Herbert Vivian

Herbert Vivian (3 April 1865 – 18 April 1940) was an English journalist, author and newspaper owner, who befriended Lord Randolph Churchill, Charles Russell, Leopold Maxse and others in the 1880s. He campaigned for Irish Home Rule and was private secretary to Wilfrid Blunt, poet and writer, who stood in the 1888 Deptford by-election. Vivian's writings caused a rift between Oscar Wilde and James NcNeil Whistler. In the 1890s, Vivian was a leader of the Neo-Jacobite Revival, a monarchist movement keen to restore a Stuart to the British throne and replace the parliamentary system. Before the First World War he was friends with Winston Churchill and was the first journalist to interview him. Vivian lost as Liberal candidate for Deptford in 1906. He was an extreme monarchist throughout his life and in the 1920s became a supporter of fascism. He wrote several books, including the novel The Green Bay Tree with William Henry Wilkins. He was a noted Serbophile, whose writings on the Balkans remain influential.

Herbert Vivian
Portrait of Herbert Vivian in 1905
Herbert Vivian in 1905
Born(1865-04-03)3 April 1865
Died18 April 1940(1940-04-18) (aged 75)
OccupationJournalist, Author
Known forNeo-Jacobite Revival
Partner(s)Maud Mary Simpson (1893–1896)
Olive Walton (1897 – c. 1927)
Herbert Vivian's signature, 1890

Early life and educationEdit

Herbert Vivian was born on 3 April 1865 in Chichester, the only son of the Reverend Francis Henry and Margaret Vivian.[1][2] He was baptised by his father on 11 May 1865 at the town's Church of St Peter the Great.[3] He had a sister, Margaret Cordelia Vivian.[2] His grandfather John Vivian was the Liberal MP for Truro,[4] and owned Pencalenick House in St Clement, Cornwall;[2] Herbert recalled shooting his first rabbit there as a child.[5] He always glossed over his grandfather's political role, for example, writing: "None of my immediate relatives have ever troubled their heads in politics..." in his newspaper The Whirlwind.[6]

Herbert studied at Harrow School from 1879 until 1883.[1] When he was 14, he was introduced to an old friend of his father's, Thomas Hughes, the author of Tom Brown's School Days. The meeting had a strong impact on the young Vivian, who wrote about it later in his memoirs.[7] In 1881, his grandfather introduced him to Thomas Bayley Potter, the Member of Parliament for Rochdale.[6] Potter was impressed by Vivian and often took him into Parliament during his holidays. There Vivian met many of the MPs and was particularly impressed by Charles Warton, the MP for Bridport.[8] Potter also introduced him to Lord Randolph Churchill, who inspired Vivian to take up Tory democracy. Vivian exchanged letters with Lord Randolph during his school days and continued to correspond with him for many years afterwards.[9] Vivian later became friends with his son, Winston Churchill.[10][11]

Vivian studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating in 1886 with a degree in history and subsequently being promoted to a Master of Arts.[1] In his student years, Vivian and his friend Edward Goulding were the President and Vice-President respectively of the University Carlton Club and invited Lord Randolph to become its President. Never shy of using his connections, Vivian dropped Churchill's name to arrange a meeting in Vevey with Nubar Pasha, the first Prime Minister of Egypt. After spending several hours discussing politics with Pasha, he returned to London and reported his conversation to Churchill. Churchill introduced Vivian to Charles Russell, who later became Baron Russell of Killowen and the Lord Chief Justice of England, and the two became friends.[12] Around 1882, Vivian attended a lecture given by Oscar Wilde at which James NcNeil Whistler was also present and which Vivian would later write about (see Oscar Wilde).[13]

At Cambridge, Vivian struck up friendships with students who went on to be prominent politicians and businessmen. Austen Chamberlain was involved in Cambridge Union politics when Vivian arrived and the two bonded over a shared interest in Radicalism. He was a close friend of Leopold Maxse — later editor of the National Review. Another friend was Ernest Debenham, who went on to lead the family business Debenhams to great commercial success. Vivian recalled Debenham overdosing on hashish during experiments in Buddhism at Cambridge.[14]

Private secretary to Wilfrid BluntEdit

Vivian and Chamberlain organised speaking events at the Union. In 1886,[15] they invited the English anti-imperialist writer and poet Wilfrid Scawen Blunt to speak on the subject of Irish Home Rule, and Vivian and Blunt became friends.[16] Later that year, Vivian visited Blunt at his home, Crabbet Park, and took a position as his private secretary. Vivian spent most weekends at Crabbet during his final year of studies,[17] and continued to work for Blunt after he graduated. While so employed, he met influential politicians, as Blunt prepared to stand for Parliament, among them the Anglo-French historian Hilaire Belloc.[18] Blunt was a cousin of Lord Alfred Douglas[19] and a friend of Oscar Wilde.[20]

In 1887 Blunt became more vociferously in favour of Irish Home Rule. In November, Lord Randolph wrote to Vivian advising him to distance himself from Blunt, advice Vivian did not take.[21] At the time, Blunt was also developing interest in the Jacobite cause[22] of restoring the House of Stuart to the British throne, which Vivian was to become a passion in his life.

In late 1887, Vivian left the Conservative Party and joined the Home Rule Union between the Liberal Party and the Irish Parliamentary Party. At the end of the year, he toured Ireland with the leading Irish politician Michael Davitt and Bradford Central MP George Shaw-Lefevre. Shortly after Vivian returned from Ireland he met the leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party Charles Stewart Parnell and then the MP for East Mayo, John Dillon.[23] In October 1887, Blunt gave a speech at a meeting in Woodford, County Galway protesting against mass evictions of tenant families.[24] The meeting had been banned by Arthur Balfour, the Chief Secretary for Ireland and Blunt was arrested, tried and imprisoned.[25] While Blunt served his sentence in Dublin, Vivian worked closely with William John Evelyn to promote Blunt in the February 1888 Deptford by-election, caused by Evelyn's resignation as the Conservative MP. Blunt lost by 275 votes.[26] Despite this, Blunt and Vivian were approached in March 1888 by a committee from Parnell's Irish National League, asking Blunt to stand as their candidate for Deptford at the next general election,[27] but by the time the election was called in 1892, Blunt's enthusiasms had moved on.[28]

For a while, Vivian contributed to Evelyn's Abinger Monthly Record, a magazine he later described as "[in] part... really scurrilous attacks on the Vicar".[29] The Vicar was Rev. T. P. Hill, incumbent of Abinger, who had fallen out with Evelyn. The Record was also noted for a campaign against compulsory vaccinations and support of Irish Home Rule.[30]

Oscar WildeEdit

In the late 1880s, Vivian was a friend of Oscar Wilde; they dined together on several occasions. At one such dinner, Vivian claimed he witnessed a famous exchange between Wilde and James NcNeill Whistler. Whistler said a bon mot that Wilde found particularly witty, Wilde exclaimed that he wished that he had said it, and Whistler retorted, "You will, Oscar, you will".[31]

In 1889, Vivian included this anecdote in an article, "The Reminiscences of a Short Life", which appeared in The Sun and implied that Wilde had a habit of passing off other people's witticisms as his own, especially Whistler's. Wilde saw Vivian's article as a scurrilous betrayal and it directly caused the break in friendship between Wilde and Whistler.[32] "The Reminiscences" also caused acrimony between Wilde and Vivian, Wilde accusing him of "the inaccuracy of an eavesdropper with the method of a blackmailer"[33] and banishing him from his circle.[32] After the incident, Vivian and Whistler became friends, exchanging letters for many years.[34][a]

Newspaper publishing and the Neo-Jacobite RevivalEdit

The title illustration of the first issue of The Whirlwind
Portrait of Charles Bradlaugh MP, by Walter Sickert, from the first issue of The Whirlwind
Wreath laying at the statue of Charles I by The Legitimist Club in 1897

The late 1880s and 1890s brought a Neo-Jacobite Revival in Britain. In 1886, Bertram Ashburnham founded the Order of the White Rose, which embraced causes such as Irish, Cornish, Scottish and Welsh independence, Spanish and Italian legitimism, and particularly Jacobitism. Its members included Frederick Lee, Henry Jenner, Whistler, Robert Edward Francillon, Charles Augustus Howell, Stuart Richard Erskine and Vivian. It published a paper, The Royalist, from 1890 to 1903.[35][better source needed]

Vivian first met Erskine when they were at a journalism school together.[36] In 1890, the two founded a weekly newspaper The Whirlwind, A Lively and Eccentric Newspaper with Vivian as editor,[37] noted for including illustrations by artists, including Whistler[38][39] and Walter Sickert. Sickert was also its art critic,[40] and wrote a weekly column.[41] It carried articles on Oscar Wilde[42] at the height of his fame and notoriety. The paper espoused an individualist, Jacobite political view, championed by Erskine and Vivian.[43] One notable Sickert illustration for The Whirlwind was a portrait of Charles Bradlaugh.[44] Bradlaugh also wrote an article on "practical individualism" for the paper.[45]

The Whirlwind was scourged by Victor Yarros for its anti-Semitic stance,[46] mainly espoused by Vivian in his editorials. In the 23 August 1890 edition, he wrote, "The Jews are a race rather than a religious body, and, like the Chinese, are often obnoxious to their neighbours. By their financial craft they have acquired a dangerously extensive power, not merely over individuals, but even over the policy of states.... The proper way to deal with Jews is a rigorous boycott... What should be aimed at is a return of the whole Jewish race, as speedily as may be, to Palestine... The countries of their adoption would assuredly have no difficulty in sparing them".[47]

Vivian used his editorship to promote also an individualist philosophy for women, though he was against Women's suffrage.[48] Other causes included the menace of London's tramways[49] and repeated attacks on the journalist and explorer Henry Morton Stanley and other figures of the age. He also published a series of autobiographical articles, Reminiscences of a Short Life, which later formed the basis of his 1923 memoirs, Myself Not Least, being the personal reminiscences of "X."[6] The paper went on hiatus in early 1891, when Vivian stood for election, and did not restart publication.[50]

The Order of the White Rose split in 1891. It had been a primarily nostalgic, artistic organisation,[51] but Vivian and Erskine wanted a more militant political agenda.[52] With Melville Henry Massue, styling himself the Marquis of Ruvigny, they founded a rival Legitimist Jacobite League of Great Britain and Ireland,[53][54] sometimes using the name White Rose League.[55] Its Central Executive Committee contained Walter Clifford Mellor, Vivian, George G. Fraser, Massue, Baron Valdez of Valdez, Alfred John Rodway, and R. W. Fraser,[56] with Erskine as President. Pittock called the League a "publicist for Jacobitism on a scale unwitnessed since the Eighteenth Century".[57]

The League organised protests often centred on statues of Jacobite heroes. In late 1892, they applied for government permission to lay wreaths at the statue of Charles I at Charing Cross on the anniversary of his execution. This was denied by Prime Minister Gladstone and enforced by George Shaw-Lefevre, Vivian's one-time travelling companion and now First Commissioner of Works.[58] The League tried to lay the wreaths anyway on 30 January 1893. Police were sent to stop this, but after a confrontation, Vivian and other members were allowed to complete their moved,[59] so gaining significant press coverage. The political reporter for the Lancashire Evening Post wrote, "Mr. Herbert Vivian has been successful at last in placing a wreath upon the Statue of Charles the First.... We trust all parties will feel the better for the operation — especially the bronze statue".[60] An article in the Western Morning News said, "A bold and daring man is Mr. Herbert Vivian, Jacobite and journalist.... He announces to all and sundry that, law or no law, he will... attempt to lay a wreath on the statue. I have not heard whether special precautions have yet been taken to cope with this new force of disorder though, perhaps... one constable may be set apart to overawe Mr. Herbert Vivian".[61]

In June 1893 came a split between Ruvigny and Vivian, with Vivian seeking to continue the League with support from Viscount Dupplin, Mellor and others.[62] Vivian left the Jacobite League in August 1893,[63] but continued to promote a strongly Jacobite political philosophy.

In 1892 and 1893, Vivian worked as a journalist for William Ernest Henley at the National Observer.[64] In 1894, he published The Green Bay Tree with a college friend, the anti-immigrant[65][66] writer William Henry Wilkins.[67] He also contributed to Wilkin's monthly periodical The Albermarle, which was co-edited by a mutual Cambridge friend, Hubert Crackanthorpe.[68] He spent the winter of 1894/1895 in France, where he discussed Jacobite and Carlist politics with the poet François Coppée and contemporary literature with the novelist Émile Zola.[69]

Vivian continued his political journalism after The Whirlwind closed. In 1895, he was editor of The White Cockade, a newspaper whose main purpose was to put forward the Jacobite argument. It received poor reviews and no success. Vivian was described in the Bristol Mercury as a "volatile young gentleman [who] enjoys a European reputation in the spheres of politics and literature."[43]

By 1897, Vivian was the President of the Legitimist Club, another Neo-Jacobite organisation.[70] In 1898, Vivian published letters he had exchanged with the Office of Works demanding that the Club be allowed to lay a wreath at the Statue of James II, Trafalgar Square on 16 September, the anniversary of James' death. Vivian's wreath-laying, tactics and use of the press to publicise his cause, remained the same.[58] Vivian remained president of the Club until at least 1904.[71]

Writing careerEdit

Herbert Vivian in 1904, from The Bystander

After his departure from the Jacobite League in 1893, Vivian became travel correspondent of Arthur Pearson's paper Pearson's Weekly.[72] In February 1896, he launched and edited a new weekly called Give and Take,[73] which was noted for offering its readers coupons for "a selected set of tradesmen".[74]

In 1898, Vivian returned to being a travel journalist, first for the Morning Post (1898–1899) and then for Pearson's newly-founded Daily Express (1899–1900).[75] In 1901 and 1902, he produced a magazine called The Rambler with Richard Le Gallienne,[76] intended as a revival of Samuel Johnson's periodical of the same name.[77] After the turn of the 20th century, Vivian wrote several novels, some anonymously or using pseudonyms, which met mixed reviews. The Master Sinner was seen by The Publisher's Circular as "unpleasant but clever",[78] and in The Literary World as having a "style... jerky and overladen with adjectives", but still "a readable book".[79]

Of Vivian's several travel books, the best-known was Servia: The Poor Man's Paradise (1897), which was widely quoted in newspapers, including The New York Times,[80] the Morning Post[81] and Pearson's Weekly.[82]

In 1901, Vivian wrote with his wife Olive a book on European religious rituals, described in the Sheffield Independent as "well written, curious and readable, and marred only by a singularly fatuous surrender to any form of superstition however grovelling".[83] In 1902, Vivian interviewed the French novelist Joris-Karl Huysmans.[84]

Frontispiece of Herbert Vivian's book The Servian Tragedy, published in 1904

In 1903, Vivian returned to the subject of Serbia in "The Servian Character" for the English Illustrated Magazine.[85] He followed this with a second work, The Servian Tragedy: With Some Impressions of Macedonia (1904), detailing the coup d'état against the Serbian royal family. This was reviewed in the Sheffield Daily Telegraph: "The author has a thorough personal knowledge of the country, was received in audience by the late King and Queen, and is personally acquainted with all the statesmen. The Belgrade catastrophe is minutely described from full particulars obtained first hand."[86] It was reviewed less positively in the London Daily News: "Mr. Herbert Vivian's new book... presents many interesting chapters on the events leading up to the recent tragedy, but can hardly be looked upon as an authoritative history. The matter is thin, the author does not quote his authorities; and he is too evidently willing to accept hearsay in place of evidence."[87]

Vivian, as a friend of Winston Churchill, met him several times in the 1900s, seeking political gossip and advice.[88] In 1905 Vivian published the first interview given by Churchill,[89] published in The Pall Mall Magazine,[90] which received attention in the press.[91] Vivian also interviewed David Lloyd George, the President of the Board of Trade, for The Pall Mall Magazine[92] and wrote for The Fortnightly Review.[93][b]

In 1904, Vivian made a political speech containing pointed remarks about George Bernard Shaw. Shaw and Vivian exchanged letters on the matter, which Vivian then published, to Shaw's chagrin:

The publication of my letter to Mr. Vivian was a piece of humourous cruelty in which I had no part. I honestly gave Mr. Vivian the best advice I could in his own interest in a letter obviously not intended for publication; and if he had acted quietly upon it, instead of sending it off to the papers... he might still have a chance at a seat in the next Parliament.... I shall not pretend to be sorry that I have helped Mr. Bowerman, the accredited Labour candidate, to disable an opponent who, if he had played his cards skilfully, might have proved very dangerous... Yours, G. Bernard Shaw[94]

Vivian continued his keen interest in the Balkan states. In 1907, he joined a plot to put Prince Arthur of Connaught on the throne of Serbia. A year later, the Montenegro government considered appointing him its Honorary Consul in London,[95] and Vivian wrote to his friend Winston Churchill, asking for an exequatur for his appointment.[96]

In 1908, Vivian proposed a gambling "system" for roulette published in The Evening Standard. His system relied on the gambler's fallacy and it was debunked by Sir Hiram Maxim in the Literary Digest in October 1908.[97]

Frontispiece of Herbert Vivian's book Italy at War, published in 1917

Vivian continued to publish books in the First World War, notably a 1917 volume, Italy at War, which despite its title was largely a travelogue.[98] He tried to join the Ministry of Information and met both Lord Beaverbrook and John Buchan as part of his efforts, but his services were rejected, although Buchan admitted to Jacobite sympathies during their meeting.[99] Vivian instead returned to the Daily Express as travel correspondent for 1918.[100]

In the 1920s Vivian worked as a travel stringer for newspapers that included The Pall Mall Magazine[101] and The Yorkshire Post.[102] In 1927, he wrote Secret Societies Old and New, which received mixed reviews, The Spectator calling it "well-written and extremely readable",[103] but Albert Mackey noting, "The author does not possess sufficient knowledge for his task."[104]

In 1932, Vivian returned to European political history and legitimism with The Life of the Emperor Charles of Austria,[105] the first biography of Charles published in English. It was positively received in the Belfast News Letter.[106] He continued to write on the Balkans, with an article in The English Review in 1933 on racial tensions in Yugoslavia.[107]

Vivian's writings were noted in his lifetime and after; he is listed in the 1926 edition of Who's Who in Literature,[108] and the 1967 New Century Handbook of English Literature.[109]

Political candidateEdit

In 1889, Vivian sought to stand in the Dover by-election. He withdrew and later alleged that the Irish journalist and candidate for Galway Borough, T. P. O'Connor, had stepped in to prevent his candidacy.[110]

In April 1891, Vivian announced he was standing in the East Bradford constituency for the Jacobite "Individualist Party", of which he was sole member.[111] By May 1891, Vivian was claiming to be the Labour candidate for the seat, though this was denied by the Bradford Trade and Labour Council.[112] During the campaign he was named as co-respondent in a divorce case (see personal life) which was gleefully reported by the local press.[113] He duly lost the 1892 election to William Sproston Caine.[114]

In 1895, he stood for the North Huntingdonshire constituency on an explicitly Jacobite platform.[115] The seat was comfortably held by A.E. Fellowes.[116]

Undeterred by failures, Vivian again sought election in the 20th century. He was interested in the Deptford constituency, where he had helped Wilfrid Blunt's campaign 15 years earlier. He began to campaign there at the end of 1903 and spoke at a free trade meeting in December, reading letters of support he had received from Winston Churchill[117] and John Dickson-Poynder, MP for Chippenham.[118] Churchill joined the Liberal party in 1904 and Vivian followed him.[119] He was selected as a Liberal candidate to fight the 1906 election,[120] and Churchill spoke in his support at two meetings.[121][122] Vivian met serious opposition to his candidacy,[123] and received only 726 votes, losing heavily to the Labour Party's C. W. Bowerman.[124]

In 1908, Vivian looked into standing as a candidate in the Stirling Burghs constituency after the death of the former Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who had held the seat for the Liberals.[125] Vivian again espoused legitimist views in support of restoring the House of Stuart.[126] In the end he did not stand and the seat was won by Arthur Ponsonby.[127]

Fascist sympathiesEdit

In 1920, Vivian met Benito Mussolini and Gabriele D'Annunzio in Italy and became an admirer of fascism, notably Italian Fascism.[128][129] In 1926, he wrote of his visits to Mussolini's Italy:

I find most useful, instead of a passport, is a copy of the first Fascist newspaper, for which I wrote an article in 1920... These fascist syndicates everywhere are not unlike the Soviets, and Fascism is very like Bolshevism in many ways. Except that one means well, and the other not. Fascism is certainly succeeding... All the public services go like clockwork, trains arrive to the tick.[130]

In May 1929, Vivian and Hugh George de Willmott Newman founded the Royalist International, a group with a stated aim of opposing the spread of Bolshevism and restoring the Italian monarchy, but with a clear pro-fascist agenda.[128] Vivian was General Secretary and editor of the league's publication, the Royalist International Herald.[1] Newman, 24 at the time, went on to be ordained a bishop in the Independent Catholic church[131] and an archbishop in the Catholicate of the West,[132] and was involved in Aleister Crowley's Ordo Templi Orientis.[133] In 1933, Vivian wrote:

Monarchy...[is] a more satisfactory form of government than the insidious poisons of a plutocracy [and] the distorted democracy of Parliaments... the world's galloping consumption will not be arrested until... Kings forget their ancient animosities to unite in a Royalist International uncontaminated and unhampered by the lying, cowardly, malignant Spirit of the Age.[134]

In 1936 came Vivian's Fascist Italy, in which he expressed admiration for the Italian fascist regime.[135] It received a scathing review in the Nottingham Journal: "A facile writer of travel guides... Herbert Vivian must be read as an amusement of a rather grim sort than as an education.... This is a book which need not be taken too seriously, but which may be worth reading with no more attention than is given to works which claim, as this one does not, to be mainly fiction."[136] The Dundee Evening Telegraph review noted Vivian "writes with rapturous enthusiasm. Mussolini is to him a "saviour", who "restored order and glory and pride, cured his country in her calenture, create an imperial future with traditions of ancient Rome"... Inasmuch as it is a mouthpiece for crude propaganda, Mr. Vivian's book is regrettable."[137]

Political viewsEdit

Vivian's political views varied over his life, embracing at times one-nation Toryism, free-trade liberalism and open fascism. Indeed, he often seemed more interested in the mechanisms of power and power of persuasive political speech than in consistent policies or positions.

During a failed campaign for the 1891 Bradford East by-election he wrote:

I preach fanatically the gospel of individualism according to John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer. The first principle of this gospel is that everyone must be allowed to do whatever he pleases so long as his doing so does not interfere with the liberty of others to do the same. I am a staunch free trader, desiring the abolition of that curse of civilisation, the custom house. I protest against all monopolies, whether exercised by un-wieldy State departments, or by grasping individuals, and I support the claims of all nationalities to the management of their own affairs.[138]

Some of his beliefs were consistent: he held racist views from early days:

We have already proclaimed ourselves to be hand in glove with a remote island of yellow dwarfs; this policy will doubtless be extended...for every fetish-worshipping savage, for every murderous nigger, for every naked monster who can offer us assistance in our general conspiracy to obtain universal empire.

— Editorial by Vivian, quoted to Edward Goulding by Winston Churchill[139]

He was noted for "extreme monarchist views" throughout his life,[140][141] and became antagonistic to democracy. His 1933 Kings in Waiting – in which he wrote "Democracy, liberty, and prosperity had been the mirages that had attracted the nations to their shambles" – was noted for its passionate pro-Monarchist and anti-Democratic stance.[142]

He was a prominent British Serbophile and an early proponent of a Greater Serbia that encompassed most of the territory of Macedonia.[143][144]

Modern perceptionsEdit

Vivian's books and articles on Serbia remain widely quoted in modern histories of the region.[145][146][147][148] Slobodan Markovich, writing in 2000, describes Servia: A Poor Man's Paradise' as a rather sympathetic account of the Serbian King Alexander and the Serbian Army.... Although biased, the book has an abundance of facts and confirms the extent to which British knowledge on Serbia had accumulated in previous decades."[149] Markovich says that Vivian "among Britons who took part in the creation of the image of Serbia and the Balkans" was the "one person [who] should be given a special attention."[150] He also noted put Vivian and anthropologist Edith Durham "among [the] prominent actors of the 'balkanisation' of the Near East", who greatly influenced the British perception of the Balkans after the First World War."[151]

In 2013, Servia: The Poor Man's Paradise was described by Radmila Pejic as "a major contribution to British travel writing about Serbia with its in-depth analysis and rather objective portrayal of the country's political system, religious practices and economic situation."[152]

Although Vivian's Neo-Jacobite views are now largely forgotten, his 1893 wreath-laying earned him the epithet "political maverick" from Smith, who summed up the impact of the event: "The affair enjoyed publicity out of all proportion to the latter-day significance of the Jacobite cause, which had long been effectively extinct, but as one man's crusade against an aspect of state bureaucracy, it acquired contemporary meaning."[140]

Miller and Morelon call him a "monarchist British historian" and ascribe his interest in Emperor Charles of Austria to an uncritical admiration of kings.[141]

Personal lifeEdit

Vivian at 27 was named as co-respondent in a divorce case. In 1891, he had met Henry Simpson and his wife Maud Mary Simpson in Venice and become a frequent visitor to their home. Henry Simpson was an artist and a friend of Whistler.[153] The Simpsons travelled on to Paris, where Mrs Simpson confessed that Vivian had proposed to her. The Simpsons then returned to London and Mrs Simpson left her husband and demanded a divorce, as she and Vivian were living together in Bognor Regis under the assumed names of Mr and Mrs Selwyn.[154] The Simpsons' divorce came in December 1892,[155] one of only 354 granted in England and Wales that year.[156] On 22 June 1893, Vivian married Simpson.[157] She pursued her ambition to become an actress and in 1895 she travelled to Holland, where she abandoned Vivian for a Mr Sundt of the Norwegian Legation in Amsterdam.[158] The marriage ended in divorce in 1896.[159]

On 30 September 1897, Vivian married Olive Walton, daughter of Frederick Walton the inventor of linoleum.[160][161] Herbert and Olive were well known on the London social scene in the years just after the First World War and occur in Anthony Powell's memoir Infants of the Spring as throwing a lavish luncheon in honour of Aleister Crowley. Powell notes that their "marriage did not last long, but was still going at this period." Olive kept up a lively correspondence with Powell's father for many years after the divorce.[162]

Vivian was made a Knight of the Royal Serbian Order of Takovo in 1902[75] and a Commander of the Royal Montenegrin Order of Danilo in 1910.[1]

Herbert Vivian died on 18 April 1940 at Gunwalloe in Cornwall,[100] 17 miles (27 km) from his grandfather's house in St Clement.


Title page of The Green Bay Tree by W. H. Wilkins and Herbert Vivian

The following books are commonly attributed to Vivian,[164][165] but at least one source gives Wilfrid Keppel Honnywill as the author.[166]

  • Vivian, Herbert (1901b). The Master Sinner. London: John Long. OCLC 24004744. (published anonymously)
  • Vivian, Herbert (1901c). The Curse of Eden. London: John Long. (published anonymously)



  1. ^ "My acquaintance with Whistler arose through a press criticism of Oscar Wilde from my pen, and soon ripened into a long intimacy."(Vivian 1925, p. 77)
  2. ^ "In the current number of the 'Fortnightly Review', there appears an article entitled 'Pretended Labour Parties' from the pen of Mr. Herbert Vivian, the Radical candidate for Deptford." (The Aberdare Leader 1906)


  1. ^ a b c d e Who Was Who 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Fox-Davies 1910.
  3. ^ Baptism Record 1865.
  4. ^ Cornwall Advertiser 1870.
  5. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 3.
  6. ^ a b c Vivian 1890.
  7. ^ Titley 2011.
  8. ^ Vivian 1925, pp. 6–7.
  9. ^ Vivian 1925, pp. 3–23.
  10. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 365.
  11. ^ Yorkshire Post 1906.
  12. ^ Vivian 1925, pp. 21–22.
  13. ^ Bristow & Mitchell 2015.
  14. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 30.
  15. ^ Vivian 1890, p. 123.
  16. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 16.
  17. ^ Vivian 1925, pp. 33–35.
  18. ^ Vivian 1925, pp. 37–38.
  19. ^ Douglas 1914.
  20. ^ Gilbert 1980.
  21. ^ Vivian 1925, pp. 40–41.
  22. ^ Pilz 2013.
  23. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 53.
  24. ^ O'Brien 1916, p. 81.
  25. ^ Rumens 2019.
  26. ^ Longford 2004.
  27. ^ The Tablet 1888.
  28. ^ Blunt 1923, p. 65.
  29. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 46.
  30. ^ Surrey History Centre 2019.
  31. ^ Raby 1997.
  32. ^ a b Ellmann 2013.
  33. ^ Spoo 2018.
  34. ^ Brewster 2019.
  35. ^ Coulombe 2017.
  36. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 87.
  37. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art 2019.
  38. ^ University of Glasgow 2019.
  39. ^ Sutherland 2014.
  40. ^ Stephen Ongpin Fine Art 2019.
  41. ^ Robins 2003.
  42. ^ Workington Star 1890.
  43. ^ a b Bristol Mercury 1895.
  44. ^ Evening Herald (Dublin) 1892.
  45. ^ Northampton Mercury 1890.
  46. ^ Yarros 1890.
  47. ^ Vivian 1890, p. 133.
  48. ^ Vivian 1890, p. 34.
  49. ^ Vivian 1890, p. 37.
  50. ^ Yorkshire Evening Post 1891.
  51. ^ Fletcher 1987.
  52. ^ Pilz & Standlee 2016.
  53. ^ Folkestone, Hythe, Sandgate & Cheriton Herald 1892.
  54. ^ Glasgow Herald 1891.
  55. ^ Tower Hamlets Independent and East End Local Advertiser 1896.
  56. ^ Notes and Queries 1892.
  57. ^ Pittock 2014.
  58. ^ a b Flintshire Observer Mining Journal and General Advertiser for the Counties of Flint Denbigh 1898.
  59. ^ The Athenaeum 1895.
  60. ^ Lancashire Evening Post 1893.
  61. ^ Western Morning News 1893.
  62. ^ Aberdeen Evening Express 1893.
  63. ^ Yorkshire Evening Post 1893.
  64. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 88.
  65. ^ Bain & Woolven 1979.
  66. ^ Kushner 2007.
  67. ^ Dictionary of National Biography 2019.
  68. ^ The Albemarle 1892.
  69. ^ Vivian 1925, pp. 165–169.
  70. ^ Leeds Times 1897.
  71. ^ The Bystander 1904.
  72. ^ Vivian 1925, pp. 89–90.
  73. ^ The People 1896.
  74. ^ Sketch: A Journal of Art and Actuality 1896.
  75. ^ a b Addison et al. 1903.
  76. ^ The Saturday Review 1901.
  77. ^ Courtney 1915.
  78. ^ The Publishers Circular and Bookseller's Record of British and Foreign Literature 1901.
  79. ^ The Literary World 1901.
  80. ^ The New York Times 1898.
  81. ^ Morning Post 1898.
  82. ^ Pearson's Weekly 1898.
  83. ^ Sheffield Independent 1901.
  84. ^ Vivian 1902.
  85. ^ Cheltenham Looker-On 1903.
  86. ^ Sheffield Daily Telegraph 1904.
  87. ^ London Daily News 1904.
  88. ^ Shelden 2014.
  89. ^ International Churchill Society 2009a.
  90. ^ International Churchill Society 2009b.
  91. ^ Stead 1905.
  92. ^ The North Wales Express 1905.
  93. ^ The Spectator 1905.
  94. ^ Vivian 1925, pp. 105–106.
  95. ^ Markovich 2000, p. 135.
  96. ^ Churchill Archive 2019.
  97. ^ Literary Digest 1908.
  98. ^ The Athaneum 1917.
  99. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 373.
  100. ^ a b Venn 2011.
  101. ^ Vivian 1920.
  102. ^ Vivian 1927b.
  103. ^ The Spectator 1928.
  104. ^ Mackey 2000.
  105. ^ Vivian 1932.
  106. ^ Belfast News Letter 1932.
  107. ^ Dundee Courier 1933.
  108. ^ Who's who in Literature 1926.
  109. ^ Barnhart 1967.
  110. ^ Leeds Times 1890.
  111. ^ Globe 1891.
  112. ^ Aberdeen Press and Journal 1891.
  113. ^ Bradford Daily Telegraph 1892.
  114. ^ Maccoby 2001.
  115. ^ The Sketch 1895.
  116. ^ Craig 1989.
  117. ^ Exeter and Plymouth Gazette 1903.
  118. ^ Swindon Advertiser and North Wilts Chronicle 1903.
  119. ^ Kentish Mercury 1904a.
  120. ^ Nottingham Journal 1906.
  121. ^ Woolwich Gazette 1905.
  122. ^ Daily Telegraph & Courier (London) 1905.
  123. ^ Kentish Mercury 1904b.
  124. ^ Aberdeen Press and Journal 1906.
  125. ^ Northern Whig 1908.
  126. ^ Dundee Evening Telegraph 1908.
  127. ^ Craig 1974.
  128. ^ a b Webber 2015.
  129. ^ The Sphere 1922.
  130. ^ Vivian 1926b.
  131. ^ Melton 1978.
  132. ^ Lewis 2001.
  133. ^ Pearson 2007.
  134. ^ Vivian 1933.
  135. ^ Feldman 2013.
  136. ^ Nottingham Journal 1936.
  137. ^ Dundee Evening Telegraph 1936.
  138. ^ South Wales Echo 1891.
  139. ^ Vivian 1925, p. 348.
  140. ^ a b Smith 2017.
  141. ^ a b Miller & Morelon 2018.
  142. ^ Roberts 1933.
  143. ^ Bled & Terzić 2001.
  144. ^ Markovich 2000, pp. 135–136.
  145. ^ Evans 2008.
  146. ^ Markovich 2000.
  147. ^ Daskalov et al. 2017.
  148. ^ Michail 2011.
  149. ^ Markovich 2000, p. 32.
  150. ^ Markovich 2000, p. 130.
  151. ^ Markovich 2000, pp. 195–196.
  152. ^ Pejic 2013.
  153. ^ Henry Simpson, 1853-1921 2019.
  154. ^ Illustrated Police News 1892.
  155. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette 1892.
  156. ^ Mitchell 1988.
  157. ^ Reynolds's Newspaper 1896.
  158. ^ Evening Express 1896.
  159. ^ Birmingham Mail 1896.
  160. ^ Dundee Evening Telegraph 1897.
  161. ^ The Cambrian 1897.
  162. ^ Powell 1977.
  163. ^ The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction 2018b.
  164. ^ Marsh 1906.
  165. ^ Halkett 1971.
  166. ^ The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction 2018a.