli, Piedmont (October 13, 2018, Bp. Marco Arnolfo)
- Archdiocese of Potenza, Basilicata (30 ottobre 2018, Abp. Salvatore Ligorio)
- Diocese of Fréjus-Toulon (18 May 2008, Bp. Dominique Rey)
- Diocese of Bayonne, Lescar and Oloron (8 June 2014, Bp. Marc Aillet)
- Diocese of Angoulême (May 7, 2017, Bp. Hervé Gosselin)
- Archdiocese of Bordeaux (13 May 2017, Card. Jean-Pierre Ricard)
- Archdiocese of Avignon (08 Dicember 2017, Abp. Jean-Pierre Cattenoz)
- Archdiocese of Aix-en-Provence and Arles (08 Dicember 2017, Abp. Christophe Dufour)
- Diocese of Vannes (08 Dicember 2017, Bp. Raymond Centène)
- Diocese of Perpignan-Elne (08 Dicember 2017, Bp. Norbert Turini)
- Diocese of Tulle (September 30, 2018, Bp. Francis Bestion)
- Diocese of Nevers (08 September 2018, Bp. Thierry Brac de la Perrière)
- Diocese of Alcalá de Henares (12 June 2010, Bp. Juan Antonio Reig Plá)
- Diocese of Cuenca (8 Dicember 2015, Bp. José María Yanguas Sanz)
- Archdiocese of Valladolid (10 June 2017, Abp. Luis Javier Argüello García)
- Diocese of San Sebastián (14 May 2017, Bp. José Ignacio Munilla)
- Archdiocese of Valencia (28 June 2018, Card. Antonio Cañizares Llovera)
- Diocese of Getafe (7 December 2018, Bp. Ginés Ramón García Beltrán)
- Diocese of Helsinki (December 8, 2005, Bp. Józef Wróbel)
- Archdiocese of Maracaibo (13 October 2017, Abp. Ubaldo Ramón Santana Sequera)
- Diocese of Machiques (December 8, 2017, Bp. Ramiro Díaz)
- Archdiocese of Barranquilla (9 June 2018, Abp. Pablo Emiro Salas Anteliz)
- Diocese of São Luiz de Cáceres (22 May 2016, Bp. Antônio Emídio Vilar)
- Archdiocese of Bombay (13 May 2017, Card. Oswald Gracias)
- Archdiocese of Goa and Daman (13 May 2017, Abp. Filipe Neri Ferrão)
- Diocese of Uíje (23 April 2017, Bp. Emílio Sumbelelo)
- South Africa
- Diocese of Oudshoorn
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