I Royal Bavarian Corps
The I Royal Bavarian Army Corps / I Bavarian AK (German: I. Königlich Bayerisches Armee-Korps) was a corps level command of the Royal Bavarian Army, part of the German Army, before and during World War I.[a]
|I Royal Bavarian Army Corps|
I. Königlich Bayerische Armee-Korps
Flag of the Staff of a Generalkommando (1871–1918)
|Country|| Kingdom of Bavaria|
|Size||Approximately 44,000 (on mobilisation in 1914)|
As part of the 1868 army reform, the I Royal Bavarian Army Corps of the Bavarian Army was set up in 1869 in Munich as the Generalkommando (headquarters) for the southern part of the Kingdom. With the formation of the III Royal Bavarian Corps in 1900, it was made responsible for Swabia and most of Upper and Lower Bavaria. Like all Bavarian formations, it was assigned to the IV Army Inspectorate. This became the 6th Army at the start of the First World War. The Corps was disbanded at the end of the war along with the Kingdom of Bavaria.
It initially fought in the battles of Worth, Beaumont and Bazeilles, where it lost about 7,000 men, it also fought at the decisive battle of Sedan. After Sedan, the Corps was responsible for the removal of prisoners and ensuring transport of the booty. Thereafter, it moved south of Paris to the Loire, to shield the army during the Siege of Paris. A newly formed French Corps gathered in the Orléans area, so the Corps was reinforced by the 17th Division, 22nd Division and two cavalry divisions. After the Battle of Artenay, Orléans was captured and the reinforcing divisions were removed so the Corps did not have them for the first battles against the Army of the Loire. As a result of the subsequent Battle of Coulmiers, Orléans was lost once again.
In the period from October to late December 1870, the Corps was on service without interruption, particularly from the beginning of November in the battles of Villepion, Loigny, Orléans and Beaugency, usually against a numerically superior enemy. The losses in December alone amounted to 5,600 men. A planned return to the siege army at Paris had to be postponed several times because the Bavarians could not be spared.
The 25 peacetime Corps of the German Army (Guards, I - XXI, I - III Bavarian) had a reasonably standardised organisation. Each consisted of two divisions with usually two infantry brigades, one field artillery brigade and a cavalry brigade each. Each brigade normally consisted of two regiments of the appropriate type, so each Corps normally commanded 8 infantry, 4 field artillery and 4 cavalry regiments. There were exceptions to this rule:
- V, VI, VII, IX and XIV Corps each had a 5th infantry brigade (so 10 infantry regiments)
- II, XIII, XVIII and XXI Corps had a 9th infantry regiment
- I, VI and XVI Corps had a 3rd cavalry brigade (so 6 cavalry regiments)
- the Guards Corps had 11 infantry regiments (in 5 brigades) and 8 cavalry regiments (in 4 brigades).
Each Corps also directly controlled a number of other units. This could include one or more
|I Royal Bavarian Corps||1st Royal Bavarian Division||1st Bavarian Infantry Brigade||Royal Bavarian Infantry Lifeguards Regiment||Munich|
|1st Royal Bavarian Infantry "King"||Munich|
|2nd Bavarian Infantry Brigade||2nd Royal Bavarian Infantry "Crown Prince"||Munich|
|16th Royal Bavarian Infantry "Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany"||Passau, Landshut|
|1st Bavarian Field Artillery Brigade||1st Royal Bavarian Field Artillery "Prince Regent Luitpold"||Munich|
|7th Royal Bavarian Field Artillery "Prince Regent Luitpold"||Munich|
|1st Bavarian Cavalry Brigade||1st Royal Bavarian Heavy Cavalry "Prince Charles of Bavaria"||Munich|
|2nd Royal Bavarian Heavy Cavalry "Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria"||Landshut|
|2nd Royal Bavarian Division||3rd Bavarian Infantry Brigade||3rd Royal Bavarian Infantry "Prince Charles of Bavaria"||Augsburg|
|20th Royal Bavarian Infantry "Prince Francis"||Lindau, Kempten|
|4th Bavarian Infantry Brigade||12th Royal Bavarian Infantry "Prince Arnulf"||Neu-Ulm|
|15th Royal Bavarian Infantry "King Frederick August of Saxony"||Neuburg an der Donau|
|2nd Bavarian Field Artillery Brigade||4th Royal Bavarian Field Artillery "King"||Augsburg|
|9th Royal Bavarian Field Artillery||Freising|
|2nd Bavarian Cavalry Brigade||4th Royal Bavarian Chevau-légers "King"||Augsburg, Neu-Ulm|
|8th Royal Bavarian Chevau-légers||Dillingen|
|Corps Troops||1st Royal Bavarian Jäger Battalion||Freising|
|1st Royal Bavarian Foot Artillery "vakant Bothmer"||Munich, Neu-Ulm|
|1st Royal Bavarian Pioneer Battalion||Munich|
|Royal Bavarian Railway Battalion||Munich|
|1st Royal Bavarian Telegraph Battalion||Munich|
|2nd Royal Bavarian Telegraph Battalion||Augsburg|
|1st Royal Bavarian Luft- u. Kraftfahrer Battalion||Munich|
|1st Royal Bavarian Flieger Battalion||Oberschleißheim|
|1st Royal Bavarian Train Abteilung||Munich|
|Munich Defence Command
World War IEdit
Organisation on mobilisationEdit
On mobilization, on 2 August 1914, the Corps was restructured. 1st Cavalry Brigade was withdrawn to form part of the Bavarian Cavalry Division and the 2nd Cavalry Brigade was broken up and its regiments assigned to the divisions as reconnaissance units. Divisions received engineer companies and other support units from the Corps headquarters. In summary, I Bavarian Corps mobilised with 25 infantry battalions, 8 machine gun companies (48 machine guns), 8 cavalry squadrons, 24 field artillery batteries (144 guns), 4 heavy artillery batteries (16 guns), 3 pioneer companies and an aviation detachment.
|I Royal Bavarian Corps||1st Royal Bavarian Division||1st Bavarian Infantry Brigade||Bavarian Leib Infantry Regiment|
|1st Bavarian Infantry Regiment|
|2nd Bavarian Infantry Brigade||2nd Bavarian Infantry Regiment|
|16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment|
|1st Bavarian Jäger Battalion|
|1st Bavarian Field Artillery Brigade||1st Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment|
|7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment|
|8th Chevauleger Regiment|
|1st Company, 1st Bavarian Pioneer Battalion|
|3rd Company, 1st Bavarian Pioneer Battalion|
|1st Bavarian Divisional Pontoon Train|
|1st Bavarian Medical Company|
|3rd Bavarian Medical Company|
|2nd Royal Bavarian Division||3rd Bavarian Infantry Brigade||3rd Bavarian Infantry Regiment|
|20th Bavarian Infantry Regiment|
|4th Bavarian Infantry Brigade||12th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment|
|15th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment|
|2nd Bavarian Field Artillery Brigade||4th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment|
|9th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment|
|4th Chevauleger Regiment|
|2nd Company, 1st Bavarian Pioneer Battalion|
|2nd Bavarian Divisional Pontoon Train|
|2nd Bavarian Medical Company|
|Corps Troops||II Battalion, 1st Bavarian Foot Artillery Regiment|
|1st Bavarian Aviation Detachment|
|1st Bavarian Corps Pontoon Train|
|1st Bavarian Telephone Detachment|
|1st Bavarian Pioneer Searchlight Section|
|Munition Trains and Columns corresponding to II Corps|
On mobilisation, I Royal Bavarian Corps was assigned to the predominantly Bavarian 6th Army forming part of the left wing of the forces for the Schlieffen Plan offensive in August 1914. It was still in existence at the end of the war in the 18th Army, Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz on the Western Front.
|8 January 1869||General der Infanterie||Ludwig Freiherr von und zu der Tann-Rathsamhausen|
|16 June 1881||General der Infanterie||Karl Freiherr von Horn|
|3 March 1887||Generalleutnant||Prince Leopold of Bavaria|
|29 October 1890||Generaloberst||Prince Arnulf of Bavaria|
|19 April 1906||General der Infanterie||Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria|
|22 March 1913||General der Infanterie||Oskar Ritter von Xylander|
|19 June 1918||Generalleutnant||Nikolaus Ritter von Endres|
|25 April 1919||General der Artillerie||Maximilian Ritter von Höhn|
Headquarters staff during World War IEdit
From 2 August 1914, its headquarters staff were:
- Commanding General: Gen. d. Inf. Oskar Ritter v. Xylander, Gen.-Lt. Nikolaus Ritter v. Endres as Führer from 23 June 1918
- Chief of General Staff: Gen.-Maj. Karl Frhr. v. Nagel zu Aichberg, Gen.-Maj. Möhl from 6 March 1915, Maj. Ludwig Graf v. Holnstein from Bavaria from 13 September 1916, Oberstlt. Friedrich Haack from 29 May 1918.
- General staff: Maj. Hans Hemmer, Hptm. Wilhelm Leeb, Hptm. Otto Frhr. v. Berchem, Hptm. Karl Deuringer
- Commander of Engineers: Major Georg Vogl
- From the late 1800s, the Prussian Army was effectively the German Army as, during the period of German unification (1866-1871), the states of the German Empire entered into conventions with Prussia regarding their armies. Only the Bavarian Army remained fully autonomous and came under Prussian control only during wartime.
- Cron 2002, p. 394
- Haythornthwaite 1996, pp. 193–194
- They formed the Guards Cavalry Division, the only peacetime cavalry division in the German Army.
- War Office 1918, p. 261
- Cron 2002, p. 301
- Cron 2002, pp. 318
- Without a machine gun company
- Cron 2002, p. 301 also shows the 1st Bavarian Jäger Battalion assigned to the Bavarian Cavalry Division with III Cavalry Corps
- 4 heavy artillery batteries (16 heavy field howitzers)
- Cron 2002, pp. 88–89
- Ellis & Cox 1993, pp. 186–187
- German Administrative History Accessed: 9 April 2012
- German War History Accessed: 9 April 2012
- The Prussian Machine Accessed: 7 June 2012
- (in German) von Dellmensingen Konrad Krafft & Feeser Friedrichfranz; Das Bayernbuch vom Weltkriege 1914-1918, Chr. Belser AG, Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1930
- Cron, Hermann (2002). Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Structure, Orders-of-Battle [first published: 1937]. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1.
- Ellis, John; Cox, Michael (1993). The World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6.
- Haythornthwaite, Philip J. (1996). The World War One Source Book. Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-351-7.
- Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War (1914-1918), compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, Chaumont, France 1919. The London Stamp Exchange Ltd (1989). 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3.
- The German Forces in the Field; 7th Revision, 11th November 1918; Compiled by the General Staff, War Office. Imperial War Museum, London and The Battery Press, Inc (1995). 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X.