III Marine Expeditionary Force
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III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) is a formation of the Marine Air-Ground Task Force of the United States Marine Corps. It is forward-deployed and able to rapidly conduct operations across the spectrum from humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HA/DR) to amphibious assault and high-intensity combat.
|III Marine Expeditionary Force|
III Marine Expeditionary Force insignia
|Active||1942–46, 1965 – present|
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Marine Corps|
|Type||Marine Air-Ground Task Force|
|Role||Forward-deployed expeditionary force|
|Part of||Marine Forces Pacific|
|Garrison/HQ||Camp Courtney, Okinawa, Japan|
|Engagements||World War II|
Operation Unified Assistance
|Lt. Gen. Eric M. Smith|
William R. Collins
Herman Nickerson Jr.
Donn J. Robertson
Lewis W. Walt
Robert E. Cushman Jr.
Carl W. Hoffman
It maintains a forward presence in Japan and Asia to support the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan (1960) and other alliance relationships of the United States. III MEF also conducts combined operations and training throughout the region in support of the National Security Strategy for Theater Security Cooperation.
The Marines and sailors of III MEF engage in more than 65 combined, bilateral and multilateral training exercises annually throughout the Asia-Pacific region, in countries including treaty allies Japan, Thailand, South Korea, The Philippines, and Australia. These exercises build partner capacity, develop and maintain strong regional alliances and military-to-military contacts. These exercises prepare III MEF to conduct operations ranging from major combat operations to humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.
III MEF has played a significant role in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief missions throughout the region. The MEF assisted the relief efforts led by the Government of Japan during Operation Tomodachi after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. III MEF also conducted HA/DR missions in Thailand in October 2011, the Philippines in October 2010, and Indonesia in October 2009. Most recently in response to the resulting humanitarian crisis from Typhoon Haiyan which struck the Philippines in 2013, III MEF activated as Joint Task Force 505 to conduct humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations in support of the Philippine government. More than 2,495 tons of relief supplies were delivered, and over 21,000 people were evacuated.
Commanded by a lieutenant general with its headquarters at Camp Courtney, III MEF's mission is to provide forward based and deployed forces to the commander, U.S. Pacific Command, to conduct Phase 0 engagement and theater security cooperation events, support contingencies and emergent requirements, and prepare to rapidly execute existing operations plans in support of the theater and national military strategies.
III MEF is organized as a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) to provide a rapidly deployable, flexible self-contained fighting force. The Marines combine air, ground, and logistics forces to operate as a coherent, self-sufficient force. Each mission dictates the MAGTF's scale and structure, giving the Marine Corps the flexibility to respond to any crisis and making a "force in readiness." A MEF is the largest of all MAGTFs.
III Marine Expeditionary Force was activated as I Amphibious Corps 1 October 1942 in Camp Elliott, San Diego, California. Later that month, they were deployed to Noumea, New Caledonia. The unit was redesignated as III Amphibious Corps 15 April 1944. III Amphibious Corps was deactivated on 10 June 1946.
World War IIEdit
During World War II, III MEF was known as I Marine Amphibious Corps. It was renamed III Amphibious Corps on 15 April 1944, and took part in fighting against the Japanese Empire in the Pacific theater during World War II. It fought in some of the bloodiest battles, including the Solomon Islands Campaign, the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign and the Battle of Okinawa. III Amphibious Corps redeployed to Tientsin, China in September 1945, where it participated in the occupation of Northern China until June 1946. III Amphibious Corps was deactivated on 10 June 1946.
III MEF was reactivated 6 May 1965 in Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam under Major general William R. Collins. 7 May 1965, III MEF was re-designated as III Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF) and consisted of the 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Division and the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. The III MAF's area of operations was in the northern I Corps Tactical Zone. III MAF participated in the Vietnam War from May 1965 – April 1971 operating from Quang Tri, Thua Thien, Quang Nam, Quang Tin, and Quang Ngai. III MAF deployed to Camp Courtney, Okinawa in April 1971.
Since III MAF was redesignated to III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) 5 February 1988, they have participated in many different operations. These operations include the Persian Gulf War's Operation Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm, as well as Operation Provide Comfort in Southwest Asia and Iraq from Sept. 1990 – April 1991 and May–June 1991. III MEF elements have also played a vital role in Operation Sea Angel in Bangladesh from May–June 1991; Operation Fiery Vigil in The Philippines June 1991; Operation Restore Hope and Operation Continue Hope in Somalia from December 1992 to March 1994. III MEF elements have also had a significant impact on the Iraq War's Operation Iraqi Freedom as well as the Global War on Terrorism's Enduring Freedom.
One of the biggest roles III MEF plays in the Asia-Pacific region is humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HA/DR). III MEF elements participated in Operation Unified Assistance in response to the tsunami disaster in Southeast Asia from December 2004 to February 2005. III MEF has also assisted with the 2005 Kashmir earthquake response from October 2005 to March 2006; Philippine mudslide response in March and April 2006; 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake response in May and June 2006; Legazpi typhoon recovery in March 2007; 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami response in April 2007; Operation Sea Angel II in Bangladesh from November to December 2007; Operation Caring Response in Burma from May and June 2008; Taiwan typhoon relief in August 2009; Philippine typhoon and Indonesian earthquake relief in October 2009; Philippine typhoon relief in October 2010; Operation Tomodachi in May 2011; Thailand flood relief from October through November 2011; and Philippine typhoon relief in December 2012 and again in November 2013.
- Ground combat element: 3rd Marine Division
- Aviation combat element: 1st Marine Aircraft Wing
- Logistics combat element: 3rd Marine Logistics Group
- Command element: III Marine Expeditionary Force Information Group (MIG) (formerly designated as a MEF HQG) - redesignated as III MEF Information Group
- 3rd Marine Expeditionary Brigade
- 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit
Locations and unitsEdit
- Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler
- Marine Corps Air Station Futenma
- III Marine Expeditionary Force Command Element (III MEF CE)
- III Marine Expeditionary Force Headquarters Group (III MHG)
- III Marine Expeditionary Force Headquarters and Service Company (III MEF HQSVC)
- 3rd Marine Expeditionary Brigade (3rd MEB)
- 3rd Marine Division (3rd MarDiv)
- 1st Marine Aircraft Wing (1st MAW)
- 3rd Marine Logistics Group (3rd MLG)
- 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit (31st MEU)
- Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay
- 3rd Marine Regiment
- Marine Aircraft Group 24
- Combat Logistics Battalion 3
- Combat Logistics Company 35
Awards and decorationsEdit
Notable former membersEdit
- "III MEF bids farewell to Nicholson, welcomes Smith as new commanding general". dvidshub.net. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- III MEF Lineage and Honors, USMC History Division
- DoD News, "Joint Task Force 505 Activates for Operation Damayan"
- Lum and Margesson, "Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda): U.S. and International Response to Philippines Disaster"
- Manning, "Constant Vigilance readies Kinser, community for disaster response"
- "III MEF stands up new MEF Information Group". marines.mil.
- References used
- "Joint Task Force 505 Activates for Operation Damayan". DoD News. U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "III MEF Lineage and Honors" (pdf). USMC History Division. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Lum, Thomas; Margesson, Rhoda. "Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda): U.S. and International Response to Philippines Disaster" (pdf). Congressional Research Service. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Manning, Matthew. "Constant Vigilance readies Kinser, community for disaster response". USMC News. USMC official website. Retrieved 5 March 2015.