The possibility of human–ape hybrids has been entertained since at least the medieval period; Peter Damian (11th century) claimed to have been shown the monstrous offspring of a human woman who had mated with an ape. Linnaeus (1758) used Homo troglodytes as the taxonomical name for a hypothetical human and orangutan hybrid.
Humans have one pair fewer chromosomes than other apes, with ape chromosomes 2 and 4 fused in the human genome into a large chromosome (which contains remnants of the centromere and telomeres of the ancestral 2 and 4). Having different numbers of chromosomes is not an absolute barrier to hybridization; similar mismatches are relatively common in existing species, a phenomenon known as chromosomal polymorphism.
All great apes have similar genetic structure. Chromosomes 6, 13, 19, 21, 22, and X are structurally the same in all great apes. Chromosomes 3, 11, 14, 15, 18, and 20 match between gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. Chimps and humans match on 1, 2p, 2q, 5, 7–10, 12, 16, and Y as well. Some older references include Y as a match between gorillas, chimps, and humans, but chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans have recently been found to share a large transposition from chromosome 1 to Y not found in other apes.
This degree of chromosomal similarity is roughly equivalent to that found in equines. Interfertility of horses and donkeys is common, although sterility of the offspring (mules) is nearly universal (with only around 60 exceptions recorded in equine history). Similar complexities and prevalent sterility pertain to horse–zebra hybrids, or zorses, whose chromosomal disparity is very wide, with horses typically having 32 chromosome pairs and zebras between 16 and 23 depending on species. In a direct parallel to the chimp–human case, the Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) with 33 chromosome pairs, and the domestic horse (E. f. caballus) with 32 pairs, have been found to be interfertile, and produce semi-fertile offspring: male hybrids can breed with female domestic horses.
In 1977, researcher J. Michael Bedford discovered that human sperm could penetrate the protective outer membranes of a gibbon egg. Bedford's paper also stated that human spermatozoa would not even attach to the zona surface of non-hominoid primates (baboon, rhesus monkey, and squirrel monkey), concluding that although the specificity of human spermatozoa is not confined to man alone, it is probably restricted to the Hominoidea.
Reports of attempted hybridizationEdit
There have been no scientifically verified specimens of a human–chimp hybrid, but there have been substantiated reports of unsuccessful attempts at human/chimpanzee hybridization in the Soviet Union in the 1920s, and various unsubstantiated reports on similar attempts during the second half of the 20th century.
Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov was the first person to attempt to create a human–chimp hybrid by artificial insemination. Ivanov outlined his idea as early as 1910 in a presentation to the World Congress of Zoologists in Graz. In the 1920s, Ivanov carried out a series of experiments, working with human sperm and female chimpanzees, but he failed to achieve a pregnancy. In 1929 he organized a set of experiments involving nonhuman ape sperm and human volunteers, but was delayed by the death of his last orangutan. The next year he fell under political criticism from the Soviet government and was sentenced to exile in the Kazakh SSR; he worked there at the Kazakh Veterinary-Zootechnical Institute and died of a stroke two years later.
In the 1970s, a performing chimp named Oliver was popularized as a possible "mutant" or even a human–chimpanzee hybrid. An examination of Oliver's chromosomes at the University of Chicago in 1996 revealed that Oliver had forty-eight—not forty-seven—chromosomes, thus disproving an earlier claim that he did not have a normal chromosome count for a chimpanzee. Oliver's cranial morphology, ear shape, freckles, and baldness fall within the range of variability exhibited by the common chimpanzee. Scientists performed further studies with Oliver, the results of which were published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
In the 1980s, there were reports on an experiment in human–chimpanzee crossbreeding conducted in the People's Republic of China in 1967, and on the planned resumption of such experiments. In 1981, Ji Yongxiang, head of a hospital in Shengyang, was reported as claiming to have been part of a 1967 experiment in Shengyang in which a chimpanzee female had been impregnated with human sperm. According to this account, the experiment came to nothing because it was cut short by the Cultural Revolution, with the responsible scientists sent off to farm labour and the chimpanzee dying from neglect. According to Timothy McNulty of Chicago Tribune, the report was based on an article in the Wenhui Bao paper of Shanghai. Li Guong of the genetics research bureau at the Chinese Academy of Sciences was cited as confirming both the existence of the experiment prior to the Cultural Revolution and the plans to resume testing.
Evidence for early hominin hybridizationEdit
There is evidence for a complex speciation process for the Pan–Homo split. This concerns times pre-dating the emergence of Homo and would concern hybridization between Pan and Ardipithecus or Orrorin, not Homo. Different chromosomes appear to have split at different times, suggesting that large-scale hybridization may have taken place over a period of as much as four million years leading up to the two emerging ("human" and "chimp") lineages as late as six million years ago. The similarity of the X chromosome in humans and chimpanzees might suggest hybridization taking place as late as four million years ago. This latter conclusion should be regarded as uncertain, with alternative proposals available to explain the apparent short divergence time in the X chromosome.
- "If the Chinese succeed in their present attempts with artificial insemination to crossbreed a human being with a chimpanzee, producing the novel and useful 'humanzee,' it would be arguably patentable matter". The portmanteau is older, dating to the 1920s, but then did not refer to a hybrid but to a "human-like" chimpanzee, trained to wear clothes etc.; c.f. "Snooky the Humanzee", a chimpanzee actor in the 1920s (silentera.com, imdb.com. Lev Soudek, Structure of Substandard Words in British and American English, Vydavatelʹstvo SAV, 1967, p. 199.
- PL 145, p. 789. Ait [Alexander papa ] enim quia nuper comes Gulielmus in Liguriae partibus habitans marem habebat simiae, qui vulgo maimo dicitur, cum quo et uxor eius, ut erat impudica prorsus ac petulans, lascivius iocabatur. Nam et ego duos eius filios vidi, quos de episcopo quodam plectibilis lupa pepererat
- Tubbs, P.K. 1985: OPINION 1368. THE GENERIC NAMES PAN AND PANTHERA (MAMMALIA, CARNIVORA): AVAILABLE AS FROM OKEN, 1816. Bulletin of zoological nomenclature, 42: 365-370. ISSN 0007-5167 Internet Archive BHL BioStor corrigendum in Bulletin of zoological nomenclature, 45: 304. (1988) Internet Archive https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/44486#4 BHL
- "Chimps are human, gene study implies". New Scientist. Retrieved 2006-02-24.
- IJdo JW, Baldini A, Ward DC, Reeders ST, Wells RA (October 1991). "Origin of human chromosome 2: an ancestral telomere–telomere fusion". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (20): 9051–5. Bibcode:1991PNAS...88.9051I. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.20.9051. PMC 52649. PMID 1924367.
- Wimmer R, Kirsch S, Rappold GA, Schempp W (2002). "Direct Evidence for a Pan–Homo Clade". Chromosome Research. 10 (1): 55–61. doi:10.1023/A:1014222311431. PMID 11863072.
- Kay, Katty (2002-10-02). "Morocco's miracle mule". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-09-14.
- Chandley, AC; Short, RV; Allen, WR (1975). "Cytogenetic studies of three equine hybrids". Journal of Reproductive Fertility (23): 356–70. PMID 1060807.
- Bedford JM (August 1977). "Sperm/egg interaction: the specificity of human spermatozoa". Anat. Rec. 188 (4): 477–87. doi:10.1002/ar.1091880407. PMID 409311.
- Rossiianov, Kirill (2002). "Beyond species: Il'ya Ivanov and his experiments on cross-breeding humans with anthropoid apes". Science in Context. 15 (2): 277–316. doi:10.1017/S0269889702000455. PMID 12467272.
- New Scientist 20 August 2008.
- "10. Oliver the Mutant Chimp". Archived from the original on 2005-12-28. Retrieved 2006-03-11.
- Anonymous (1996). "Mutant Chimp Gets Gene Check". Science. 274 (5288): 727. doi:10.1126/science.274.5288.727e.
- Hill, WCO; in Bourne, GH (1969). Anatomy, behavior, and diseases of chimpanzees (The Chimpanzee. 1. S. Karger. pp. 22–49.
- Ely JJ, Leland M, Martino M, Swett W, Moore CM (1998). "Technical note: chromosomal and mtDNA analysis of Oliver". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 105 (3): 395–403. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199803)105:3<395::AID-AJPA8>3.0.CO;2-Q. PMID 9545080.
- "Li Guong, of the genetics research bureau of the Academy of Science treats it seriously. 'My personal view is that it is possible [...] We also did experimental work on this before the Cultural Revolution, but we were stopped. At the moment, we plan to arrange further tests.'" Timothy McNulty, "Chinese Aim To Implant Human Sperm In Chimps", St. Petersburg Independent 12 February 1981, p. 19. "Chinese May Resume Experiments to Create 'Near-Human' Ape", Houston Post (from Chicago Tribune), 15 February 1981, p. 19, cited after Justin Leiber, Can Animals and Machines be Persons?: A Dialogue, Hackett Publishing, 1985 p. 71.
- Patterson N, Richter DJ, Gnerre S, Lander ES, Reich D (June 2006). "Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees". Nature. 441 (7097): 1103–8. Bibcode:2006Natur.441.1103P. doi:10.1038/nature04789. PMID 16710306.
- Wakeley J (March 2008). "Complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees". Nature. 452 (7184): E3–4, discussion E4. Bibcode:2008Natur.452....3W. doi:10.1038/nature06805. PMID 18337768. "Patterson et al. suggest that the apparently short divergence time between humans and chimpanzees on the X chromosome is explained by a massive interspecific hybridization event in the ancestry of these two species. However, Patterson et al. do not statistically test their own null model of simple speciation before concluding that speciation was complex, and—even if the null model could be rejected—they do not consider other explanations of a short divergence time on the X chromosome. These include natural selection on the X chromosome in the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, changes in the ratio of male-to-female mutation rates over time, and less extreme versions of divergence with gene flow. I therefore believe that their claim of hybridization is unwarranted." Wade, Nicholas. "Two Splits Between Human and Chimp Lines Suggested", The New York Times, 18 May 2006. For a chromosomal homology map between these species see. Pratas, D; Silva, R; Pinho, A; Ferreira, P (May 18, 2015). "An alignment-free method to find and visualise rearrangements between pairs of DNA sequences". Scientific Reports. 5: 10203. Bibcode:2015NatSR...510203P. doi:10.1038/srep10203. PMC 4434998. PMID 25984837.