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Human rights violations in Balochistan

Human rights violations in the Balochistan province of Pakistan have drawn concern in the international community,[1] being described by Human Rights Watch (HRW) as having reached epidemic proportions.[2] The violations have taken place during the ongoing Balochistan conflict between Baloch nationalists, terrorist and the Government of Pakistan over the rule of Balochistan, the largest province by land area of modern-day Pakistan.

Human rights violations in Balochistan
Balochistan in Pakistan.svg
TargetCivilians and combatants
PerpetratorsPakistani security forces
Baloch separatist and terrorist groups
MotiveMilitary clampdown

Brad Adams the director of the Asia branch of HRW has said that the Pakistani government has not done enough to stop the violence,[3] which include torture, enforced disappearances of those suspected of either terrorism or opposing the military, ill treatment of those suspected of criminal activity, and extrajudicial killings.[4]



Before joining Pakistan, Balochistan consisted of four princely states: Makran, Las Bela, Kharan, and Kalat. Three of these, Makran, Las Bela, and Kharan willingly joined Pakistan in 1947 during the dissolution of the British Indian Empire.[5] However, Kalat, led by the Khan of Kalat, Ahmed Yaar Khan, chose independence as this was one of the options given to all of the princely states by Clement Attlee at the time.[6] Muhammad Ali Jinnah persuaded Yar Khan to accept Pakistani rule but the Khan stalled for time. After a period of negotiations, Khan finally decided to accede to Pakistan on 27 March 1948.[7] The Khan's brother Prince Kareem Khan declared independence and fled to Afghanistan to seek aid and begin an armed struggle that failed. By June 1948, Baluchistan in whole became a part of Pakistan.[8]

There were a further three insurgencies in the region after 1948: 1958–1959, 1962–1963 and 1973–1977, and a fifth nationalistic movement which began in 2002.[9] The 1958–1959 conflict was caused by the imposition of the One Unit plan which had been implemented in 1955. This led to further resistance, and by 1957 Nauroz Khan announced his intention to secede; Pakistan declared martial law one day later.[10] Pakistan bombed separatists hideouts and deployed tanks with support from artillery. Nauroz was arrested and died while in prison, his family members were hanged for treason.[11] According to Dan Slater, pro independence feelings in East Pakistan and Balochistan increased in parity with continuing military intervention in the political arena.[10]

Missing personsEdit

According to journalist Ahmed Rashid writing in 2014, estimates of the number of disappeared in Balochistan "are between hundreds and several thousand."[12] According to Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP) around 5,228 Baloch have gone missing from 2001 to 2017.[13] While according to an 8 December 2005 statement, by the then Pakistani interior minister Aftab Sherpao, an estimated 4,000 people from Balochistan were in the custody of the authorities[14] having been detained in the province between 2002–2005.[15] Of this number only 200 were taken to court and the rest were being held incommunicado according to author Manan Dwivedi writing in 2009.[15]

In December 2018, Balochistan National Party (Mengal) (BNP-M) leader, Akhtar Mengal presented a list of 5,000 missing person to the newly formed government of Imran Khan. BNP-M leaders claims that there has been a noticeable decline in enforced disappearances since BNP-M agreement with Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI). BNP-M also claims that hundreds of alleged victims have been reunited with their families.[16]

A senior Pakistani provincial security official claims that missing person figures are 'exaggerated', that 'in Balochistan, insurgents, immigrants who fled to Europe and even those who have been killed in military operations are declared as missing persons'.[13] Reports have shown that many people have fled the province to seek Asylum in other countries because of the unrest caused by separatist militants.

Pakistani authorities have acknowledged that disappearances happens. In 2011, government established a commission which registered 5,369 missing person's complaints. The commission claims to have traced more then 3,600 people.[16]

On June 3, 2012, Prime Minister Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani directed Balochistan's chief minister to take special measures to trace the missing persons.[17]

In October 2018, Balochistan National Party (Mengal) (BNP-M) claimed that around 300 missing persons had returned their homes.[18] Similarly in January 2019, Voice of Baloch Missing People (VBMP) decided to end their suspend their protest after around dozens of missing people returned to their homes. VBMP gave a list of 110 missing people which the VBMP expects the government recover them within two months.[19]

Military and paramilitary abusesEdit

The Frontier Corps (FC), Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency[20] and other groups have been accused of "a decade-long campaign" of "pick up and dump" in which "Baloch nationalists, militants or even innocent bystanders are picked up, disappeared, tortured, mutilated and then killed".[21] Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency has been accused of massive human rights abuses in Balochistan by Human Rights Watch, with the enforced disappearance of hundreds of nationalists and activists. In 2008 alone, an estimated 1102 people were disappeared from the region.[20] There have also been reports of torture.[22] An increasing number of bodies are being found on roadsides, having been shot in the head.[23] In July 2011, the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan issued a report on illegal disappearances in Balochistan which identified ISI and Frontier Corps as the perpetrators. According to journalist Malik Siraj Akbar, as of May 2015, "dozens of people are losing their lives every day" in "extra judicial killings committed by the Pakistani security forces" in the province of Balochistan.[24] However, Pakistan security officials have rejected all allegations against them.

In a 2012 statement to the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Pakistani government denied allegations of the use of secret operations or death squads in Balochistan.[25] Major General Obaid Ullah Khan Niazi, commander of the 46,000 paramilitary Frontier Corps (FC) stationed in Balochistan, claimed that "militants are using FC uniforms to kidnap people and malign our good name."[26] Similarly, Baloch separatist militants have also been found using military uniform which resembles the one used by Frontier Corps while carrying out their activities.[27]

Balochistan’s former chief minister, Sardar Akhtar Jan Mengal, in a statement to the Supreme Court, claimed that the current civil disturbances in Balochistan were a direct result of "enforced disappearances".[28]

Religious persecution of minoritiesEdit

According to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP)[29][30] and Al Jazeera,[31] there has been a surge in religious extremism in Balochistan, with banned terrorist organizations such as Lashkar-i-Jhangvi and Pakistani Taliban targeting Hindus, Shias (including Hazaras) and Zikris, resulting in the migration of over 210,000 Shias, Zikris, and Hindus from Baluchistan to other parts of Pakistan.[32] A further 90,000 ethnic Punjabis have also fled due to campaigns against Punjabis by Balochi militants.[33]

Baloch Liberation Front has also targeted Zikris in the province.[34][35]


In 2005, 32 Hindus were killed by firing from the government side near Nawab Akbar Bugti's residence during bloody clashes between Bugti tribesmen and paramilitary forces. The firing left the Hindu residential locality near Bugti's residence badly hit.[36]


Shia Muslims of various ethnic backgrounds make up at least 20% of the total population of Pakistan[citation needed]. The Hazara ethnic minority has been facing discrimination in Balochistan Province for a long time, and violence perpetrated against the community has risen sharply in recent years.[37][38][39] Since the year 2000, over 2000 Shia Hazara community members, including many women and children, have been killed or injured in Quetta.[40] Most of them have been the victims of terrorist attacks by Lashkar-e-Jhangvi and Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan, which is a Sunni Muslim militant organization affiliated with Al-Qaeda and Taliban.[41] Repression against the Shi'ite Muslims began in 1998 with the assassination of Gen Musa Khan's son Hassan Musa in Karachi,[42] and worsened in Pakistan after the September 11 attacks and the expulsion of the Taliban from Afghanistan.[43][44]

Shias have also been targeted by Baloch Separatists militants. Shia pilgrim passing through rigid terrain of Balochistan are common target for Baloch separatists militants. Shias are targeted mainly because they are not ethnically Baloch.[45] Moreover, it is reported that Balochistan Liberation Army had formed an alliance with Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan is another terrorist group known for their attacks against Shia Muslims.[45]

In 2003, 53 people died and 150 were critically injured in a suicide attack on the main Shia Friday mosque in Quetta.[42] On March 2, 2004, at least 42 persons were killed and more than 100 wounded when a procession of Shia Muslims was attacked by Sunni extremists at Liaquat Bazaar in Quetta.[46] On October 7, 2004, a car bomb killed 40 members of an extremist Sunni organization in Multan. 300 people died during 2006.[47] On December 28, 2009, as many as 40 Shias were killed in an apparent suicide bombing in Karachi. The bomber attacked a Shia procession which was held to mark Ashura.[48]

Many youth from the Hazara community have had to flee to Europe and Australia, often illegally, in order to escape the oppression.[42]

Baloch insurgentsEdit

Baloch insurgent movements have also been accused of grave human rights abuses in Balochistan, including targeted killings of ethnic non-Baloch civilians by Human Right Organisation. This has caused an economic brain drain in the province. According to the Chief Minister of Balochistan Nawab Aslam Raisani, "a large number of professors, teachers, engineers and barbers are leaving the province for fear of attacks. This inhuman act will push the Baloch nation at least one century back. The Baloch nation will never forgive whoever is involved in target killings." Raisani noted that these immigrant settlers had been living in Balochistan for centuries and called their targeting by Baloch insurgents "a crime against humanity".[49]

Journalists, teachers, students, and human rights defenders have been targeted in Balochistan according to the South Asia Terrorism Portal.[50] According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), Baloch Separatists militants are responsible for attacks on schools, teachers and students in the province.[51] As a result, many teachers have sought transfer to secure areas such Quetta or have moved out of province entirely.[52] Moreover, Separatist groups have also claimed responsibility for killing Journalists in the province.[53][54][55][56]

Human Right Organisation have held Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA) responsible for ethnic cleansing in the province as Brahamdagh Bugti (alleged leader of BLA), during a TV interview on 15 April 2009, urged separatists to kill non-Baloch residing in Balochistan. His actions allegedly lead to the death of 500 non-Baloch citizens in the province.[57]

Apart from Human Right Organisations, Baloch separatists themselves have accused each other of being involved in Human right violations.[58] Separatist accuse each other of being involved in extortion, kidnapping and even raping local Baloch.[58]

The U.S. Department of State estimates that in 2012 at least 690 civilians were victims of violence in Balochistan. A report from the Interior Ministry in 2012 stated that Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Balochistan, Baloch Musalla Difa Tanzeem, and the Baloch Liberation Army were involved in violent disturbances. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan estimates that these groups and others killed 2,050 innocent persons and injured another 3,822 in 2012.[50]

International reactionsEdit

The US government has expressed alarm at the reports of thousands Baloch separatists and Taliban insurgents disappearing into the hands of Pakistan's security forces and possibly being tortured or killed. A 2010 State Department report said that the Pakistan government made "limited progress" in advancing human rights.[59] Member of the European Parliament Marc Tarabella, in an article in The Parliament Magazine in 2015, wrote, "The main victims of this violence are the people of Balochistan who are being systematically targeted by paramilitary groups, allegedly sponsored by the Pakistani authorities. Extra-judicial killings and enforced disappearances are the most common practices".[60]

During an all-party meeting in Delhi, Indian prime minister Narendra Modi said that Pakistan "shall have to answer to the world for the atrocities committed by it against people in Baluchistan."[61] Modi's remarks came during the unrest in Indian Kashmir, a territory disputed between both countries, where Pakistan condemned the alleged state human rights violations.[62] Former President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai, also interviewed by the press while in India, appreciated Modi for his comments on Balochistan, and said that, "In Balochistan there is extreme suffering at the hands of extremists promoted by state structures in Pakistan. Therefore the people's concerns need to be addressed and aired."[63] Pakistan's foreign policy adviser Sartaj Aziz said Modi's statement was "self-incriminating", vindicating Pakistani accusations of Indian intelligence involvement in Balochistan's insurgency, and called it an attempt to divert attention from the Kashmir violence.[64] In the 33rd session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, India raised the issue of human rights violations in Baluchistan, saying that "the people of Balochistan, amongst other provinces, have been waging for decades a bitter and brave struggle against their daily abuse and torture."[65]

See alsoEdit


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  2. ^ "Pakistan: Upsurge in Killings in Balochistan". Human Rights Watch. July 13, 2011.
  3. ^ Walsh, Declan (28 July 2011). "Pakistan's military accused of escalating draconian campaign in Balochistan". The Guardian.
  4. ^ World Report 2012. Human Rights Watch. 2012. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-60980-389-6.
  5. ^ Hasnat, Syed F. (2011). Global Security Watch—Pakistan (1st ed.). Praeger. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-313-34697-2.
  6. ^ Bennett Jones, Owen (2003). Pakistan: eye of the storm (2nd Revised ed.). Yale University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0300101478.
  7. ^ "Balochistan conundrum: Khan of Kalat's return is a distant possibility". Express Tribune. Retrieved 26 May 2013. Khan-e-Kalat Mir Ahmed Yar Khan’s decision of ceding the princely state of Kalat to Pakistan at the request of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in 1948.
  8. ^ Singh, RSN (2009). The Military Factor In Pakistan. Lancer. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-9815378-9-4.
  9. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (2008). Descent into Chaos: How the War Against Islamic Extremism is Being Lost in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia. Allen Lane. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7139-9843-6.
  10. ^ a b Slater, Dan (2010). Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-521-16545-7.
  11. ^ Khan, Adeel (2004). Politics Of Identity: Ethnic Nationalism And The State In Pakistan. Sage. p. 116. ISBN 978-0761933038.
  12. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (22 February 2014). "Balochistan: The untold story of Pakistan's other war". BBC News. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  13. ^ a b "Thousands vanish without a trace in Pakistan's restive Balochistan". The National. 8 December 2018. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018.
  14. ^ Tarabella, Marc (23 June 2015). "EU cannot ignore dire human rights situation in Balochistan". The Parliament Magazine. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  15. ^ a b Dwivedi, Manan (2009). South Asia Security. Delhi: Gyan Publishing House. pp. 103–4. ISBN 978-81-7835-759-1. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
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  17. ^ PM Gilani orders Balochistan CM to trace missing persons, The News, June 03, 2012
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  23. ^ Walsh, Declan (28 July 2011). "Pakistan's military accused of escalating draconian campaign in Balochistan". The Guardian. London.
  24. ^ Akbar, Malik Siraj (17 May 2015). "Betrayal in Balochistan". The World Post. Retrieved 25 June 2015. In Pakistan, everyone says they have incontrovertible evidence about India's involvement in destabilizing Balochistan. They only won't share the evidence with you because they insist that when evidence is already too evident then why should one make the evident, evident?
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  27. ^ "Gunmen kill 14 people after forcing them to disembark from buses in Pakistan's Balochistan". Gulf News. 18 April 2019.
  28. ^ "'Enforced disappearances cause of unrest': Mengal submits six-point plan on Balochistan". Dawn.Com. 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
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  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 16, 2014. Retrieved October 14, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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  32. ^ shiapost. "Pro-Taliban takfiris hail ISIS: Zikri-Balochs, Hindus threatened to death". The Shia Post. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  33. ^
  34. ^ "Zikri community spiritual leader, Shia father-son duo killed in Pakistan". Retrieved 8 October 2016. Police said motor cycle-borne unidentified men opened fire on Mullai while he was returning home after solemnising the marriage of one of his devotees. The banned Balochistan Liberation Army claimed responsibility for the attack.
  35. ^ "Zikri leader shot dead in Kech". Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  36. ^ Abbas, Zaffar (22 March 2005). "Journalists find Balochistan 'war zone'". BBC. Retrieved 26 December 2016. The Hindu residential locality that is close to Mr Bugti's fortress-like house was particularly badly hit. Mr Bugti says 32 Hindus were killed by firing from the government side in exchanges that followed an attack on a government convoy last Thursday.
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  40. ^ Siddique, Abubakar and Nasar, Khudainoor Pakistan's Tiny Hazara Minority Struggles To Survive October 04, 2011, Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty |
  41. ^ B. Raman (26 September 2011). "Pakistan: Another Massacre of Hazaras in Balochistan By Pro Al Qaeda Elements"
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  58. ^ a b "Ex-Balochistan Militants Recount Paths to War With Pakistan". 30 August 2015. Archived from the original on 31 August 2015.
  59. ^ Rights Groups Tie Pakistan to Militants’ Disappearances, International New York Times, 29 December 2010.
  60. ^ Johny, Stanly (16 August 2016). "Impoverished Balochistan bleeds through a thousand cuts". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  61. ^ Venkataramakrishnan, Rohan (15 August 2016). "Independence Day speech: Narendra Modi brings up Balochistan in a clear signal to Pakistan". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
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External linksEdit