Khan of Kalat

Khan of Kalat or Khan-e-Qalat (Balochi: خان قلات‎) is the title of the Brahui speaking Baloch former rulers of the Khanate of Kalat. Kalat state is now a part of Balochistan Province. The rulers in Kalat first were subjected to Mughal emperor Akbar in Delhi[1][2] and after 1839 to the British.

Mir Khudadad Khan, Khan of Kalat, and his sons (1900)

The rulers of Kalat held the title of Vali originally but in 1739 they also took the title (Begler Begi) Khan, usually shortened to just Khan. The last Khan of Kalat was also the President of the Council of Rulers for the Baluchistan States Union.

OriginEdit

Its commonly believed that the Khans of Kalat are Brahui.[3][4] The Arabic title "Amir" also called Balochi "Mir" this Balochi title before the Mongol conquest, the title "Mir" comes from the Balochi Karmatians. The Kalat Khans also gave equal rights to the Brahui leaders. According to (Asiatic Society of Bengal 1843) the Kalat Khans considered themselves the descendants of Hamza (the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad) information from Mehrab II of Kalat himself that he could trace his lineage for twenty-three generations, and that his ancestors emigrated from Halab (Aleppo). Genealogy: Meeroo Khan, son of Mahommed Khan, son of Husen Khan, son of Isak Khan, son of Ahmad Khan, son of Gulo Khan, son of Pervez Khan, son of Kahloo Khan, son of Madil Khan, son of Noot Khan, son of Bazan Khan, son of Ayalee Khan, son of Zan Khan, son of Matan Khan, son of Sairan Khan, son of Rind Khan, son of Jalal Khan, son of Hareen Khan, son of Gul Kharaj, son of Jarkh Taj, son of Baloch Khan Leghariy, son of Satookee, son of Ilm-i-Mardame, son of Badee Uzzuman, son of Ameer Humzah, son of Abdu Mutalib, son of Abdu Manaf, son of Abdul Hasham. Isak Khan had two sons, Saheek and Khusen Khan. Mir Chakar Rind is the son of Saheek and he was from the Baloch tribe of Rind. So the Kalat's Khans also reportedly considered themselves to be the descendants of Rind and Baloch Khan Leghari.[5]

HistoryEdit

The Khans of Kalat descended from a hill chieftain named Qambar (or Qumbar).[6][7][8] His tribe was hired by Sehwa, the Raja of Kalat, a Hindu princely state, to protect against marauding tribes from the Multan, Shikarpur and Upper Sind areas.[8] Mir Qambar Baloch and his troops successfully repressed the incursion, but afterwards they deposed the Raja and Mir Qambar Baloch became the first Vali.[7]

True to the 14th-century Arab historian Ibn Khaldun model of historical relationships between tribal nomadic and settled agricultural population, besides the Kalat Khanate the Baloch made other efforts to take over settled communities.[9]

List of KhansEdit

Tenure Khan of Kalat[2][10]
1410-1440 Ameer Miro Mirwani Baloch
1440-1460 Ameer Qamber Mirwani Baloch
1460-1485 Ameer Omer mirwani Baloch
1512–1530 Mir Bijar Khan Mirwani
1530–1535 Mir Zagar Khan Mirwani Origin of Zangejo
1535–1547 Mir Ibrahim Khan Qambrani ( Changed his Royal family name from Mirwani to Qambrani )
1547–1549 Mir Gwahram Khan Qambrani
1549–1569 Mir Hassan Khan Qambrani
1569–1581 Mir Sanjar Khan Qambrani
1581–1590 Mir Malook Khan Qambrani
1590–1601 Mir Qambar Sani Khan Qambrani
1601–1610 Mir Ahmad Khan Qambrani I
1610–1618 Mir Suri Khan Qambrani
1618–1629 Mir Qaisar Khan Qambrani
1629–1637 Mir Ahmad Sani Khan Qambrani II
1637–1647 Mir Altaz Khan Qambrani I
1647–1656 Mir Kachi Khan Qambrani
1656–1666 Mir Altaz Sani Khan Qambrani II
1666–1695 Mir Ahmad I Khan Qambrani III ( Changed his Royal family name from Qambrani to Ahmadzai )
1695–1697 Mir Mehrab Khan Ahmadzai I
1697–1714 Mir Samandar Khan Ahmadzai ( Amir al-Umara Amir of Amirs )
1714–1716 Mir Ahmad II Khan Ahmadzai
1716–1731 Mir Abdullah Khan Ahmadzai ( Eagle of the Mountain and The Greatest )
1731–1749 Mir Muhabbat Khan Ahmadzai ( Beglar Begi )
1749–1794 Mir Muhammad Nasir Khan I Ahmadzai ( Noori, Ghazi, Wali and The Great )
1794–1817 Mir Mahmud Khan I Ahmadzai I
1817 – 13 November 1839 Mir Mehrab Khan Ahmadzai II
1839–1841 Mir Shah Nawaz Khan Ahmadzai
1841–1857 Mir Nasir Khan II Ahmadzai, son of Mir Mehrab Khan Ahmadzai I[11]
1857 – March 1863 Mir Khudadad Khan Ahmadzai (1st time). During his period of rule, seven major and many minor rebellions took place.
March 1863 – May 1864 Mir Sherdil Khan Ahmadzai (usurped throne)
May 1864 – 15 August 1893 Mir Khudadad Khan Ahmadzai (2nd time)
10 November 1893 – 3 November 1931 Mir Mahmud Khan II Ahmadzai
3 November 1931 – 10 September 1933 Mir Mohammad Azam Jan Khan Ahmadzai
10 September 1933 – 14 October 1955 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Ahmadzai (1st time);
declared independence on 5 August 1947; but later acceded to Pakistan on 30 March 1948[12]
14 October 1955 State of Kalat merged into One Unit of West Pakistan[13]
20 June 1958 – 1958 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Ahmadzai (2nd time)
1979-1998 Mir Dawood Jan Khan Ahmadzai
1998–present Mir Suleman Dawood Jan (currently not Pakistan)[14]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Treaty of Kalat between Balochistan and Afghanistan in 1758" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Baluchistan" Imperial Gazetteer of India Vol. 6, p. 277, from the Digital South Asia Library, accessed 15 January 2009
  3. ^ "Profile: Khan of Kalat — king without a crown". Dawn. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  4. ^ "Mastung > History of district". Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  5. ^ Bengal, Asiatic Society of (1843). Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Soc.
  6. ^ Qambar gave his name to the Qambarani branch of the Baloch, just as Ahmed I gave his name to the Ahmedzai branch of the Qambrani, Balfour, Edward (1885) "India, Its Balochistan neighbours", The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial and Scientific, Vol. II H-NYSA (3rd ed.) Bernard Quaritch, London, p. 195, accessed 15 January 2009
  7. ^ a b Keltie, J. Scott (ed.) (1902) Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1902 Macmillan and Co., London p. 172, accessed 15 January 2009
  8. ^ a b Balfour, Edward (1885) "India, Its Baluchistan neighbours", The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial and Scientific, Vol. II H-NYSA (3rd ed.) Bernard Quaritch, London, p. 191, accessed 15 January 2009
  9. ^ Schiffman, Harold (9 December 2011). Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-21765-2.
  10. ^ Naseer Dashti (2012). The Baloch and Balochistan: A Historical Account from the Beginning to the Fall of the Baloch State. Trafford Publishing. p. 280. ISBN 978-1-4669-5897-5.[self-published source]
  11. ^ The British recognized Naseer Khan Ahmadzai II in 1841, Keltie, J. Scott (ed.) (1902) Statistical and historical annual of the states of the world for the year 1902 Macmillan and Co., London p. 173, accessed 15 January 2009
  12. ^ Siddiqi, Farhan Hanif (2012), The Politics of Ethnicity in Pakistan: The Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir Ethnic Movements, Routledge, pp. 59–60, ISBN 978-0-415-68614-3
  13. ^ Siddiqi, Farhan Hanif (2012), The Politics of Ethnicity in Pakistan: The Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir Ethnic Movements, Routledge, p. 62, ISBN 978-0-415-68614-3
  14. ^ "Khan of Kalat being persuaded to return home". Dawn. 29 June 2015.

External linksEdit