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List of Holy Roman Empresses

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Crown of Constance of Aragon, Holy Roman Empress and Queen of the Romans

Holy Roman Empress or Empress of the Holy Roman Empire is the title given to the consort (wife) or regent of the Holy Roman Emperor. The elective dignity of Holy Roman Emperor was restricted to males only, therefore there was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria, who controlled the power of rule, served as de facto Empresses regnant.

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Holy Roman EmpressesEdit

Before 924, the title of Emperor was not always associated with the German Kingdom; rather, it was initially associated with the Carolingian dynasty, and then possessed by several other figures of the 9th and 10th centuries. Their consorts were thus Empresses, but not necessarily German Queens.

CarolingianEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Ermengarde of Hesbaye
Queen of the Franks, Empress
Ingram, Count of Hesbaye
(Robertians)
c. 778 794/795 Queen of Aquitaine 794/795
Queen of the Franks 28 January 814
813
husband as co-Emperor with his father/
28 January 814
husband as sole Emperor
3 October 818 Louis I
  Judith of Bavaria
Queen of the Franks, Empress
Welf, Count of Altdorf
(Welfs)
797 819 20 June 840
husband's death
19/23 April 843
Ermengarde of Tours
Queen of Italy and the Middle Franks, Empress
Hugh, Count of Tours
(Etichonids)
? 821 Queen of Italy 17 April 818
Queen of Middle Francia August 843
821
husband as co-Emperor with his father/
20 June 840
husband as sole Emperor
851 Lothair I
Engelberga of Parma
Queen of Italy, Empress
Adelchis I, Count of Parma
(Supponids)
? 5 October 851 Queen of Italy 5 October 851 5 October 851
husband as co-Emperor with his father/
23 September 855
husband as sole Emperor
12 August 875
husband's death
896-901 Louis II
  Richilde of Provence
Queen of the West Franks, Empress
Bivin, Count of the Ardennes
(Bosonids)
845 870 Queen of the West Franks 870 29 December 875 5/6 October 877
husband's death
2 June 910 Charles the Bald
  Richardis
Queen of the Franks, Empress
Erchanger, count of Nordgau
(Ahalolfings)
c. 840 862 Various 12 February 881 As Queen: 11 November 887
husband's deposition as King
As Empress: 13 January 888
husband's death
18 September, 894-896 Charles the Fat
Ageltrude
Queen of Italy, Empress
Adelchis, Prince of Benevento ? before 880 Queen of Italy 889 May 891 12 December 894
husband's death
27 August 923 Guy III of Spoleto
Ota Berengar I of Neustria
(Conradines)
? 888 22 February 896 8 December 899 30 November 903 Arnulf
Anna of Constantinople
Queen of Italy and Provence, Empress
[1]
Leo VI the Wise
(Macedonian)
885 around 900 900
in Provence (Lower Burgundy)
12 October 900
in Italy
15/22 February 901 21 July 905
in the Empire and Italy
912
in Provence
912 Louis the Blind
Bertila of Spoleto
Queen of Italy, Empress
Suppo II, Count of Parma
(Supponids)
860 c. 880 Queen of Italy 26 December 887
husband's restoration
January 915 before December 915 Berengar I of Italy
Anna of Provence
Queen of Italy, Empress
Louis the Blind, Emperor, King of Provence and Italy
(Bosonids)
- by December 915 7 April 924
husband's death
after May 930
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Holy Roman Empresses/Queens of GermanyEdit

With the elevation of Otto I of Germany in 962 to the Imperial title, the title 'Roman King/Emperor' became inaliably associated with the Kingdom of Germany — although a King of Germany might not bear the Imperial title, it would be impossible to become a Holy Roman Emperor, without being King of Germany first. The women in the following sections were all Queens of Germany as well as Roman Empresses.

Ottonian DynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Adelaide of Italy Rudolph II of Burgundy
(Welf)
931 951 2 February 962 (Crowned on this date) Served as regent for her grandson Otto III until he came of age. 7 May 973 16 December 999 Otto I
  Theophanu of Byzantium Konstantinos Skleros 960 14 April 972 14 April 972
husband as co-Emperor with his father/
7 May 973
husband as sole Emperor
Crowned 14 April 972
7 December 983
husband's death
15 June 991 Otto II
  Cunigunde of Luxembourg Siegfried, Count of Luxemburg c. 975 999[2] 17 June 1002 26 April 1014 13 July 1024 3 March 1033 Henry II
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Salian DynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Gisela of Swabia Hermann II, Duke of Swabia
(Conradines)
11 November 995 1016 8 September 1024 26 March 1027 4 June 1039
husband's death
14 February 1043 Conrad II
  Agnes de Poitou William V, Duke of Aquitaine
(Ramnulfids)
1025 21 November 1043 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 14 December 1077 Henry III
  Bertha of Savoy Otto, Count of Savoy
(Savoy)
21 September 1051 13 July 1066 21 March 1084 27 December 1087 Henry IV
  Eupraxia of Kiev Vsevolod I, Grand Prince of Kiev
(Rurikids)
1071 14 August 1089 31 December 1105
husband's deposition
20 July 1109
  Matilda of England Henry I of England
(Normandy)
7 February 1101 7 January 1114 23 May 1125 10 September 1167 Henry V
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of SupplinburgEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Richenza of Northeim Henry the Fat, Margrave of Frisia c. 1087/89 c. 1100 30 August 1125 4 June 1133 4 December 1137 10 June 1141 Lothair III
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of HohenstaufenEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Beatrice of Burgundy Renaud III, Count of Burgundy 1143 9 June 1156 15 November 1184 Frederick I
  Constance of Sicily Roger II, King of Sicily
(Hauteville)
1154 27 January 1186 14 April 1191 28 September 1197 27 November 1198 Henry VI
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of WelfEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Beatrice of Swabia Philip, King of Germany
(Hohenstaufen)
1198 1209 or 1212 1212 Otto IV
  Marie of Brabant Henry I, Duke of Brabant c. 1190 after 19 May 1214 5 July 1215
husband's deposition
May 1260
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of HohenstaufenEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Constance of Aragon Alfonso II, King of Aragon 1179 5 August 1209 1211-1212
husband as King in opposition/
5 July 1215
husband unopposed
22 November 1220 23 April 1220
Ceased to
be Queen:
son elected
as King
23 June 1222
Ceased to be
Empress upon death
Frederick II
  Yolande of Brienne John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem 1212 9 November 1225 never German Queen 9 November 1225 25 April 1228
  Isabella of England John, King of England 1214 15/20 July 1235 May 1237
Ceased to
be Queen:
husband's second
son elected as King
1 December 1241
Ceased to be
Empress upon death
Picture Name House Father Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of WittelsbachEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Margaret II, Countess of Hainault William of Avesnes, Count of Hainaut 1311 26 February 1324 January 1328 11 October 1347 23 June 1356 Louis IV
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of LuxemburgEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Anna of Świdnica Henry II, Duke of Świdnica c. 1339 27 May 1353 5 April 1355
coronation with husband
11 July 1362 Charles IV
  Elizabeth of Pomerania Bogislav V, Duke of Pomerania 1347 21 May 1363 1 November 1368
coronation
29 November 1378
husband's death
14 February 1393
  Barbara of Cilli Hermann II, Count of Celje 1390 to 1395 1408 21 July 1411
husband's election
31 May 1433
husband's coronation
9 December 1437
husband's death
11 July 1451 Sigismund
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of HabsburgEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Leonor of Portugal Edward of Portugal
(Aviz)
18 September 1434 16 March 1452 19 March 1452
husband's coronation
3 September 1467 Frederick III
  Bianca Maria Sforza of Milan Galeazzo Maria, Duke of Milan
(Sforza)
5 April 1472 16 March 1494 4 February 1508
husband declared "emperor-elect"
31 December 1510 Maximilian I
  Isabella of Portugal Manuel I of Portugal
(Aviz)
23 October 1503 10 March 1526 24 February 1530
husband's coronation
1 May 1539 Charles V
  Maria of Austria Emperor Charles V
(Habsburg)
21 June 1528 13 September 1548 November 1562
husband's election
25 July 1564
husband's ascension
12 October 1576
husband's death
26 February 1603 Maximilian II
  Anna of Austria Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria
(Habsburg)
4 October 1585 4 December 1611 13 June 1612
husband's election
14 December 1618 Matthias
  Eleonora Gonzaga Vincenzo I, Duke of Mantua
(Gonzaga)
23 September (23 February?) 1598 4 February 1622 15 February 1637
husband's death
27 June 1655 Ferdinand II
  Maria Anna of Austria Philip III of Spain
(Habsburg)
18 August 1606 20 February 1631 22 December 1636
husband's election
15 February 1637
husband's ascension
13 May 1646 Ferdinand III
  Maria Leopoldine of Austria Leopold V, Archduke of Austria
(Habsburg)
6 April 1632 2 July 1648 7 August 1649
  Eleanora Gonzaga Charles II, Duke of Mantua
(Gonzaga)
18 November 1630 30 April 1651 2 April 1657
husband's death
6 December 1686
  Margarita Teresa of Austria Philip IV of Spain
(Habsburg)
12 July 1651 12 December 1666 12 March 1673 Leopold I
  Claudia Felicitas of Austria Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria
(Habsburg)
30 May 1653 15 October 1673 8 April 1676
  Eleonore Magdalene of Neuburg Philip William, Elector Palatine
(Wittelsbach)
6 January 1655 14 December 1676 5 May 1705
husband's death
19 January 1720
  Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick John Frederick, Duke of Calenburg
(Welf)
21 April 1673 24 February 1699 5 May 1705
husband's ascension
17 April 1711
husband's death
10 April 1742 Joseph I
  Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
(Welf)
28 August (28 September?) 1691 1 August 1708 December 1711
husband's election
20 October 1740
husband's death
21 December 1750 Charles VI
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of WittelsbachEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Maria Amalia of Austria Emperor Joseph I
(Habsburg)
22 October 1701 5 October 1722 24 January 1742
husband's election
20 January 1745
husband's death
11 December 1756 Charles VII
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg-LorraineEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
  Maria Theresa of Austria Emperor Charles VI
(Habsburg)
13 May 1717 12 February 1736 13 September 1745
husband's election
18 August 1765
husband's death
29 November 1780 Francis I
  Maria Josepha of Bavaria Emperor Charles VII
(Wittelsbach)
30 March 1739 23 January 1765 18 August 1765
husband's ascension
28 May 1767 Joseph II
  Maria Louisa of Spain Charles III of Spain
(Bourbon)
24 November 1745 5 August 1765 30 September 1790
husband's election
1 March 1792
husband's death
15 May 1792 Leopold II
  Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
(Bourbon)
6 June 1772 15 August 1790 5 July 1792
husband's election
6 August 1806
husband's abdication
13 April 1807 Francis II
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Queen Became Empress Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Some historians believed that Anna never married Louis the Blind. Although there are proves that they were betrothed to one another, Anna was buried in Constantinople showing that she never left her father's court. The main reason some believe that she was his wife was because of Louis' son, Charles-Constantine's second name.
  2. ^ "Saint Kunigunde", New Catholic Dictionary, Saints.SQPN.com, 7 October 2012, [1]