INSAS rifle

INSAS (an abbreviation of INdian Small Arms System)[8] is a family of infantry arms consisting of an assault rifle and a light machine gun (LMG). It is manufactured by the Ordnance Factories Board at Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli,[9] Small Arms Factory Kanpur[10] and Ishapore Arsenal.[11] The INSAS assault rifle was the standard infantry weapon of the Indian Armed Forces.[1][12][13]

INSAS Rifle
INSAS Black flip.jpg
INSAS rifle in a black finish.
TypeAssault rifle
Place of originIndia
Service history
In service1998–2019
Used bySee Operators
WarsKargil War[1]
Nepalese Civil War[2]
Naxalite–Maoist insurgency[3]
Production history
Designed1980s–1997
ManufacturerArmament Research and Development Establishment
Ordnance Factories Board
Produced1994[4]–present
No. built100,000 (Assault Rifles) and 6,000 (LMG) (2012)[5]
700,000–900,000 (2019)[6]
VariantsSee Variants
Specifications
Mass4.018 kg (8.86 lb) (without magazine)[7]
Length960 mm (37.8 in)[7]
Barrel length464 mm (18.3 in)

Cartridge5.56×45mm NATO[7]
ActionGas-operated, Rotating bolt
Rate of fire600–650 rounds/min[7]
Muzzle velocity900 m/s (2,953 ft/s)[7]
Effective firing range400m (Insas Rifle)
600 m: Point targets (Insas LMG)
700 m: Area target (Insas LMG)[7]
Feed system20- or 30-round detachable box magazine
SightsIn-built iron sights, mount point for telescopic or night sight

The rifle was replaced with the AK-203[14] and the SIG 716 beginning in 2019.[15] The light machine gun version began to be replaced by the IWI Negev in 2020.[16]

HistoryEdit

Since the late 1950s, the Indian armed forces had been equipped with a locally produced licensed copy[17] of the L1A1 self-loading rifles.[12] In the mid-1980s, the decision was taken to develop a 5.56 mm calibre rifle to replace other obsolete rifles. Trials on various prototypes based on the AKM were carried out by the Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) in Pune. On the completion of the trial, The Indian Small Arms System (INSAS) was adopted in 1990. However, to phase out the still in use bolt-action Lee–Enfield rifles as quickly as possible, India had to acquire 100,000 7.62×39mm AKM-type rifles from Russia, Hungary, Romania and Israel in 1990–92.[18]

Originally, three variants were planned in the INSAS system, a rifle, a carbine and a squad automatic weapon (SAW) or Light machine gun (LMG). In 1997, the rifle and the LMG went into mass production.[12] In 1998, the first INSAS rifles were displayed at the republic day parade.[1] The introduction of the rifle was delayed due to the lack of 5.56×45mm ammunition, large quantities of the same were bought from Israel Military Industries.[12]

The first combat use of the rifle was during the Kargil War in 1999.[1][12]

The Indian Army will be armed partially with the INSAS IC assault rifle.[19]

DesignEdit

The INSAS is primarily based on the AKM but incorporates features from other rifles. It has a chrome-plated bore. The barrel has a six-groove rifling. The basic gas operated long stroke piston and the rotating bolt are similar to the AKM/AK-47.[12]

 
Indian Army soldiers in an exercise with the INSAS rifle.
 
An Indian soldier uniform with the INSAS rifle.

It has a manual gas regulator, similar to that of FN FAL, and a gas cutoff for launching grenades. The charging handle is on the left instead of on the bolt carrier, similar in operation to the HK33.[12] There is a change lever on the left side of the receiver above the pistol grip. It can fire a three-round burst or in semi-automatic mode. The cyclic rate averages at 650 rpm. The transparent plastic magazine was adapted from the Steyr AUG. The rear sight lies on one end of the breech cover and is calibrated to 400 meters. The furniture is either made of wood or polymer.[12] The polymer butt and forend assemblies differ from the AKM and are more similar to that of IMI Galil. Some variants have a folding butt. A bayonet can also be attached to it.[18] The guns take 20- or 30-round polymer magazines. The 30-round magazine is made for the LMG version, but can be also used in the rifle. The flash suppressor also accepts NATO-specification rifle grenades.[12]

IssuesEdit

During the 1999 Kargil War, the rifles were used in the high altitudes of the Himalayas. There were complaints of jamming, the magazine cracking due to the cold and the rifle going into automatic mode when it was set for three-round bursts.[1] There was also a problem of oil being sprayed into the eye of the operator. Some injuries during firing practice were also reported.[20] In 2001, the 1B1 variant was introduced to solve problems regarding the rifle's reliability back in the Kargil War, but it opened up other problems such as broken magazines.[21][19]

Similar complaints were also received from the Nepalese Army.[1] In August 2005, after 43 soldiers were killed in a clash with Maoists, a Nepalese Army spokesman called the rifle substandard and their counter-insurgency operation would have been more efficient with better weapons. The Indian embassy released a statement that rejected the claim and attributed it to improper use, it also offered training for the rifle's correct use.[22]

On 8 August 2011, Pallam Raju, then Minister of State for Defence, replying to a question in the Lok Sabha said that all the reported problems had been rectified.[20] Soon afterwards in a press release, the Ministry of Defence reported the number and details of the injuries that had happened during firing practice since 2009. The statement also acknowledged the problem of oil-sprays reported in 2003 and said that the problem had been completely fixed. The report attributed the injuries to improper usage and the rifle's material.[23]

In November 2014, the CRPF requested to drop the INSAS as their standard rifle due to problems with reliability. The Director General of CRPF Dilip Trivedi said that the INSAS jams more frequently compared to the AK-47 and the X-95.[24]

In December 2014, a parliamentary committee presented its report, after investigating why a high-quality assault rifle was not being produced.[25] In 2015, a public interest litigation (PIL) was filed in the Delhi High Court by a retired lieutenant colonel. He claimed that the lack of a modern rifle was causing soldiers to lose their lives. In April 2015, the Court asked the Ministry of Defence to file its response.[26] The Ministry defended the use of the rifle, saying that casualties cannot be blamed on the weapon as it was inducted after thorough trials and had undergone three major upgrades since. They also pointed out the rifle had been not blamed by the Court of Inquires which had investigated the Naxalite operations.[27] In November 2015, the Court dismissed the petition stating that there was not enough evidence to show any defects in the INSAS. It also noted the government was in the process of acquiring new rifles.[28]

In April 2015, the Indian government replaced some INSAS rifles of the CRPF with AK-47s.[29] In early 2017, it was announced that INSAS rifles were to be retired and replaced by rifles capable of firing 7.62×51mm NATO cartridges.[30] In March 2019, media reported that Indian military were set to replace the INSAS with Russia-designed AK-203 assault rifles, manufactured in India under a joint venture.[31]

VariantsEdit

 
INSAS LMG
 
Amogh Carbine and Excalibur Rifle

INSAS Standard RifleEdit

It is a gas operated assault rifle. It can be fired in single round or three-round burst mode. A telescopic sight or a passive night sight can be mounted on it. It can take NATO-standard 5.56×45mm SS109 and M193 ammunition. It comes with a bayonet. It has a mount point for the ARDE 40 mm under barrel grenade launcher, along with a gas-block for launching grenades and grenade iron-sights. The flash suppressor has a blank-firing adaptor.[7] It also has a foldable butt version.[32]

An INSAS assault rifle with black furniture, incorporating full-auto mode was introduced later. The automatic assault rifle has the same range of 400 m as the semi-automatic standard INSAS rifle.[33]

LMGEdit

The LMG (Light Machine Gun) differs from the standard rifle in possessing a longer range of 700 m, as compared to 400 m range of INSAS standard and assault rifles. It has a longer and heavier barrel with revised rifling, and a bipod. The LMG version uses 30-round magazines and can also accept the 20-round INSAS AR magazine. This model fires in semi and full-auto.[34] It also has a foldable-butt version.[35]

The LMG will be replaced with the IWI Negev Ng7.[36]

ExcaliburEdit

The Excalibur, with a range of 400 m, can be used for battlefield engagements as well as for close combat. It is lighter and shorter as compared to the automatic INSAS assault rifle.[37] In July 2015, it was reported that the INSAS may be replaced by the Modified INSAS rifle (MIR), which is based on the Excalibur variant. The decision was taken by General Dalbir Singh, who wanted an indigenous rifle.[38][39] The prototype had two stoppages after firing 24,000 rounds, which was very close the army's specification of one stoppage. It was also reported that another prototype of Excalibur, AR-2, was being prepared which would fire 7.62×39mm rounds of the AK-47.[38]

The prototype incorporates a direct gas-tapping angle to reduce the recoil. The rifle would have automatic and single shot modes. The three-round burst mode of the INSAS has been dropped. The rifle would have a folding butt and a standard Picatinny rail. By September 2015, it had passed the water and mud tests, which four of the foreign rifles in the tender competition had failed. It was also reported 200 rifles were being manufactured and that prototype would undergo formal trials in late 2015.[40]

Kalantak and AmoghEdit

The Kalantak micro assault rifle, with a range of 300 m, is for close combat and personnel defence weapon roles.[41]

The Amogh carbine, with a range of 200 m, is specially designed for close quarter battle roles.[42]

BullpupEdit

 
INSAS bull pup rifle prototype

Lieutenant Colonel Prasad Bansod, of Army School Mhow[43] reverse engineered an INSAS rifle to produce a bullpup carbine variant. He reportedly did this in his spare time. This prototype gun was shown in exhibition but never approved. An additional submachine gun named ASMI was developed as well by him.[44][45]

OperatorsEdit

ExportsEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit