Henrietta Lacks

Henrietta Lacks (born Loretta Pleasant; August 1, 1920 – October 4, 1951)[1] was an African-American woman[4] whose cancer cells are the source of the HeLa cell line, the first immortalized human cell line[A] and one of the most important cell lines in medical research. An immortalized cell line reproduces indefinitely under specific conditions, and the HeLa cell line continues to be a source of invaluable medical data to the present day.[6]

Henrietta Lacks
A black-and-white photo of Lacks smiling
Henrietta Lacks circa 1945–1951
Born
Loretta Pleasant

(1920-08-01)August 1, 1920
DiedOctober 4, 1951(1951-10-04) (aged 31)
MonumentsHenrietta Lacks Health and Bioscience High School; historical marker at Clover, Virginia
OccupationHousewife, Tobacco farmer[1][2]
Height5 ft (150 cm) tall[3]
Spouse(s)David Lacks (1915–2002) m. 1941
ChildrenLawrence Lacks
Elsie Lacks (1939–1955)
David "Sonny" Lacks Jr.
Deborah Lacks Pullum (1949–2009)
Zakariyya Bari Abdul Rahman (born Joseph Lacks)
Parent(s)Eliza (1886–1924) and John Randall Pleasant I (1881–1969)

Lacks was the unwitting source of these cells from a tumor biopsied during treatment for cervical cancer at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S., in 1951. These cells were then cultured by George Otto Gey who created the cell line known as HeLa, which is still used for medical research.[7] As was then the practice, no consent was required to culture the cells obtained from Lacks' treatment. Consistent with modern standards, neither she nor her family were compensated for their extraction or use.

Even though some information about the origins of HeLa's immortalized cell lines was known to researchers after 1970, the Lacks family was not made aware of the line's existence until 1975. With knowledge of the cell line's genetic provenance becoming public, its use for medical research and for commercial purposes continues to raise concerns about privacy and patients' rights.

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Henrietta Lacks was born Loretta Pleasant on August 1, 1920,[1][8] in Roanoke, Virginia, to Eliza Pleasant (nee Lacks) (1886–1924) and John "Johnny" Randall Pleasant (1881–1969).[9] She is remembered as having hazel eyes, a small waist, size 6 shoes, and always wearing red nail polish and a neatly pleated skirt.[10] Her family is uncertain how her name changed from Loretta to Henrietta, but she was nicknamed Hennie.[1] When Lacks was four years old in 1924, her mother died giving birth to her tenth child.[9] Unable to care for the children alone after his wife's death, Lacks' father moved the family to Clover, Virginia, where the children were distributed among relatives. Lacks ended up with her maternal grandfather, Thomas "Tommy" Henry Lacks, in a two-story log cabin that was once the slave quarters on the plantation that had been owned by Henrietta's white great-grandfather and great-uncle.[1] She shared a room with her nine-year-old first cousin (their mothers were sisters) and future husband, David "Day" Lacks (1915–2002).[9]

Like most members of her family living in Clover, Lacks worked as a tobacco farmer starting from an early age. She fed the animals, tended the garden, and toiled in the tobacco fields. She attended the designated black school two miles away from the cabin until she had to drop out to help support the family in the sixth grade.[11] In 1935, when Lacks was 14 years old, she gave birth to a son, Lawrence Lacks. In 1939, her daughter Elsie Lacks (1939–1955) was born. Both children were fathered by Day Lacks. Elsie had Epilepsy and cerebral palsy[12] and was described by the family as "different" or "deaf and dumb".[1]

Marriage and familyEdit

On April 10, 1941, David "Day" Lacks and Henrietta Lacks were married in Halifax County, Virginia.[1] Later that year, their cousin, Fred Garrett, convinced the couple to leave the tobacco farm in Virginia and move to Turner Station, near Dundalk, Maryland, in Baltimore County, so Day could work in Bethlehem Steel at Sparrows Point Maryland. Not long after they moved to Maryland, Garrett was called to fight in World War II. With the savings gifted to him by Garrett, Day Lacks was able to purchase a house at 713 New Pittsburgh Avenue in Turner Station. Now part of Dundalk, Turner Station was one of the oldest and largest African-American communities in Baltimore County at that time.[13][14]

 
Henrietta and David Lacks

Living in Maryland, Henrietta and Day Lacks had three more children: David "Sonny" Lacks Jr. (b. 1947), Deborah Lacks Pullum (born Deborah Lacks; 1949–2009), and Joseph Lacks (1950), now Zakariyya Bari Abdul Rahman after converting to Islam.[15] Henrietta gave birth to her last child at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore in November 1950, four and a half months before she was diagnosed with cervical cancer.[1] Zakariyya believes his birth to be a miracle as he was “fighting off the cancer cells growing all around him”. Around the same time, Elsie was placed in the Hospital for the Negro Insane, later renamed Crownsville Hospital Center, where Elsie died in 1955 at the age of 15 years old.[1] Historian Paul Lurz says that it is possible that Elise was subjected to the pneumoencephalography procedure where a hole was drilled into a patient’s head to drain fluid from the brain which was then replaced with oxygen or helium to make it easier to see the patient’s brain in X-rays.[12]

Both Lacks and her husband were Catholic.[16]

IllnessEdit

Diagnosis and treatmentEdit

On January 29, 1951, Lacks went to Johns Hopkins, the only hospital in the area that treated black patients, because she felt a "knot" in her womb.[17] She had previously told her cousins about the "knot" and they assumed correctly that she was pregnant. But after giving birth to Joseph, Lacks had a severe hemorrhage. Her primary care doctor tested her for syphilis, which came back negative, and referred her back to Johns Hopkins. There, her doctor, Howard W. Jones, took a biopsy of a mass found on Lacks' cervix for laboratory testing. Soon after, Lacks was told that she had a malignant epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix.[B][19] In 1970, physicians discovered that she had been misdiagnosed and actually had an adenocarcinoma.[C] This was a common mistake at the time, and the treatment would not have differed.[21]

Lacks was treated with radium tube inserts as an inpatient and discharged a few days later with instructions to return for X-ray treatments as a follow-up. During her treatments, two samples were taken from Lacks' cervix without her permission or knowledge; one sample was of healthy tissue and the other was cancerous.[22] These samples were given to George Otto Gey, a physician and cancer researcher at Johns Hopkins. The cells from the cancerous sample eventually became known as the HeLa immortal cell line, a commonly used cell line in contemporary biomedical research.[1]

Death and burialEdit

On August 8, 1951, Lacks, who was 31 years old, went to Johns Hopkins for a routine treatment session and asked to be admitted due to continued severe abdominal pain. She received blood transfusions and remained at the hospital until her death on October 4, 1951.[23] A partial autopsy showed that the cancer had metastasized throughout her entire body.[1][24]

 
Lacks Town Road in Clover, Virginia, near where Lacks grew up and is buried

Lacks was buried in an unmarked grave in the family cemetery in a place called Lackstown in Halifax County, Virginia. Lackstown is the name that was given to the land in Clover, Virginia, that was originally owned by slave-owning members of the Lacks family in the antebellum South.

Lacks's exact burial location is unknown, but the family believes that it is within a few feet of her mother's grave site, which for decades was the only one in the family to have been marked with a tombstone.[1][24][25] In 2010, Roland Pattillo, a faculty member of the Morehouse School of Medicine who had worked with George Gey and knew the Lacks family,[26] donated a headstone for Lacks.[27] This prompted her family to raise money for a headstone for Elsie Lacks as well, which was dedicated on the same day.[27] The book-shaped headstone of Henrietta Lacks contains an epitaph written by her grandchildren that reads:[1]

Henrietta Lacks, August 1, 1920 - October 4, 1951
 In loving memory of a phenomenal woman,
wife and mother who touched the lives of many.
Here lies Henrietta Lacks (HeLa). Her immortal
 cells will continue to help mankind forever.
Eternal Love and Admiration, From Your Family[28]

Medical and scientific researchEdit

 
Dividing HeLa cells in culture. The cells can be seen metaphase and telophase, different stages of cell division.

George Otto Gey, the first researcher to study Lacks's cancerous cells, observed that these cells were unusual in that they reproduced at a very high rate and could be kept alive long enough to allow more in-depth examination.[29] Until then, cells cultured for laboratory studies survived for only a few days at most, which was not long enough to perform a variety of different tests on the same sample. Lacks's cells were the first to be observed that could be divided multiple times without dying, which is why they became known as "immortal". After Lacks's death, Gey had Mary Kubicek, his lab assistant, take further HeLa samples while Henrietta's body was at Johns Hopkins' autopsy facility.[30] The roller-tube technique[D] was the method used to culture the cells obtained from the samples that Kubicek collected.[32] Gey was able to start a cell line from Lacks's sample by isolating one specific cell and repeatedly dividing it, meaning that the same cell could then be used for conducting many experiments. They became known as HeLa cells, because Gey's standard method for labeling samples was to use the first two letters of the patient's first and last names.[1]

The ability to rapidly reproduce HeLa cells in a laboratory setting has led to many important breakthroughs in biomedical research. For example, by 1954, Jonas Salk was using HeLa cells in his research to develop the polio vaccine.[24] To test his new vaccine, the cells were mass-produced in the first-ever cell production factory.[33] Additionally, Chester M. Southam, a leading virologist, injected HeLa cells into cancer patients, prison inmates, and healthy individuals in order to observe whether cancer could be transmitted as well as to examine if one could become immune to cancer by developing an acquired immune response.[34]

HeLa cells were in high demand and put into mass production. They were mailed to scientists around the globe for "research into cancer, AIDS, the effects of radiation and toxic substances, gene mapping, and countless other scientific pursuits".[24] HeLa cells were the first human cells successfully cloned in 1955,[35] and have since been used to test human sensitivity to tape, glue, cosmetics, and many other products.[1] There are almost 11,000 patents involving HeLa cells.[1]

In the early 1970s, a large portion of other cell cultures became contaminated by HeLa cells. As a result, members of Henrietta Lacks's family received solicitations for blood samples from researchers hoping to learn about the family's genetics in order to differentiate between HeLa cells and other cell lines.[36][37]

Alarmed and confused, several family members began questioning why they were receiving so many telephone calls requesting blood samples. In 1975, the family also learned through a chance dinner-party conversation that material originating in Henrietta Lacks was continuing to be used for medical research.[24] The family had never discussed Henrietta's illness and death among themselves in the intervening years but with the increased curiosity about their mother and her genetics, they now began to ask questions.[1]

Consent issues and privacy concernsEdit

Neither Henrietta Lacks nor her family gave her physicians permission to harvest her cells. At that time, permission was neither required nor customarily sought.[38] The cells were used in medical research and for commercial purposes.[24][1] In the 1980s, family medical records were published without family consent. A similar issue was brought up in the Supreme Court of California case of Moore v. Regents of the University of California in 1990. The court ruled that a person's discarded tissue and cells are not their property and can be commercialized.[39]

In March 2013, researchers published the DNA sequence of the genome of a strain of HeLa cells. The Lacks family discovered this when the author Rebecca Skloot informed them.[36] There were objections from the Lacks family about the genetic information that was available for public access. Jeri Lacks Whye, a grandchild of Henrietta Lacks, said to The New York Times, "the biggest concern was privacy—what information was actually going to be out there about our grandmother, and what information they can obtain from her sequencing that will tell them about her children and grandchildren and going down the line." That same year another group working on a different HeLa cell line's genome under National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding submitted it for publication. In August 2013, an agreement was announced between the family and the NIH that gave the family some control over access to the cells' DNA sequence found in the two studies along with a promise of acknowledgement in scientific papers. In addition, two family members will join the six-member committee which will regulate access to the sequence data.[E][36]

RecognitionEdit

 
A historical marker memorializing Henrietta Lacks in Clover, Virginia

In 1996, Morehouse School of Medicine held its first annual HeLa Women's Health Conference. Led by physician Roland Pattillo, the conference is held to give recognition to Henrietta Lacks, her cell line, and "the valuable contribution made by African Americans to medical research and clinical practice".[41][27][42] The mayor of Atlanta declared the date of the first conference, October 11, 1996, "Henrietta Lacks Day".[43]

Lacks's contributions continue to be celebrated at yearly events in Turner Station.[44][45] At one such event in 1997, then-U.S. Congressman from Maryland, Robert Ehrlich, presented a congressional resolution recognizing Lacks and her contributions to medical science and research.[46]

In 2010, the Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research established the annual Henrietta Lacks Memorial Lecture Series[47] to honor Henrietta Lacks and the global impact of HeLa cells on medicine and research.[48] During the 2018 lectures, the University announced the naming of a new building on the medical campus for Lacks.[49]

In 2011, Morgan State University in Baltimore granted Lacks a posthumous honorary doctorate in public service.[50] Also in 2011, the Evergreen School District in Vancouver, Washington, named their new high school focused on medical careers the Henrietta Lacks Health and Bioscience High School, becoming the first organization to memorialize her publicly by naming a school in her honor.[51][52]

In 2014, Lacks was inducted into the Maryland Women's Hall of Fame.[53][54] In 2017, a minor planet in the main asteroid belt was named "359426 Lacks" in her honor.[55][56]

In 2018, The New York Times published a belated obituary for her,[57] as part of the Overlooked history project.[58][59] Also in 2018, the National Portrait Gallery and the National Museum of African-American History and Culture jointly announced the accession of a portrait of Lacks by Kadir Nelson.[60]

On October 6, 2018, Johns Hopkins University announced plans to name a research building in honor of Lacks.[61] The announcement was made at the 9th annual Henrietta Lacks Memorial Lecture in the Turner Auditorium in East Baltimore by Johns Hopkins University President Ronald J. Daniels and Paul B. Rothman, CEO of Johns Hopkins Medicine and dean of the medical faculty of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, surrounded by several of Lacks's descendants. "Through her life and her immortal cells, Henrietta Lacks made an immeasurable impact on science and medicine that has touched countless lives around the world," Daniels said. "This building will stand as a testament to her transformative impact on scientific discovery and the ethics that must undergird its pursuit. We at Johns Hopkins are profoundly grateful to the Lacks family for their partnership as we continue to learn from Mrs. Lacks's life and to honor her enduring legacy." The building will adjoin the Berman Institute of Bioethics' Deering Hall, located at the corner of Ashland and Rutland Avenues and "will support programs that enhance participation and partnership with members of the community in research that can benefit the community, as well as extend the opportunities to further study and promote research ethics and community engagement in research through an expansion of the Berman Institute and its work."[61]

In 2020, Lacks was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.[62]

In 2021, the Henrietta Lacks Enhancing Cancer Research Act of 2019 became law; it states the Government Accountability Office must complete a study about barriers to participation that exist in cancer clinical trials that are federally funded for populations that have been underrepresented in such trials.[63]

In 2021, the University of Bristol in the UK commissioned a statue of Henrietta Lacks to be displayed in the University. The sculpture will be created by Helen Wilson-Roe and will be the first statue of a black woman made by a black woman in the UK.[64]

In popular cultureEdit

The question of how and whether her race affected her treatment, the lack of obtaining consent, and her relative obscurity, continues to be controversial.[65][66]

The HeLa cell line's connection to Henrietta Lacks was first brought to popular attention in March 1976 with a pair of articles in the Detroit Free Press[67] and Rolling Stone written by reporter Michael Rogers.[68] In 1998, Adam Curtis directed a BBC documentary about Henrietta Lacks called The Way of All Flesh.[69]

Rebecca Skloot documented extensive histories of both the HeLa cell line and the Lacks family in two articles published in 2000[25] and 2001[70] and in her 2010 book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Skloot worked with Deborah Lacks, who was determined to learn more about her mother, on the book.[10] She used her first royalty check from the book to start the Henrietta Lacks Foundation, which has provided funds like college tuition and medical procedures for Henrietta’s family.[71]

HBO announced in 2010 that Oprah Winfrey and Alan Ball were developing a film project based on Skloot's book,[27] and in 2016 filming commenced.[72][73] with Winfrey in the leading role of Deborah Lacks, Henrietta's daughter.[74][75] The film The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks was released in 2017, with Renée Elise Goldsberry portraying Lacks. Sons David Lacks Jr. and Zakariyya Rahman and granddaughter Jeri Lacks, were consultants for the film.

HBO also commissioned Kadir Nelson for an oil painting of Lacks. In 2018, the Portrait was jointly acquired by the National Museum of African American History and Culture and the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery. The wallpaper in the painting is made up of the “Flower of Life” alluding to the immortality of her cells. The flowers on her dress resemble images of cell structures, and the two missing buttons on her dress symbolize her cells taken without permission.[76][77]

 
Portrait of Henrietta Lacks by Kadir Nelson

NBC's Law & Order aired its own fictionalized version of Lacks's story in the 2010 episode "Immortal", which Slate referred to as "shockingly close to the true story"[78] and the musical groups Jello Biafra and the Guantanamo School of Medicine and Yeasayer both released songs about Henrietta Lacks and her legacy.[79][80]

Members of the Lacks family authored their own stories for the first time in 2013 when Lacks's oldest son and his wife, Lawrence and Bobbette Lacks, wrote a short digital memoir called "Hela Family Stories: Lawrence and Bobbette" with first-hand accounts of their memories of Henrietta Lacks while she was alive and of their own efforts to keep the youngest children out of unsafe living environments following their mother's death.[81]

The HeLa Project, a multimedia exhibition to honor Lacks, opened in 2017 in Baltimore at the Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture. It included a portrait by Kadir Nelson and a poem by Saul Williams.[82]

HeLa, a play by Chicago playwright J. Nicole Brooks, was commissioned by Sideshow Theatre Company in 2016, with a public staged reading on July 31, 2017. The play was produced by Sideshow at Chicago's Greenhouse Theater Center from November 18 to December 23, 2018. The play uses Lacks's life story as a jumping point for a larger conversation about Afrofuturism, scientific progress, and bodily autonomy.[83]

In the series El Ministerio del Tiempo, the immortality of her cells in the lab is cited as the precedent for the character Arteche's "extreme resistance to infections, to injuries, and to cellular degeneration. In other words to aging": that his cells are immortal.[84]

In the Netflix original movie Project Power, her case is cited by one of the villains of the story as an example of unwilling trials giving rise to advances for the greater good.[85]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "In Steve Silberman's Book Review of The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks (Nature 463, 610; 2010), ... Your lead-in claims that the death of Henrietta Lacks "led to the first immortal cell line", but that distinction belongs to the L929 cell line, which was derived from mouse connective tissue and described almost a decade earlier (W. Earle J. Natl Cancer Inst. 4, 165–212; 1943). As Silberman notes, Lacks's was the first mass-produced human cell line."[5]
  2. ^ Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer of the squamous cells, a type of epithelial cell, and is the second most-common type of skin cancer. They are found on the neck, head, cervix, anus as well as other body sites.[18]
  3. ^ Adenocarcinomas are a type of cancerous tumor or an abnormal growth of epithelial tissue. 10% to 15% of cancers of the cervix are adenocarcinomas, the rest more commonly being squamous cell carcinomas.[20]
  4. ^ The roller-tube technique was invented by George Gey in his lab at the University of Pittsburgh. "And then there was the roller drum, the invention that churned in the enormous incubator room Gey built to keep the cell cultures warm. The huge metal drum with holes covering its inner surface gyrated like a cement mixer 24 hours a day. And tucked within each hole, at the bottom of Gey's home-blown-glass roller tubes, were tiny pieces of tissue bathed in nutrient-rich fluids, gathering the nourishment necessary for survival. As the drum rotated one turn every hour, the cells surfaced, free to breathe and excrete until the liquid bathed them again. If all went well, the cells adhered to the walls of the tubes and began to flourish." - Rebecca Skloot
    This method of growing tissue cultures was also used in the development of Jonas Salk's polio vaccine and by John Enders in his Nobel prize-winning polio research.[31]
  5. ^ "The Lacks family and the N.I.H. settled on an agreement: the data from both studies should be stored in the institutes' database of genotypes and phenotypes. Researchers who want to use the data can apply for access and will have to submit annual reports about their research. A so-called HeLa Genome Data Access working group at the N.I.H. will review the applications. Two members of the Lacks family will be members. The agreement does not provide the Lacks family with proceeds from any commercial products that may be developed from research on the HeLa genome."[40]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Batts, Denise Watson (May 10, 2010). "Cancer cells killed Henrietta Lacks - then made her immortal". The Virginian-Pilot. pp. 1, 12–14. Archived from the original on May 13, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2021. Note: Some sources report her birthday as August 2, 1920, vs. August 1, 1920.
  2. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 16.
  3. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 2.
  4. ^ Butanis, Benjamin. "The Legacy of Henrietta Lacks". Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  5. ^ Hayflick, Leonard (March 4, 2010). "Myth-busting about first mass-produced human cell line". Nature. 464 (7285): 30. Bibcode:2010Natur.464...30H. doi:10.1038/464030d.
  6. ^ Zielinski, Sarah (January 2, 2010). "Cracking the Code of the Human Genome. Henrietta Lacks' 'Immortal' Cells". Smithsonian. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  7. ^ Grady, Denise (February 1, 2010). "A Lasting Gift to Medicine That Wasn't Really a Gift". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  8. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 18.
  9. ^ a b c Skloot 2010.
  10. ^ a b White, Tracie. "Descendants of Henrietta Lacks Discuss Her Famous Cell Line". Stanford Medicine News Center. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  11. ^ "Henrietta Lacks Biography". Biography. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  12. ^ a b Marquardt, Tom. [www.capitalgazette.com/cg-tragic-chapter-of-crownsville-state-hospitals-legacy-20140730-story.html. "Tragic Chapter of Crownsville State Hospital's Legacy"] Check |url= value (help). Capital Gazette. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  13. ^ "Turner's Station African American Survey District, Dundalk, Baltimore County 1900–1950" (PDF). Baltimore County. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  14. ^ "Baltimore county architectural survey African American Thematic Study" (PDF). Baltimore County Office of Planning and The Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  15. ^ Skloot 2010, p. [page needed].
  16. ^ Nott, Rohini (October 9, 2020). "Henrietta Lacks (1920–1951)". The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  17. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 13.
  18. ^ "Squamous Cell Carcinoma". Skin Cancer Foundation. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  19. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 27.
  20. ^ World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 5.3. ISBN 978-92-832-0429-9.
  21. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 172.
  22. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 33.
  23. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 86.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Smith, Van (April 17, 2002). "Wonder Woman: The Life, Death, and Life After Death of Henrietta Lacks, Unwitting Heroine of Modern Medical Science". Baltimore City Paper. Archived from the original on August 14, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  25. ^ a b Skloot, Rebecca (April 2000). "Henrietta's Dance". Johns Hopkins Magazine. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
  26. ^ Skloot 2010, p. page 231.
  27. ^ a b c d Batts, Denise Watson (May 30, 2010). "After 60 years of anonymity, Henrietta Lacks has a headstone". The Virginian-Pilot. pp. HR1, 7. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  28. ^ McLaughlin, Tom (May 31, 2010). "An epitaph, at last | South Boston Virginia News". The News Record. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  29. ^ Skloot, Rebecca (March 2001). "An Obsession With Culture". PITT Magazine. University of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on September 24, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2016. By 1950, when Henrietta Lacks walked into Hopkins Hospital complaining of abnormal bleeding, George and Margaret Gey had spent almost thirty years trying to establish an immortal human cell line. ...
  30. ^ Gold, Michael (1986). A Conspiracy of Cells: One Woman's Immortal Legacy-And the Medical Scandal It Caused. SUNY Press. p. 20.
  31. ^ Skloot, Rebecca (March 2001). "An Obsession With Culture". PITT Magazine. University of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on September 24, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  32. ^ Lucey, Brendan P.; Nelson-Rees, Walter A.; Hutchins, Grover M. (September 1, 2009). "Henrietta Lacks, HeLa Cells, and Cell Culture Contamination". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 133 (9): 1463–1467. doi:10.1043/1543-2165-133.9.1463 (inactive January 14, 2021). ISSN 0003-9985. PMID 19722756.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021 (link)
  33. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 96.
  34. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 128.
  35. ^ ^ Puck TT, Marcus PI. A Rapid Method for Viable Cell Titration and Clone Production With Hela Cells In Tissue Culture: The Use of X-Irradiated Cells to Supply Conditioning Factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1955 Jul 15;41(7):432-7. URL: PNASJSTOR
  36. ^ a b c Ritter, Malcolm (August 7, 2013). "Feds, family reach deal on use of DNA information". Seattle Times. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  37. ^ Schwab, Abraham P.; Baily, Mary Ann; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Rhodes, Rosamond; Trusko, Brett (August 15, 2013). Rhodes, Rosamond; Gligorov, Nada; Schwab, Abraham Paul (eds.). The Human Microbiome: Ethical, Legal and Social Concerns. Oxford University Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 9780199829422. In 1973, researchers at Johns Hopkins contacted Lacks family members and asked them to provide blood samples
  38. ^ Washington, Harriet (October 1994), "Henrietta Lacks: An Unsung Hero", Emerge Magazine
  39. ^ Skloot 2010, pp. 203–206.
  40. ^ Zimmer, Carl (August 7, 2013). "A Family Consents to a Medical Gift, 62 Years Later". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  41. ^ Roland A. Pattillo, MD; Roland Matthews, MA (Spring 2006). "Tenth Annual HeLa Women's Health Conference:An Overview and Historical Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Ethnicity and Disease. International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  42. ^ "2011 First Year Book Program - The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks". University of Maryland. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  43. ^ Skloot 2010, p. 219.
  44. ^ Wenger, Yvonne (August 4, 2012). "Henrietta Lacks honored in 15th annual Turners Station celebration". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  45. ^ Rodman, Nicole (August 4, 2016). "Honoring the legacy of Henrietta Lacks". The Dundalk Eagle. Retrieved October 27, 2016 – via PressReader.Com.
  46. ^ "In Memory Of Henrietta Lacks -- Hon. Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. (Extension of Remarks - June 4, 1997)", Congressional Record 105th Congress (1997–1998), The Library of Congress, June 4, 1997, retrieved May 3, 2016
  47. ^ "Family Recognition, Community Awards, And Author Highlight Henrietta Lacks Memorial Lecture 2010". The Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research. October 2, 2010. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  48. ^ "Past Lectures". The Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  49. ^ "Johns Hopkins to name research building in honor of Henrietta Lacks".
  50. ^ "Henrietta Lack Receives an Honorary Degree". All Things Considered. NPR. May 23, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  51. ^ Buck, Howard (September 14, 2011). "Bioscience school gets official name". The Columbian. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  52. ^ Laufe, Anne (October 2, 2012). "New Vancouver high school will focus on health and medical careers". The Oregonian. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  53. ^ Squires, Emily Oland. "Maryland Women's Hall of Fame Online". The Maryland State Archives. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  54. ^ "Henrietta Lacks (1920 - 1951) (Maryland Women's Hall of Fame)". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  55. ^ "IAU Minor Planet Center". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
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  57. ^ Adeel Hassan. "Henrietta Lacks, Whose Cells Led to a Medical Revolution". The New York Times. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  58. ^ Padnani, Amisha (March 8, 2018). "How an Obits Project on Overlooked Women Was Born". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  59. ^ Padnani, Amisha (March 8, 2018). "Remarkable Women We Overlooked in Our Obituaries". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  60. ^ "National Portrait Gallery Presents a Portrait of Henrietta Lacks, a Co-Acquisition With the National Museum of African American History and Culture". newsdesk.si.edu. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
  61. ^ a b "Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins Medicine and Family of Henrietta Lacks Announce Plans to Name a Research Building in Honor of Henrietta Lacks". Johns Hopkins Medicine Newsroom. October 6, 2018. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
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