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Howard Harold Hanson (October 28, 1896 – February 26, 1981)[1] was an American composer, conductor, educator, music theorist, and champion of American classical music. As director for 40 years of the Eastman School of Music, he built a high-quality school and provided opportunities for commissioning and performing American music. In 1944, he won a Pulitzer Prize for his Symphony No. 4, and received numerous other awards including the George Foster Peabody Award for Outstanding Entertainment in Music in 1946.[2][3]

Howard Hanson
Howard Hanson conducting.jpg
Howard Hanson, conducting
Born(1896-10-28)October 28, 1896
DiedFebruary 26, 1981(1981-02-26) (aged 84)
NationalityAmerican
Alma materNorthwestern University
OccupationComposer, conductor, educator, musical theorist
Years active1916–1981
Spouse(s)Margaret Elizabeth Nelson
AwardsPulitzer Prize
George Foster Peabody Award

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

 
Hanson's boyhood home in Wahoo, Nebraska is on the National Register of Historic Places

Hanson was born in Wahoo, Nebraska, to Swedish immigrant parents, Hans and Hilma (née Eckstrom) Hanson. In his youth he studied music with his mother. Later, he studied at Luther College in Wahoo, receiving a diploma in 1911, then at the Institute of Musical Art, the forerunner of the Juilliard School, in New York City, where he studied with the composer and music theorist Percy Goetschius in 1914.[1][4][5]

Afterward he attended Northwestern University, where he studied composition with church music expert Peter Lutkin and Arne Oldberg in Chicago. Throughout his education, Hanson studied piano, cello, and trombone. Hanson earned his BA degree in music from Northwestern in 1916, where he began his teaching career as a teacher's assistant.[6][7][8]

CareerEdit

In 1916, Hanson was hired for his first full-time position as a music theory and composition teacher at the College of the Pacific in California. Only three years later, the college appointed him Dean of the Conservatory of Fine Arts in 1919. In 1920, Hanson composed The California Forest Play, his earliest work to receive national attention. Hanson also wrote a number of orchestral and chamber works during his years in California, including Concerto da Camera, Symphonic Legend, Symphonic Rhapsody, various solo piano works, such as Two Yuletide Pieces, and the Scandinavian Suite, which celebrated his Lutheran and Scandinavian heritage.[9]

In 1921 Hanson was the first winner of the Prix de Rome in Music (the American Academy's Rome Prize), awarded for both The California Forest Play and his symphonic poem Before the Dawn. Thanks to the award, Hanson lived in Italy for three years. During his time in Italy, Hanson wrote a Quartet in One Movement, Lux Aeterna, The Lament for Beowulf (orchestration Bernhard Kaun), and his Symphony No. 1, "Nordic", the premiere of which he conducted with the Augusteo Orchestra on May 30, 1923. The three years Hanson spent on his Fellowship at the American Academy were, he considered, the formative years of his life, as he was free to compose, conduct without the distraction of teaching—he could devote himself solely to his art. (It has been incorrectly stated that Hanson studied composition and/or orchestration with Ottorino Respighi, who in turn had studied orchestration with Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. Hanson's unpublished autobiography refutes the statement, attributed to Ruth Watanabe, that he had studied with Respighi.)[citation needed] While Hanson may not have pursued formal studies with Respighi while in Rome, he apparently did receive advice from him.[10] In addition, Respighi invited Hanson to attend rehearsals and performances of his orchestral concerts. As a result of these interactions, Hanson credited Respighi as a significant influence on his use of orchestral textures and instrumentation. In addition, he cited the works of several other composers as being influential while studying in Rome including: Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Gustav Holst, Giovanni Palestrina and Richard Wagner.[11]

Upon returning from Rome, Hanson's conducting career expanded. He made his premiere conducting the New York Symphony Orchestra in his tone poem North and West.[12] In Rochester, New York in 1924, he conducted his Symphony No. 1. This performance brought him to the attention of George Eastman.[13]

In 1924, Eastman chose Hanson to be director of the Eastman School of Music. Eastman, inventor of the Kodak camera and roll film, was also a major philanthropist, and used some of his great wealth to endow the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester.[14][15]

Hanson held the position of director for forty years, during which he created one of the most prestigious music schools in America.[1] He accomplished this by improving the curriculum, bringing in better teachers, and refining the school's orchestras.[16] Also, he balanced the school's faculty between American and European teachers, even when this meant passing up composer Béla Bartók. Hanson offered a position to Bartók teaching composition at Eastman, but Bartók declined as he did not believe that one could teach composition. Instead, Bartók wanted to teach piano at the Eastman School, but Hanson already had a full staff of piano instructors.

External audio
  You may hear Howard Hanson conducting his Symphony No. 1 in E minor Op. 21 (Nordic) with the Eastman-Rochester Symphony Orchestra in 1944 Here on archive.org

In 1925, Hanson established the American Composers Orchestral Concerts. He followed that in 1931 by establishing the annual Festivals of American Music. These week long concerts were free to the public and featured established works by American composers as well as premiers of new compositions. They included performances of: orchestral works, chamber music, band and wind ensemble music, vocal and chamber music, opera and ballet. The festival concerts were eagerly anticipated by audiences in Rochester until 1971 and were also broadcast regularly over national radio networks from the Eastman Theater. Critics have often observed that over the course of four decades "more music has been played at these concerts than in all the rest of the United States put together."[17]

Hanson's interest in educating the general public through innovative means became apparent as early as 1938. At this time he engaged the talents of student ensembles at the Eastman School to present Milestones in the History of Music on the radio. This weekly series of programs presented a sweeping survey of the history of Western music which was broadcast locally in Rochester, New York on WHAM and nationally on the NBC Red Network. In recognition of these efforts, the Peabody Award for outstanding service to music was awarded to Hanson, the Eastman School and WHAM in 1946. Hanson also engaged his student ensembles to present a similar series for the CBS radio network which he entitled Milestones in American Music. This series presented orchestral, choral and chamber music composed by eighty two American composers from the mid 19th century to modern times. As Hanson himself indicated this was "the first attempt at a rather complete presentation of the American picture in music."[3]

Later in 1939, he founded the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra, which consisted of first chair players from the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, faculty members from the Eastman School of Music and selected students from the Eastman School.[18][19] For thirty years from 1939 to 1969 Hanson made over one hundred recordings for RCA Victor, Mercury Records and Columbia Records with the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra, not only of his own works, but also those of other American composers such as: Wayne Barlow, John Alden Carpenter, Charles Tomlinson Griffes, Alan Hovhaness, Homer Keller, John Knowles Paine, Burrill Phillips, Walter Piston, Bernard Rogers, Roger Sessions and William Grant Still.[20][18][21] Hanson estimated that more than 2000 works by over 500 American composers were premiered during his tenure at the Eastman School.

To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Serge Koussevitzky commissioned Hanson's Symphony No. 2, the "Romantic", and premiered it on November 28, 1930. This work was to become Hanson's best known. One of its themes is performed at the conclusion of all concerts at the Interlochen Center for the Arts.[22] Now known as the "Interlochen Theme", it is conducted by a student concertmaster after the featured conductor has left the stage. Traditionally, no applause follows its performance.[23] It is also widely known for its use in the final scene and end credits of the 1979 Ridley Scott film Alien.[24]

In some ways Hanson's opera Merry Mount (1934) may be considered the first fully American opera. It was written by an American composer and an American librettist on an American story, and was premiered with a mostly American cast at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 1934.[25] The Opera received fifty curtain calls at its Met premiere, a record that still stands. In 1935, he wrote "Three Songs from Drum Taps", based on the poem by Walt Whitman.

Frederick Fennell, conductor of the Eastman Wind Ensemble, described Hanson's first band composition, the 1954 Chorale and Alleluia as "the most awaited piece of music to be written for the wind band in my twenty years as a conductor in this field". Chorale and Alleluia is still a required competition piece for high school bands in the New York State School Music Association's repertoire list.

During the 1950s and 1960s Howard Hanson continued to adapt innovative techniques in an effort to educate as large an audience as possible, even as revolutionary changes in mass media emerged in America. For example, he collaborated with the Ford Foundation during this period in order to produce a series of television films on composition. He also served as a member of the Music Advisory Panel of the American National Theatre and Academy along with Virgil Thomson, William Schuman and Milton Katims.[26] This panel consisted of leading composers and academics who evaluated candidates for the Department of State's Cultural Presentations program.[27] Musicians who were accepted into this program represented America's cultural diplomacy initiatives in concert venues throughout the world during the Cold War.[28] Later in the 1960s, he also hosted and conducted the Los Angeles Philharmonic in several series of young peoples concerts for school children in the Los Angeles area.[29] In 1960, Hanson also published a book Harmonic Materials of Modern Music (1960).[30] Though not an example of integral music theory, it contained fruitful ideas and analytic algorithms which were incorporated in later theories such as set theory of Allen Forte. The idea of 'modal modulation' (Hanson's term) echoed in the Yuri Kholopov's 'variable mode' doctrine.

External audio
  You may hear Howard Hanson conducting Aaron Copland's Music for the Theatre – Suite in Five Parts for Small Orchestra (1925) with his Eastman-Rochester Symphony Orchestra in 1940 Here on archive.org

Following his retirement as Director of the Eastman School of Music in 1964, Hanson was appointed as the first director of the newly established Institute for American Music at the University of Rochester. In this new role, Hanson continued his tireless efforts to foster a widespread understanding and appreciation of American music through performances, publications and recordings. Operating funds for the institute were largely derived from royalties generated from compositions and recordings which were executed by Hanson during his tenure at the Eastman School. Following his death in 1981, Hanson's wife Peggy assumed his responsibilities at the institute until her passing in 1996.[31] It has been observed that nearly every American composer since World War I is indebted in some degree to Howard Hanson for his efforts to educate the public and future generations of professional musicians about American music.[1][32][7][8]

Hanson was elected as a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1935, President of the Music Teachers' National Association from 1929–30, and President of the National Association of Schools of Music from 1935–39. From 1946–62, he was active in United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). UNESCO commissioned Hanson's Pastorale for Oboe and Piano, and Pastorale for Oboe, Strings, and Harp, for the 1949 Paris conference of the world body.[33]

During the course of his career Hanson also served as a guest conductor for several leading orchestras including: the New York Philharmonic, the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and the NBC Symphony Orchestra. He was also a frequent conductor of the Rochester Symphony Orchestra at the Eastman Theater in Rochester, New York. In addition, he was the founder of the Eastman Philharmonia orchestra at the Eastman School of Music.[1] This ensemble consisted of elite upperclassmen from the Eastman School of Music and was noted for concertizing throughout the country.[34] Under Hanson's leadership, it was selected to participate in the United States Department of State's international cultural exchange program during the 1961–1962 season. Hanson took the Eastman Philharmonia on a European tour which passed through Paris, Cairo, Moscow, and Vienna, among other cities. The tour showcased the growth of serious American music for Europe and the Middle East.[35] Hanson's performances with the orchestra received critical acclaim in thirty four cities and sixteen countries throughout Europe, the Middle East and Russia.[34]

MarriageEdit

Hanson met Margaret Elizabeth Nelson at her parents' summer home on Lake Chautauqua at the Chautauqua Institution in New York. Hanson dedicated the Serenade for Flute, Harp, and Strings, to her; the piece was his musical marriage proposal, as he could not find the spoken words to propose to her. They married on July 24, 1946 in the same house where they had first met.[36]

Legacy and honorsEdit

  • Hanson was an initiate of two chapters of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia fraternity: the Iota chapter at Northwestern University in 1916, and the Alpha Nu vhapter at Eastman in 1928. He was recognized as a national honorary member in 1930, and presented with the Charles E. Lutton Man of Music Award at the national convention in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1954.[37]
  • After he composed the Hymn of the Pioneers to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the first Swedish settlement in Delaware, Hanson was selected as a Fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy in 1938.[1]
  • In 1944, Hanson was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Symphony No. 4, subtitled Requiem.[1]
  • In 1945, he became the first recipient of the Ditson Conductor's Award for his commitment to American music.[1]
  • In 1946, Hanson was awarded the George Foster Peabody Award "for outstanding entertainment programming" for a series he presented on the Rochester, New York radio station WHAM in 1945.[38][39]
  • In 1953, Hanson helped to establish the Edward B. Benjamin Prize "for calming and uplifting music" written by Eastman students. Each submitted score was read by Hanson and the Eastman Orchestra. Winners of the Benjamin Prize appeared on Hanson's recording Music for Quiet Listening.
  • In 1959, Hanson won the first Lancaster Symphony Orchestra Composer's Award, which is the oldest award of its kind in America and is awarded annually to a contemporary composer by the Lancaster Symphony Orchestra, Lancaster, Pennsylvania (established in 1947). Hanson was a friend and colleague of the Founding Conductor of the Lancaster Symphony Orchestra, the late Louis Vyner.[40]
  • In 1960, Hanson published Harmonic Materials of Modern Music: Resources of the Tempered Scale, a book that would lay the foundation for musical set theory. Among the many notions considered was what Hanson called the isomeric relationship, now usually termed Z-relationship.[30]
  • Hanson was on the Board of Directors of the Music Educators National Conference from 1960 to 1964.[30]
  • Hanson's Song of Democracy, on a Walt Whitman text, was performed at the inaugural concert for incoming U.S. President Richard Nixon in 1969. Hanson proudly noted this was the first inaugural concert to feature only American music.[41]
  • In recognition of Hanson's achievements, the Eastman Kodak company donated $100,000 worth of stock to the Eastman School of Music in 1976. Hanson stipulated that the gift be used to fund the Institute of American Music.
  • Hanson was a Distinguished Nebraskans Award Recipient in 1976.[42]

Popular cultureEdit

Excerpts from Hanson's second symphony were used to accompany several exterior sequences and the end credits in the released versions of Ridley Scott's 1979 horror movie Alien[43] without his permission, but the composer decided not to fight it in court[44]—they replaced certain sections of Jerry Goldsmith's original score at the behest of 20th Century Fox. This highlighted music can still be found on most DVD versions of Alien.[citation needed]

DeathEdit

Howard Hanson died at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, New York at the age of 84. He was survived by his wife Margaret Elizabeth Nelson. [1]

Compositional styleEdit

Howard Hanson's music has been described as part of the Neo-Romantic movement in music which endeavored to continue the traditions of the Romantic era into the 20th century.[45] His Symphony No. 2, for example, has been cited as a Neo-Romantic manifesto.[46] He has also been identified by critics as an "American Neoromantic composer par excellence" whose compositions were conceived in the grand romantic tradition of Antonin Dvorák.[47] In addition, his early symphonies have been characterized as "splendidly effusive, gorgeously orchestrated, rich in harmonic texture".[48]

It should also be noted, however, that Hanson's compositions also incorporated experimentation with modern musical idioms.[7] Many of the passages in his works are based upon modal scales which call to mind Gregorian chants.[49] In addition, he made extensive use of extended tertian chords, motoric ostinati in rapid passages and alternating triadic chords.[50] Several of his liturgical and choral compositions also reflected themes derived from Swedish Lutheran hymns.[7] Elements of Nordic austerity identified in his music have also prompted some observers to compare him to Jean Sibelius.[7]

It has also been noted that one of Howard Hanson's hallmarks as a composer is his utilization of melodic lines which flow seamlessly in a manner which is almost improvisational, unpretentious and very American.[51] The composer and critic David Owens indicated that Hanson clearly embraced the use of tonal beauty in his compositions in order to give expression to a conservative musical ideal. By carefully blending his use of tonalitiy with a masterful understanding of orchestral depth, Hanson succeeded in producing compositions which Owen described as being both memorable and compelling.[52]

Perhaps Howard Hanson described his music best when he portrayed it as metaphorically "springing from the soil of the American midwest. It is music of the plains rather than of the city and reflects, I believe, something of the broad prairies of my native Nebraska."[8][53]

WorksEdit

External audio
  You may hear Howard Hanson's Serenade for Flute, Harp and Strings Op. 35 conducted by Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1947 Here on archive.org

Included among Howard Hanson's compositions are the following works:[54]

OperaEdit

OrchestralEdit

  • Symphonic Prelude (1916)
  • Symphonic Legend (1917)
  • Symphonic Rhapsody (1919)
  • Before the Dawn, Symphonic Poem (1920)
  • Exaltation, Symphonic Poem, Op. 20 (1920)
  • Symphony No. 1 in E minor, Op.21 ("Nordic")) (1922)
  • Lux aeterna, Symphonic Poem for Orchestra with Viola Obligato, Op. 24 (1923–26)
  • Pan and the Priest, Symphonic Poem with Piano Obligato, Op. 26 (1926)
  • Organ Concerto, Op. 27 (1926)
  • Symphony No. 2 in D♭ major Op.30 ("Romantic") (1930)
  • Suite from the Opera "Merry Mount" (1938)
  • Symphony No. 3 Op.33 (1936–38)
  • Symphony No. 4 Op.34 ("Requiem") (1943; won Pulitzer Prize)
  • Serenade, Op. 35 (1945)
  • Pastorale, Op. 38 (1949)
  • Fantasy-Variations on a Theme of Youth (1951)
  • Symphony No. 5 Op.43, "Sinfonia Sacra" (1955)
  • Elegy in Memory of Serge Koussevitzky Op.44 (1956)
  • Mosaics (1957)
  • Summer Seascape (1958)
  • Bold Island Suite (1961)
  • For the First Time (1963)
  • Symphony No. 6 (1967)
  • Dies Natalis (1967)
  • Symphony No. 7 ("A Sea Symphony") (1977)
  • Ballet Nymphs and Satyr (1979)

ChoralEdit

  • A Prayer of the Middle Ages
  • North and West, Symphonic poem with Chorus Obligato (1923)
  • The Lament for Beowulf, Op. 25 (1925)
  • Heroic Elegy for wordless chorus and orchestra (1927)
  • Three Songs from Drum Taps (Walt Whitman), Op. 32 for baritone, chorus & orchestra (1935)
  • The Cherubic Hymn, Op. 37 for chorus and orchestra (1949)
  • How Excellent Thy Name Op. 41, (1952)
  • Song of Democracy, Op. 44 (1957) for wind ensemble, string orchestra and SATB Choir
  • Song of Human Rights, Op. 49 (1963) (text from the Preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
  • The One Hundred Fiftieth Psalm (Praise Ye The Lord) for chorus and orchestra (1965)
  • The One Hundred Twenty First Psalm for baritone, chorus and orchestra (1968)
  • Streams in the Desert for chorus and orchestra (1969)
  • The Mystic Trumpeter for narrator, chorus and orchestra (1970)
  • New Land, New Covenant oratorio (1976)

BandEdit

  • Centennial March (1966)
  • Chorale and Alleluia (1954)
  • Dies Natalis II (1972)
  • Laude
  • Variations on an Ancient Hymn

ConcertanteEdit

  • Concerto for Piano and Orchestra in G Major, Op. 36 (1948)
  • Concerto for organ, harp & strings in C, Op 22/3 (1921)
  • Summer Seascape No.2 for Viola and String Orchestra (1965)

ChamberEdit

  • Qunitet in F minor, for 2 Violins, Cello and Piano (1916)
  • Concerto da Camera in C Minor for Piano and String Quartet (1917), Op. 7
  • String Quartet (1923), Op. 23
  • Serenade for Flute, Harp and Strings (1946), Op. 35
  • Pastorale for Oboe and Piano (1949), reorchestrated as alternative Pastorale for Oboe, Harp and Strings (1950), both Op. 38
  • Fantasy Variations on a Theme of Youth (1951)
  • Elegy for Viola and String Quartet (1966)

KeyboardEdit

  • Poèmes érotiques, Op. 9
  • Sonata in A Major, Op. 11
  • Three Miniatures for Piano, Op. 12
  • Symphonic Rhapsody, Op. 14
  • Three Etudes, Op. 18
  • Two Yuletide Pieces, Op. 19

Music theoryEdit

  • Harmonic Materials of Modern Music (1960), Irvington.

DiscographyEdit

  • A boxed set of Howard Hanson conducting the Eastman Philharmonia in his symphonies, piano concerto, etc., is available on the Mercury label. A companion set from Mercury, a compilation of Hanson conducting lesser known American works, is also available.
  • His Symphony No. 2 is probably his most recorded work. In addition to the composer's own recording, those by Erich Kunzel and Gerard Schwarz are also popular. Also, the Interlochen Center for the Arts uses part of this symphony as its theme (see detailed explanation above).
  • Naxos Records released a recording of the 1934 world premiere performance of Merry Mount in 1999. For copyright reasons it was not made available in the United States.

Recordings by Howard Hanson conducting his own compositions with the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra include:[55]

  • Elegy in Memory of Serge Koussevitzky Op. 44 – Mercury Records (SR90150) – Hanson conducting the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra (1957)
  • The Lament for Beowulf Op. 25 – Mercury Records (SR90192) – Hanson conducting the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra (1958)
  • Song of Democracy Op. 44 – Mercury Records (#432 0008-2) – Hanson conducting the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra (1957)
  • Symphony No. 1 in E Minor Op. 21 (Nordic) – Mercury Records (#432 008-2) – Hanson conducting the Eastman- Rochester Orchestra (1960)
  • Symphony No. 2 in D-Flat Major Op. 30 (Romantic) – Mercury Records (#432 0008-2)- Hanson conducting the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra (1958)
  • Symphony No. 3 Op. 33 – Mercury Records (SR90449) – Hanson conducting the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra (1963)

Notable studentsEdit

During the course of his forty year tenure as Director of the Eastman School of Music, Howard Hanson also served as a member of the faculty of Composition. Several of his students emerged in later years to also become winners of the Pulitzer Prize for Music including: Dominick Argento, John La Montaine and Robert Ward. In addition, several of his students enjoyed widespread recognition as composers including: Wayne Barlow, Jack Beeson, William Bergsma, Ulysses Kay, Kent Kennan, Peter Mennin and Gardner Read.[56]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i The New York Times – Obituaries. Harold C. Schonberg. February 28, 1981 p. 10119 Howard Hanson is Dead; Composer and Teacher
  2. ^ Swedes In America (Adolph B. Benson; Naboth Hedin. New York: Haskel House Publishers. 1969)
  3. ^ a b Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.17 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson, Peabody Award, "Milestones in American Music", "Milestones in the History of Music" on books.google.com
  4. ^ Making It in America – A Sourcebook on Eminent Ethnic Americans. Editor: Elliot Robert Barkan. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, 2001 p. 149 ISBN 1-57607-098-0 Howard Hanson's Profile on books.google.com
  5. ^ Nebraska State Historical Society – "Music From the Soil of the American Midwest -" Erich Backenberg. Nebraska HistoryHoward Hanson – Educator, Composer, Conducto, Vol. 81 (Spring 2000) p. 23-34 Nebraska State Historical Society – "Music From the Soil of the American Midwest -" Howard Hanson on nebraska.gov
  6. ^ Howard Hanson (Modern Classical, Inc.)
  7. ^ a b c d e Making It in America – A Sourcebook on Eminent Ethnic Americans. Editor: Elliot Robert Barkan. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, 2001 p. 149 ISBN 1-57607-098-0 Howard Hanson's Profile on books.google.com
  8. ^ a b c Nebraska State Historical Society – "Music From the Soil of the American Midwest -" Erich Backenberg. Nebraska HistoryHoward Hanson – Educator, Composer, Conducto, Vol. 81 (Spring 2000) p. 23-34 Nebraska State Historical Society – "Music From the Soil of the American Midwest -" Howard Hanson on nebraska.gov
  9. ^ Howard Hanson (HighBeam Research, Inc.)
  10. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.20 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson seeks advice and receives advice from Ottorino Respighi while in Rome on books.google.com
  11. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.20 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson influenced by Ottorino Respighi, Rimsky-Korsakov, Holst, Palestrina and Wagner on books.google.com
  12. ^ The Encyclopedia of New York State Editor: Peter R. Eisenstadt. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, 2005 p. 693 ISBN 0-8156-0808-XThe Encyclopedia of New York State – Howard Hanson's conducting debut with New York Symphony Orchestra on books.google.com
  13. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.9-10 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson, George Eastman and Nordic Symphony on books.google.com
  14. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.9-10 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson, George Eastman and endowment of the Eastman School of Music on books.google.com
  15. ^ George Eastman – Founder of Kodak and the Photography Business Carl W. Ackerman Beard Books, Washington DC, 2000 p. 412 ISBN 1-893122-99-9 George Eastman endows a music school at the University of Rochester on books.google.com
  16. ^ Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia – Charles E. Lutton Man of Music Award Recipients – Howard Hanson 1954 and The Eastman School of Music on sinfonia.org
  17. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.20-22 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson founder of the Festival of American Music on books.google.com
  18. ^ a b A Dictionary for the Modern Conductor Emily Freeman Brown. Rowman and Littlefield Publishing, 2015 London p. 107 ISBN 978-0-8108-8400-7 Howard Hanson founder of the Eastman-Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra in 1939 on books.google.com
  19. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.22 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson and the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra on books.google.com
  20. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.22 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson and Eastman-Rochester Orchestra 100 recordings for RCA Victor, Mercury and Columbia Records on books.google.com
  21. ^ American Works for Solo Winds Works by Bernard Rogers, Wayne Barlow, Burrill Phillips and Homer Keller conducted by Howard Hanson on Archive.org
  22. ^ A Dictionary for the Modern Conductor Emily Freeman Brown. Rowman and Littlefield, London 2015 p. 150 ISBN 978-0-8108-8400-7 A Dictionary for the Modern Composer – Howard Hanson's Symphony No. 2 and the Interlochen Center for the Arts on books.google.com
  23. ^ The New Criterion; July 2002. "Perfect Moments at Interlochen," by Jay Nordlinger. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
  24. ^ About this Recording: Howard Hanson (1896–1981), Symphony No. 2 ‘Romantic’ (Naxos Digital Services Ltd.)
  25. ^ American Opera Elise K. Kirk. University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 2001 p. 177-178 ISBN 0-252-02623-3 Howard Hanson's "Merry Mount" premiers at the Metropolitan Opera in 1934 on books.google.com
  26. ^ Music in America's Cold War Diplomacy. Danielle Fosler-Lussier. University of California Press, Oakland, CA, 2015, p. 23 ISBN 978-0-520-28413-5 Hanson, Virgil Thompson and William Schuman on the Music Advisory Panel of the American National Theatre and Academy on books.google.com
  27. ^ Music in America's Cold War Diplomacy. Danielle Fosler-Lussier. University of California Press, Oakland, CA, 2015, p. 1-23 ISBN 978-0-520-28413-5 The State Department and the Music Advisory Panel of the American National Theatre and Academy on books.google.com
  28. ^ Music in America's Cold War Diplomacy. Danielle Fosler-Lussier. University of California Press, Oakland, CA, 2015, p. 10, p1-23 ISBN 978-0-520-28413-5 Music Advisory Panel of the American National Theatre and Academy on books.google.com
  29. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.17 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson, the Ford Foundation and the Los Angeles Philharmonic on books.google.com
  30. ^ a b c A Dictionary for the Modern Conductor Emily Freeman Brown. Rowman and Littlefield, London 2015 p. 150 ISBN 978-0-8108-8400-7 A Dictionary for the Modern Composer – Howard Hanson's biography on books.google.com
  31. ^ Eastman School of Music – History of the Howard Hanson Institute For American Music on esm.rochester.edu
  32. ^ Voices in the Wilderness – Six American Neo-Romantic Composer Walter Simmons, The Scarecrow Press, Maryland 2006 p. 111 ISBN 978-0-8108-5728-5 Howard Hanson's contributions to American music as per the musicologist Joseph Machlius on books.google.com
  33. ^ Republics of Letters – Literary Communities in Australia Editors: Peter Kirkpatrick and Robert Dixon, Sydney University Press, Australia 2012 p. 11-12 ISBN 9781920899783 Republics of Letters – Literary Communities in Australia – Howard Hanson and UNESCO on books.google.com
  34. ^ a b Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.13 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson and the Eastman Philharmonia on books.google.com
  35. ^ Howard Hanson profile, Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary Composer Biographies website; accessed November 30, 2015.
  36. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.28 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson and Elizabeth Nelson on books.google.com
  37. ^ Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia – Charles E. Lutton Man of Music Award Recipients – Howard Hanson 1954 on sinfonia.org
  38. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.17 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson and Peabody Award 1946 on books.google.com
  39. ^ University of Georgia – "Peabody Stories that Matter: WHAM Radio and Howard Hanson on peabodyawards.com
  40. ^ Musical Leader Volumes 90–91 1958 p. 39. Howard Hanson and the Lancaster Symphony Orchestra Composer's Award on books.google.com
  41. ^ Republics of Letters – Literary Communities in Australia Editors: Peter Kirkpatrick and Robert Dixon, Sydney University Press, Australia 2012 p. 14 ISBN 9781920899783 Republics of Letters – Literary Communities in Australia – Howard Hanson and "Song of Democracy" at Richard Nixon's inaugural concert on books.google.com
  42. ^ 1976 Distinguished Nebraskans Award Recipient (The Nebraska Society of Washington, D.C., Inc.)
  43. ^ McIntee, David (2005). Beautiful Monsters: The Unofficial and Unauthorized Guide to the Alien and Predator Films. Surrey, England: Telos Publishing Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 1-903889-94-4.
  44. ^ Cohen, Allen Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice pp. 24–25 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004)
  45. ^ Voices in the Wilderness – Six American Neo-Romantic Composer Walter Simmons, The Scarecrow Press, Maryland 2006 p. 111 ISBN 978-0-8108-5728-5 Howard Hanson's and Neo-Romanticism on books.google.com
  46. ^ Voices in the Wilderness – Six American Neo-Romantic Composer Walter Simmons, The Scarecrow Press, Maryland 2006 p. 15 ISBN 978-0-8108-5728-5 Howard Hanson's and Neo-Romanticism on books.google.com
  47. ^ Voices in the Wilderness – Six American Neo-Romantic Composer Walter Simmons, The Scarecrow Press, Maryland 2006 p. 147 ISBN 978-0-8108-5728-5 Howard Hanson described as an "American Neoromantic Composer par excellence" and Antonini Dvorak on books.google.com
  48. ^ Voices in the Wilderness – Six American Neo-Romantic Composer Walter Simmons, The Scarecrow Press, Maryland 2006 p. 147 ISBN 978-0-8108-5728-5 Critical review of Howard Hanson's early symphonies on books.google.com
  49. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.27 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson's use of modal scales on books.google.com
  50. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.27 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson's use of tertian chords, motoric ostinati and triadic chords on books.google.com
  51. ^ Voices in the Wilderness – Six American Neo-Romantic Composer Walter Simmons, The Scarecrow Press, Maryland 2006 p. 146-147 ISBN 978-0-8108-5728-5 critical review of Howard Hanson's use of melodic lines on books.google.com
  52. ^ Voices in the Wilderness – Six American Neo-Romantic Composer Walter Simmons, The Scarecrow Press, Maryland 2006 p. 147 ISBN 978-0-8108-5728-5 Critical review of Howard Hanson'scompositions on books.google.com
  53. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.26 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson describes his music on books.google.com
  54. ^ Onmusic Dictionary – Profile of Howard Hanson on dictionary.onmusic.org
  55. ^ Howard Hanson's discography on wolrdcat.org
  56. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p. 17 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson and his students of Composition at the Eastman School of Music on books.google.com

SourcesEdit

  • Autry, Philip Earl The Published Solo Piano Music Of Howard Hanson: An Analysis For Teaching And Performing (U. M. I. 1996)
  • Cohen, Allen Laurence. Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice (Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004).[1]
  • Goss, Madeleine Modern Music-Makers: Contemporary American Composers (Greenwood Press, Publishers. 1952)
  • Perone, James Howard Hanson: A Bio-Bibliography (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993)
  • Machlis, Joseph American Composers of Our Time (Thomas Y. Crowell. 1963)
  • Simmons, Walter Voices in the Wilderness: Six American Neo-Romantic Composers (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2006)
  • Shetler, Donald J. In Memoriam Howard Hanson (Music Educators Natl. 1984)
  • Williams, David Russell Conversations with Howard Hanson (Arkadelphia, Arkansas: Delta Publications, 1988)
  • 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, The Beast Within: The Making of Alien (2004)

External linksEdit

Preceded by
Alf Klingenberg
Director of the Eastman School of Music
1924–1964
Succeeded by
Walter Hendl
Preceded by
Raymond Wilson (Acting Director)
  1. ^ Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice Allen Laurence Cohen, Praeger Publishers, CT., 2004 p.28 ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Howard Hanson on books.google.com