Holy Shrine Defender
Holy Shrine Defenders, known in Persian as Modafean-e-Haram (مدافعان حرم), is a phrase that the Iranian government uses for their advisers and military personals who are fighting in Iraq and Syria in defense of Shia holy shrines that are often targeted for destruction by Sunni rebels.
According to Al-Monitor, "defenders of the shrines" is referred to advisers and military personals who fight at the Shia holy sites located in Iraq and Syria that have been targeted by Sunni rebels. Afghan and Pakistani fighters who fight with Liwa Fatemiyoun or Liwa Zainebiyoun are also considered to be Holy Shrine Defenders.
On April 2013, Al-Nusra Front associated with Al-Qaeda in Syria  disinterred the dead body of Hujr ibn 'Adi  and threatened to repeat this action at Zaynab bint Ali ’s shrine. Hassan Nasrallah answered that such as these actions has negative consequences. Also he said about forces who defend Zaynab bint Ali ’s shrine.
On August 2012, Syrian opposition forces attacked Al-Mashhad area of Aleppo in Syria. After this event, some groups decided to defend the shrine of Sakinah, Daughter of Husayn ibn Ali. While Abolfazl al-Abbas Brigade in Iraq was established on January 2013 and they went to Syria for defending Zaynab bint Ali ’s shrine, using the term of Holy Shrine Defenders was widely spread in the Iranian media on April 2013.
In the early days of the Syrian Civil War, a truck carrying explosives was moved toward the shrine of Zaynab bint Ali by Syrian opposition forces, the news of which led many volunteers departing to Syria in order to defend the shrine.
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